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How to create a reference list

How to set up the list

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the heading ‘References’ and make the heading left-aligned and bold.
  • Use a line break between each reference.
  • Australian Harvard is normally single-spaced, however use double line-spacing for your reference list if your lecturer has specified double-spacing in your assessment guidelines.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every recoverable source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.
  • In entries that include website URLs, remove the hyperlinks so that there is no underlining or blue lettering (right click on the hyperlink, then click on ‘Remove hyperlink’).

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second, etc. (See Hillsdon entries below.)

Example of an Australian Harvard reference list


Anderson, TD 1985, Panel data: a primer, Paragon, New York.

Baxter, BH 2005, Models of economic analysis, Wiley, Sydney.

Breen, HP 1977, ‘An empirical test of the impact of managerial self-interest on corporate capital structure’, Journal of Finance, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 271-281.

Chen, JJ 2004, ‘Determinants of capital structure of Swedish companies’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 41-52.

Dorgan, D 1972, Future funds, Penguin, Melbourne.

Friedman, BM 1985, Corporate capital structure in the United States, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hillsdon, M 2002, Statistical analysis primer, Lansdowne, Melbourne.

Hillsdon, M 2004a, Basic econometrics, 4th edn., Hill, Sydney.

Hillsdon, M 2004b, Computational methods. Landsdowne, Melbourne.

Johnson, A & Hanson, S 1995, ‘Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 91-102.

Keen, RP 2004, Strategy, structure and economic performance, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Lee, BL 1982, Credit risk and high yield bonds, Wiley, New York.

Linheiro, J & Bates, DM 2000, Mixed-effects models, Springer, New York.

Nguyen, BV 1994, Swedish economic reform, Griffin Press, Los Angeles.