School of Education

Professor Andy Smith

Photo of Professor Andy Smith

Position: Emeritus Professor 
Discipline: Management/Education
Location:  Mt Helen Campus, Room S119
Phone: 0437 669968
Emailandy.smith@federation.edu.au

Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy.  University of Tasmania.  1997
  • Master of Business Administration.  Aston University.  1987
  • Postgraduate Certificate in Education.  Oxford University. 1977
  • Bachelor of Arts in History (Hons).  University of Cambridge.  1976

Biography

Professor Smith joined Federation University Australia (FedUni) in 2008 as Head of the School of Business and Professor of Management. From 2010 he served as Pro Vice-Chancellor (Schools and Programs) and, later, as Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Academic) until his retirement at the end of 2021. Upon retirement he was made Emeritus Professor of the University by the University Council.  Prior to joining Federation, he held a number of senior positions at Charles Sturt University including Head of the School of Management,  Director of the Centre for Enhancing Learning and Teaching and Director of Research Development From 1999 to 2002 Professor Smith was General Manager (Research and Evaluation) at the National Centre for Vocational Education Research. He has worked with senior policy-makers in VET at national and state level and served on numerous national committees in vocational training.

Professor Smith began his career in the manufacturing industry in the United Kingdom where he held a number of human resource management positions before immigrating to Australia with his family in 1987.

Professor Smith is a well-known researcher in vocational education. He has conducted extensive research in the area of employer training strategies and the development of national vocational education and training policy. During his career, Professor Smith has garnered in excess of $2.5 million in competitive research funding and published over 100 research publications.  He is an acknowledged international expert in employer training policy.  In recent years his research focus has expanded to include more general aspects of vocational training policy, skills formation and careers for young people.

Research Interests

  • Vocational education and training policy
  • Higher and tertiary education policy
  • Cross-sectoral education development
  • Employer training and employer training policy
  • Huan resource management and development
  • Careers and vocational training
  • International comparisons of tertiary education

Recent Research Funding (External)

2006-07. Smith, A., Oczkowski, E. and Selby-Smith, C.  To have and to hold: The role of human resource management and high performance work systems in the utilisation and retention of skills in organisations. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.  $69,500.

2007. Smith, A., Oczkowski, E. and Hill, M.  Analysing employer training:  a further analysis of the 2005 Survey of Employer Use and Views of the VET System. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.  $16,000.

2007.  Smith, A. and Winterton, J. Concepts of skills and competence: a comparative analysis of France and Australia. Academy of Social Sciences in Australia/Ambassade de France en Australie, Social Science Program Grant.  $4,500.

2007.  Smith, A., Selby Smith, C. and Smith, E.  Pedagogical issues in the training of mature-aged workers in manufacturing industry.  Manufacturing Skills Australia. $25,000

2007-2008.  Smith, E., Comyn, P., Smith, A and Brennan-Kemmis, R. Identifying the features of high quality traineeships. National Centre for Vocational Education Research. $69, 785.

2009-2010. Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., McEachern, S. and Tuck, J. Building innovation capacity: the role of human capital formation in enterprises. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.  $93,000.

2011-2013.  Smith, E., Hampson, I., Junor, A. and Smith, A.  Recognising the skill in jobs traditionally considered unskilled. Australian Research Council Linkage Grant.

2011-2013.  Smith, E., Walker, A. and Smith, A.  How do qualifications delivered by enterprises contribute to improved skill levels and other benefits for companies, workers and the nation? Australian Research Council Linkage Grant. $180,000.

2014-16 Smith, E., Callan, V., Shreeve, R., Smith, A. & Tuck, J. Employer training in a changed environment. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, $99,600.

2021-2  Smith, E., Callan, V., Smith, A. Robinson, R. & Snell, D. Careers in everyday industries: Potential benefits of increased visibility, National Careers Institute Partnership Grant, $151,679.

Publications

Books and Monographs

Smith, A.(1992).  Training and Development in Australia. Butterworths. Sydney.

Smith, A.(1998).  Training and Development in Australia. 2nd Ed. Butterworths. Sydney.

Murphy, T., Brown, R., Hicks, J., Bradbery, P., Presland, C., Logan, M., Guest, C., Smith, E., & Smith, A. (1998). An economic evaluation of alternative methods of delivering employer provided electrical trade and mechanical engineering trade apprenticeship training (Project funded by ANTARAC).  Wagga Wagga: Charles Sturt University.

