Creating in-text citations


Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use parentheses to add the author(s) family name and page number(s), or use the author(s) first and family name as part of your sentence, followed by the page number(s) preceded by p. or pp.

Note: when paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Maria Hillsdon states that  … (105).

Citation in the middle

Econometrics analysis according to Maria Hillsdon provides a basis for … (1).

Citation at the end

Econometrics can be used to analyse … (Hillsdon 150).