Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589.  http://www.jmptonline.org

Online with non-database URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI.

Online from database (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database

Print (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database.