Smith, A. (Ed) (1999).  Creating a Future:  Training, Learning and the Older Person. National Centre for Vocational Education Research.  Adelaide.

Smith, A.(Ed) (2001).  Returns on Training Investments in Australian Firms.  National Centre for Vocational Education Research.  Adelaide.

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E., Noble, C. and Macklin, R. (2002).  New Management Practices and Enterprise Training. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A. and Freeland, B. (2002).  Industry Training:  Causes and Consequences. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A. (2002).  Evidence of skill shortages in the engineering trades. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A. and Billett, S. (2004).  Mechanisms for increasing employer involvement in training. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, E., Pickersgill, R., Smith, A. and Rushbrook, P. (2005).  Enterprises’ commitment to nationally recognised training for existing workers. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Burke, G., Long, M. and Smith, A. (2008).  Diploma and Advanced Diploma Qualifications in the Community Services and Health Industries. Community Services and Health Industry Skills Council, Sydney.

Smith, A., Burke, G., Long, M. and Dumbrell, T. (2008).  Approaches to measuring and understanding employer training expenditure. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A. and Hawke, G. (2008).  Human resource management in Australian Registered Training Organisations.  National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E. and Selby Smith, C. (2008).  To have and to hold:  retaining and utilising skilled people. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E. and Hill, M. (2009).  Reasons for training:  why Australian employers train their workers. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, E., Comyn, P., Brenna Kemmis, R. and Smith, A. (2009).  High-quality traineeships: identifying what works. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A., Courvisanos, J, Tuck, J. and McEachern, S. (2012).  Building the capacity to innovate:  the role of human capital. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, E., Smith, A., & Walker, A. (2015). Enterprise Registered Training Organisations: Their operations, contributions and challenges, Project summary.

Smith, E., Smith, A., Junor, A. & Hampson, I. (2015). Recognising the skill in jobs traditionally considered unskilled. Sydney: Manufacturing Skills Australia.

Smith, E., Smith, A., Tuck, J. & Callan, V. (2017). Continuity and change: Employers’ use of training and partnerships with training providers. National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Book Chapters

Smith, A.(1992). Printco in G. Hayton and P. Loveder (eds) Award Restructuring and Workplace Reform.  National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Adelaide.

Smith, A. (1992).  The Paper Mill in R. Curtain, R. Gough, M. Rimmer (eds). Progress at the Workplace. National Key Centre in Industrial Relations, Monash University.

Smith, A. (1992). The Appliance Company in R. Curtain, R. Gough, M. Rimmer (eds). Progress at the Workplace. National Key Centre in Industrial Relations, Monash University.

Smith, A.(1995). Current Issues in Training and Development in R. Kramar and G.O'Neill (eds) Australian Human Resource Management, Longman Professional, Melbourne.

Smith, A. (1997).  Training and Development in R. Kramar, P. McGraw and R.S. Schuler (eds) Human Resource Management in Australia (3rd Edn), Harper Collins, Sydney.

Smith, A.(1998). Human Resource Development in R. Kramar and G.O'Neill (eds) Australian Human Resource Management, 2nd Edition. Longman Professional, Melbourne.

Smith, A. (1998). Elements of a Training Culture. Creating Our Future in C. Robinson and K. Arthy (eds). Lifelong Learning: Developing a Training Culture. 73-80. NCVER, Adelaide.

Smith, A. (2000).  Training, Teamworking and New Management Practices in R. Park, R. Harris and E. Collins (eds) Teamworking:  Some International Perspectives.  Centre for Research in Education, Equity and Work, University of South Australia, Adelaide.

Smith, A. (2002).  Industry training in Australia:  Causes and consequences in G. Burke and J. Reuling (eds)  Vocational training and lifelong learning in Australia and Germany, NCVER, Adelaide.

Smith, A. and Billett, S (2005).  Getting employers to spend more on training:  lessons from overseas in K. Ball (ed) Funding and financing vocational education and training: research readings. NCVER, Adelaide.

Smith, A (2006).  Training, organizational change and the emergence of learning and development in H. de Cieri and P. Holland (eds) Contemporary issues in HRD:  An Australian perspective, Pearson Education, Sydney.

Smith, A (2007).  Learning and development in H. de Cieri and R. Kramar (eds) Human resource management in Australia (3rd ed).  McGraw Hill, Sydney.

Smith, A. (2007).  The evolution of human resource development in Australian firms:  towards a more strategic function in P. Basu, G. O’Neill and A. Travaglione (Eds) Engagement and change:  exploring management, economic and financial implications of a globalizing environment, pp 59-68.  Australian Academic Press, Brisbane.

