Basic treatment for in-text citations
You need to insert a brief reference (the author’s surname) into your writing whenever you use a source. A page reference is added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.
… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins 22). AUTHOR AND PAGE
… the study by Jenkins (22) confirmed these results. AUTHOR IN SENTENCE
… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech 45–54). AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL if two or more authors have the same last name.
- Enclose author’s surname in round brackets.
- Add page reference if quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source.
- Insert before punctuation mark ending sentence (or part of sentence) where you used source.
- If author is already in sentence, give page reference alone in round brackets.
- Add given name or initial/s to surname if you have sources by authors with the same surname.
More than one author
(Hendricks and Angwin 34) OR … Hendricks and Angwin (34) …
- Name both authors and join by ‘and’.
THREE OR MORE AUTHORS
(Donat et al. 68) OR … Donat et al. (68) …
- Name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).
Group author (government or organisation)
(World Health Org. 57) OR … World Health Organization (57) …
- Give the name of the group in all mentions.
- Use common abbreviations (e.g., ‘Org.’, ‘Assn.’, ‘Dept.’, ‘Soc.’) if name is in parentheses.
Same author, different sources
(Winton, Riders 34) DISTINGUISHES FROM (Winton, Breath 56)
- Add the first words of the title to the author after a comma.
- Italicise whole works; enclose parts of works in quotation marks.
(Reading Rates 16) OR … Reading Rates (16) … WHOLE WORK
(“Last Gasp” 89) OR … “Last Gasp” (89) … PART OF WORK
- If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
- Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works.
- Use initial capital letters for all major words.
Multiple sources, same citation
… along with other studies (Keen 14; Lee 109; Wojk, 123–45).
- List each source alphabetically by author and separate by semicolons.
Multiple works by same author in same year
(Smith, "Fantasy" 65)
(Smith, "Science Fiction" 1)
- Include the short form of the source's title.
(Johnson 6) … Kennett (55–63) …
- Add page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of source.
- Enclose in round brackets (with or without author depending on if author is in sentence).
- No comma between author and page reference.
- Do not use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front of pages.
It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison 15).
Harrison described it as “a stunning victory” (15).
- Add the page reference after the closing quotation mark.
- If author is already in the sentence, give page reference alone.
- For block quotations, i.e., set apart from the text with no quotation marks, add page reference after closing punctuation mark.
NO PAGE NUMBERS
(Duer par. 12) … Jansz (sec. 12) …
- If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph, location or section number/s.
- Use the abbreviations ‘par.’, ‘sec.’, or ‘loc.’ before the numbers.