In-text citations


The extradition of Mr Assange has caused ... (Lateline).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Mr Assange is facing extradition to Sweden where ..." (Lateline 10:12).

Works Cited


Live television/radio broadcast

"Title of Episode or segment." Title of Series or Program, director's name, contributor's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of airing.

Marock, directed by Laila Marrakchi, performance by Morjana Alaoui, Mathieu Boujenah and Assas Bouab,SBS, 18 Dec. 2012.

"Summer Movies with Julia Rigg." Breakfast, ABC, 18 Jan. 2012.

  • If the episode or segment does not have a season or episode number, simply omit the information.

Television news broadcast (Online video broadcast)

"Title of source." Title of Program, contributor's name, distributor's name, date of release. Database, URL.

“Ecuador to rule on Assange asylum bid.” Lateline, narrated by Emma Alberici, ABC 1 Melbourne, 21 Jun. 2012. TVNews,;dn=TEV20122506868;res=TVNEWS>.

“This government has been dishonest, incompetent and should go but what exactly is the alternative offered by the Liberals?” The Bolt Report, Ten Network, 26 May 2013. TVNews,;dn=TSM201305260107;res=TVNEWS>.

  • If contributors are not available, omit that portion of the citation.

Television Series

"Title of Episode." Title of Series, director's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of release, disc number.

"The Trip." Seinfeld, directed by Tom Cherones, season 4, episode 10, NVC, 12 Aug. 1992.

“Once More with Feeling.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, directed by Joss Whedon, season 6, episode 7, Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.

"Episode One." Downton Abbey, directed by Brian Percival, series 1, episode 1, Carnival Films, 2010, disc 1.

  • If the show is discussed in a general way, without focusing on an individual's contribution, do not cite an author, but instead start the reference with the title of the episode (as demonstrated above).
  • If the episode does not have a season or episode number, simply omit the information.
  • Including information about the director and other key participants is optional, as shown in the second example.
  • Include disc number if applicable, as shown in the third example above.

DVD (whole episode)

Title of Series, Creator's name, contributor's name, season number, distributor's name, date of release.

Friends: The Complete Sixth Season, written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, NBC, 10 Feb. 2000. Warner Brothers, 2004.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer, created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Gellar, Sarah Michelle, performer, Buffy the Vampire Slayer, Mutant Enemy, 1997-2003.

  • If your discussion focuses on one participant, list them as the author (see third example). Are the examples going to be numbered?

Online (Netflix, Kanopy, CMAX, etc.)

"Title of Episode." Title of Series or Program, director's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of release. Name of service provider, URL.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 Jul. 2013. Hulu,

"The Last Frontier." Frozen Planet, narrated by Richard Attenborough, episode 6, BBC, 30 Nov. 2011. Kanopy,

"Chapter two: A touch of evil." Riverdale, season 1, episode 2, The CW television network, 3 Feb. 2017. Netflix,

"Gambling." You can't ask that, series 2, ABC, 6 Apr. 2017. iview,

"Capitulo 1". UNO, directed by Roly Peña and Alberto Luberta Martínez, season 1, episode 1, RTV Comercial, 5 Jan 2015. CMAX TV,

  • If the show is discussed in a general way, (without focusing on an individual's contribution to it), there's no need to cite the author.