Smith, A. (2008).  The employer’s role in developing skills for the new economy in G.Loose, G. Spottl and Y.M. Sahir (eds).  “Re-engineering dual training” – the Malaysian experience. Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main.

Smith, A. (2009).  National arrangements for financing training in companies in F. Rauner and R. McLean (eds) Handbook of technical and vocational education and training research, pp 420-424. Springer, Berlin.

Smith, A. (2009).  Training and high performance work systems: a case study in synergy in F. Rauner and R. McLean (eds) Handbook of technical and vocational education and training research, pp 641-646. Springer, Berlin.

Smith, E. and Smith, A. (2010).  Vocational education in G. Elliott, C. Fourali & S. Issler, Education & Social Change. London, Continuum.

Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., Tuck, J. and McEachern, S. (2011).  Building innovation capacity:  the role of human capital formation in enterprises in P.Curtin, J. Stanwick and F. Beddie (Eds) Fostering enterprise: the innovation and skills nexus – research readings, pp.103-115. NCVER, Adelaide.

Smith, E., Comyn, P., Brennan Kemmis, R. & Smith, A. (2013). Australian employers’ adoption of traineeships. In L. Unwin & A. Fuller (eds). Contemporary apprenticeship: International perspectives on an evolving model of learning. Routledge: London, 127-139.

Refereed Journal Articles

Letters in parentheses are Australian Business Deans Council Journal rankings

Smith, A.(1989).  "Working with Pride: Management and the Process of Change in the British Motor Industry."  Asia-Pacific HRM. 27,3. 31- 40. (B)

Smith, A.(1993).  "Australian Training and Development in 1992".  Invited article. Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 31:2. 31-40. (B)

Smith, A. (1993).  "Training and Performance: Is There a Link?"  Training Agenda. November.

Smith, A. (1995). "Where to Now: Training Reform and Other Developments". Invited article. Leading and Managing.  1:1. (B)

Smith, A. (1995). "Models of Enterprise Training" Invited article. Review of the Centre for the Economics of Education and Training, Monash University.

Smith, E. and Smith, A. (1996)  “Inside the Black Box: The Employer’s Part in School VET Courses.” Journal of Career Development.  Spring, 16-21. (B)

Smith, A. (1997).  “Making False Assumptions:  Examining Some Popular Preconceptions about Enterprise Training.”  Australian Vocational Education Review, 4:1. (B)

Smith, A. and Hayton, G. (1999). “What Drives Enterprise Training? Some Evidence from Australia.”  International Journal of Human Resource Management. 10:2, 251-272. (A)

Noble, C., Hill, D., Smith, E. and Smith, A. (1999).  “Policy Issues in the Implementation of User Choice in the Australian Training Market.” Journal of Vocational Education and Training. 51:1. (A)

Smith, A. (2000) “Casing the Joint: Case Study Methodology in VET Research at the Organisational Level.” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Vocational Education Research , 8:1, 73-91. (B)

Smith, A. (2000). “International Briefing 4: Training and Development in Australia”. International Journal of Training and Development , 3:4, 301-313. (C)

Noble, C., Hill, D., Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2000) “User Choice in Markets at Risk.” Learning Communities: International Journal of Adult and Vocational Learning, 1:1, 25-37.*(C)

Smith, A. and Dowling, P.J. (2001) “Analyzing Firm Training: Five Propositions for Future Research.” Human Resource Development Quarterly.12:2. 147-67. (B)

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E., Noble, C. and Macklin, R. (2003). New management practices and enterprise training in Australia.  International Journal of Manpower, 24:1, 31-47. (A) (winner of Emerald Management Reviews Citation for Excellence for 2003).

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E., Noble, C. and Macklin, R. (2003). Organisational change and the management of training in Australian enterprises.  International Journal of Training and Development. 7:1, 2-15. (C)

Smith, A. (2003).  Recent trends in Australian training and development.  Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 41:2. 231-44. (B)

Billett, S. and Smith, A. (2003) Compliance, engagement and commitment: Increasing employer expenditure in training. Journal of Vocational Education and Training. 55:3, 281-99. (A)

Smith, A.,Oczkowski, E., Noble, C. and Macklin, R. (2004). The impact of organisational change on the nature and extent of training in Australian enterprises.  International Journal of Training and Development. 8:2. 94-110. (C)

