In-text citations


West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ...' (West 2013, para. 2).

Reference list


Author [screen name] Year, ‘Title’, form, viewed date, URL

West, K [kanyewest] 2013, ‘Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future’, tweet, 9 December, viewed 19 February 2014,

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.