You can use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication. Alternatively, you can check the APA 7th Style Blog.

APA is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as the author’s family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page numbers (if applicable).

For each source cited in the text, you need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

APA Style Blog