Smith, A.  (2004) Never mind the width, feel the quality:  the quality and impact of VET research in Australia.  Research in Post-compulsory Education.9:2. 203-215. (B)

Smith, E., MacIntosh, M. & Smith, A. (2004) The use of nationally-recognised training in call centres. International Employment Relations Review. 10:2. 67-84. (C)

Billett, S & Smith, A (2005) Enhancing enterprise expenditure on VET: Policy goals and mechanisms. Journal of Vocational Education and Training. 57:1,  5-23. (A)

Smith, A. and Billett, S. (2005). Myth and reality:  employer sponsored training in Australia.  International Journal of Training Research. 3:2, 16-29. (B)

Smith, A. and Billett, S (2006).  Mechanisms for enhancing employer investment in training: a comparative perspective.  Research in Post-compulsory Education. 11:1, 1-18. (B)

Smith, A and Smith, E. (2006).  Learning for success:  distance education students’ use of their learning materials.  Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice. 3:1, 34-48. (B)

Smith, A. (2006).  The development of employer training in Australia.  Education + Training. 48:4, 252-261. (A*)

Smith, E., Smith, A., Pickersgill, R. & Rushbrook, P. (2006) Qualifying the workforce:  the use of accredited training in Australian companies. Journal of European Industrial Training. 30:8, 592-607. (C)

Smith, A (2006).  Engagement or irrelevance?  HRD and the world of policy and practice.  Human Resource Development Review. 5:4, 395-99. (B)

Smith, A., Ling, P and Hill, D. (2006).  The adoption of multiple modes of delivery in Australian universities.  Journal of University Teaching and Learning Practice. 3:2, 67-81. (B)

Smith, A. (2006). Human resource management in Registered Training Organisations: Practice or possibility?  Australian Vocational Education Review.  13:2, 1-15. (B)

Smith, A and Smith, E. (2007) The development of key training policies in England and Australia:  a comparison.  London Review of Education. 5:1, 51-67. (B)

Smith, A and Smith, E.  (2007). The role of training in the development of human resource management in Australian organisations. Human Resource Development International, 10:3. 263-279. (B)

Smith, A. and Smith, E.  (2008). Learning to control:  training and work organisation in Australian call centres. Journal of Industrial Relations. 50:2, 243-256. (A)

Smith, A., Ling, P and Hill, D. (2008). Modelling choice:  factors influencing modes of delivery in Australian universities.  Research in Post-compulsory Education. 13:3.  295-306. (B)

Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2009). Making training core business: Enterprise Registered Training Organisations in Australia. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 61:3, 287. (A)

Smith, E., Smith, A. & Selby Smith, C. (2010). Old dogs and new tricks: Training mature-aged workers in manufacturing industry. Journal of Workplace Learning. 22:5. 277-291. (B)

Smith, A., Oczkowski, E. and Selby Smith, C. (2011). To have and to hold:  Modelling the drivers of employee turnover and skill retention in Australian organisations. International Journal of Human Resource Management . 22:2.p 395-416 (A)

Smith, E., Comyn, P., Brennan Kemmis, R. & Smith, A.. (2011). Australian employers’ adoption of traineeships. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 63:3, 363-375. (A)

Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2011) Does the availability of vocational qualifications through work assist social inclusion? Education + Training, 53:7, 587-602. (A)

Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2012). Buying out teaching for research: The views of academics and their managers. Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning, 63, 455-472(A)

Smith, A. and Oczkowski, E (2015). Modelling the reasons for the use of vocational training in Australian enterprises. Asia-Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 53: 370-385. (A)

Smith, E., Smith, A., Hampson, I. & Junor, A. (2015).How closely do Australian Training Package qualifications reflect the skills in occupations? An empirical investigation of seven qualifications. International Journal of Training Research. 13:1, 49-63. (B)

Smith, E., Callan, V., Tuck, J. & Smith, A. (2019). Employer training in Australia: Current practices and concerns. International Journal of Training and Development, 23:2, 169-183. (C)

Conference Papers (since 1996)

Refereed Conferences

Smith, A. (1996).   What Do We Know About Enterprises Employing Apprentices, Trainees and Hosting Work Placement Students? Keynote Address to the Australian Student Traineeship Foundation Research Conference.  Mount Macedon, 14-15 March.

Smith, A. (1997).  Training and Business Strategy.  Keynote Address to the National Convention of the Australian Human Resources Institute, Brisbane Convention Centre, May 18-21.

