Levels of learning
Bloom’s taxonomy is a widely used and effective classification of learning, thinking and understanding. Bloom’s taxonomy is divided into three domains:
- Cognitive: knowledge and understanding
- Affective: feelings and attitudes
- Psychomotor: physical skills
Cognitive Domain: The most relevant one to the higher education sector is the cognitive domain. It is important to be aware of these levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy as it underpins the practice of cognitive alignment developed by Biggs and implemented by TEQSA as part of the AQF standards. Bloom’s taxonomy categorises thinking skills from lower order, such as remembering, understanding and applying, to the higher order of creating, evaluating and analysing.
When designing for learning it is important to understand the level at which the learning needs to occur as this will underpin appropriate approaches to teaching and assessing. For example:
- A science-based course contains certain facts, such as terminology or formulae that students need to be able to remember, understand and apply. These are lower order thinking skills for which appropriate teaching approaches would be giving students opportunities for drill and practice, and appropriate assessment could be exams focusing on recall and application of facts.
- A literature or history based course, may cover certain facts such as dates of wars and authors etc., however the intended learning at a degree level would be aimed at higher order thinking skills such as analysing and evaluating. For this type of course an exam based on having students remember facts would not be an appropriate assessment and teaching approaches would need to focus on giving students opportunities to discuss and analyse.
When using Bloom’s Taxonomy to create learning outcomes – whether that be at course level, or learning activity level – consider the language used to describe what is to be achieved. Students will use the language of the information provided to gauge the level of learning they believe they are engaging with. So it is important to get right for both student learning expectations and teacher expectations. View more information on how to use Bloom’s Taxonomy to design course or activity learning outcomes.
SOLO (Structure of Observed Learning Outcomes) taxonomy developed by Biggs and Collis (1982), also categorises levels of thinking and learning in terms of complexity, thus being useful when we want to examine the quality of student learning and understanding. Check out this clip on the SOLO taxonomy – explained using lego!
Resources, strategies or assistance
Federation University learning and teaching website
Federation University Policies and Guidelines
- Biggs, J. & Tang, C. (2011) Teaching for Quality Learning at University. 4th ed. `Open University Press: New York.
- Contact your CLIPP School Learning Designer to discuss the intended learning outcomes of your course, and explore how to ensure the level of learning of assessments and learning activities are communicated clearly to students.