Academic integrity and attributions

Acknowledge the use of content of others

Attribution of authorship is a legal requirement of Moral Rights in the Copyright Act and copied or reproduced works require attribution. Honesty of attribution is a requirement of academic integrity, and of University accrediting bodies as a fundamental value of academic honesty and respect.

Attribution clearly acknowledging the authorship of work prevents claims of plagiarism or copyright infringement, and models good practice for students by acknowledging source for all content - images, videos, cartoons, diagrams, text.

A good rule of thumb - If it is not your work, then it requires an attribution.

"Staff of a provider need to employ correct acknowledgement practice in their teaching when they are using text, images, videos and other artefacts sourced from others. The academic integrity of a course of study may be questioned if unacknowledged use is made of external materials." TEQSA Guidance note to Academic Integrity

Correct attribution includes the components to satisfactorily identify the creator and source of the content, which for many works is the Title, Author, Source, and Licence (TASL) the content was made available under. In cases where not all detail is clear, include as much as is possible.

The format is not specified in the Copyright Act. A formal citation style can be used if a school requirement, or for academic writing. The TASL format is considered adequate in many online areas, and Creative Commons licences require it.

Licence terminology

Content made available under Terminology in attribution
Permission granted Used with permission
Creative Commons is licenced under CC 4.0 BY (or licence type)
Education licence s.113P Reproduced under s.113P
Database licence allows use Under licence
Content allowed for educational use noted on content Used with permission
Copyright expired or rights waived Public domain
Federation owned © Federation University
Details missing or no copyright owner known After a diligent search the copyright owner/creator of content cannot been located. Please contact if you have details of copyright owner or creator.

Place and attribution as close to the copyright material as practically possible. This may be beside or below an item, at the point where the material is shown in a film, as a set of brief notes or full attributions at the end of a presentation or film.

MediumAttribution might be positioned
Print content – document Below or beside work, footnote, list of end
Photograph, image, graph Next to, below, or beside. Or in ALT text if nothing else practical
Presentations Next to work, in footer, as a list of credits at end
Moodle or other electronic Next to work, or in footer, list of works at end, in ALT text when hovering
Film At point when item is visible in film, or at end as credits
Academic writing Use advised style
Podcasts Mention the name at point used and in notes on site where content is available. Provide full attribution

Use any details you have, and note the missing information and method to remedy if information is forthcoming.

"Author details unknown. Unable to identify creator after diligent search."

See Australian Copyright Council Orphan Works guide for more information.