Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with ‘&’.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.