E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list


e-book with DOI


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an e-book has a DOI, you must use this format.

e-book from a database, without DOI


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.

  • If an e-book from a database does not have a DOI, cite it as you would a print book, including the name of the publisher.

e-book accessed on e-reader, without DOI


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby. http://www.amazon.com

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.

e-book without DOI, with non-database URL


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.