Smith, A. and Hayton, G. (1997). What Drives Enterprise Training?  Some Evidence from Australia. Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston, Mass, 8-13 August.

Smith, A. and Hayton, G. (1997). Enterprise Training in Australia. Second International Conference on VET.  University of Huddersfield, UK, 16-18 July.

Smith, A. (1997).  Five Myths about Enterprise Training.  5th International Conference on Post-compulsory Education and Training.  Parkroyal Hotel, Surfers Paradise, 26-28 November.

Smith, A. (1997).  Training and Business Strategy.  Invited Address to the Queensland Year of Training Conference (Better Business: Productivity through Training), Brisbane Convention Centre, October 16-17.

Noble, C., Hill, D., Smith, E. and Smith, A. (1998).  User Choice in Markets at Risk.  First Annual Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association.  University of Technology, Sydney.  15-16 February.

Smith, A. (1998).  Training Research:  An Interdisciplinary Approach. Opening Address to the 7th Annual VET Research Conference.  Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, 15-17 July.

Smith, A. (1998).  Enterprise Training Culture.  7th Annual VET Research Conference.  Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, 15-17 July.

Smith, A. and Smith, E. (1998).  HRD or VET:  Splitting the Difference. 7th Annual VET Research Conference.  Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, 15-17 July.

Smith, A. (1999).   New Management Practices and Enterprise Training. 2nd Annual Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association.  RMIT University, Melbourne, February 17-19.

Smith, A. (1999). Organisational change and enterprise training: from technical to generic skills. International Labour Markets Conference 1999: Skilling and the Role of the Firm, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, 11-12 October 1999.

Smith, A. (1999). New Management Practices and Enterprise Training.  3rd Annual Conference of the International Vocational Education and Training Association Conference, Sydney, 21-23 August.

Smith, A. (1999).  Training and the Management of Change in Australian Enterprises. Changing Practice Through Research: Changing Research Through Practice: 7th Annual International Conference on Post-compulsory Education and Training, Gold Coast, Queensland, 6-8 December.

Smith, A (2000).  Research in Vocational Education and Training: Where to Next? 3rd Annual Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association. Rydges Hotel, Canberra, 23-24 March.

Smith, A. (2000). Industry Training in Australia: Causes and Consequences.   Invited Paper to the Joint Australia-Germany Symposium on Vocational Training and Lifelong Learning in Australia and Germany, Potsdam, Germany, 29-31 May 2000.

Smith, A. (2000).  Returns on Investments in Training.  Invited Paper to the Australian National Training Authority Conference, New Skills for the Millennium.  Melbourne, 9-11 August.

Smith, A. (2000).  The Changing Nature of Work and its Implications for Vocational Education and Training.  Invited paper to the Adult Learning Australia Conference.  Stamford Plaza, Adelaide, 8-9 September.

Smith, A (2000).  Recent developments in the Australian VET system. Keynote address at the International Conference on Vocational Education and Training in Asia Pacific Region: Vocational Education and Training for All, Seoul, Republic of Korea, 18-20 October.

Smith, A (2001).  The changing nature and effectiveness of training. Keynote speech at theManufacturing Learning Conference, Darling Harbour Sydney, 6-7 September.

Smith, A (2001).  Never mind the width, Feel the quality: Improving VET Research in Australia. Keynote address at the 4th Annual Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Research Association.  Hilton Hotel, Adelaide, 28-30 March.

Smith, A (2001).  Using research to initiate policy. UNESCO Asia-Pacific conference on TVET.  Adelaide Institute of TAFE, Adelaide, 26-28 March.

Smith, A (2001).  Australian apprenticeship:  facts, fiction and future. First national conference of the Education to Work Coalition, Victorian Trades Hall Council, 30-31 August.

Smith, A. (2002).  Training and learning for the older worker. Paper presented to the 10th Annual International Conference on Post-compulsory Education and Training, Surfers Paradise, December 2002.

Smith, A. (2002).  Changes at the workplace:  implications for the training system.  Invited paper given to the National Convention of the Australian Human Resources Institute, Convention Centre, Brisbane, May 20-22.

Smith, A (2002).  Internationalisation of vocational education and training: the Australian experience.  Invited paper given to the Bundesinstitut fur Berufsbildung Fachcongress, ICC, Berlin, 22-25 October.

Smith, A (2002).  The role of employers in creating a skilled workforce. Keynote address given to the International Conference on Technical Education and Vocational Training, Renaissance Hotel, Kuala Lumpur.

Smith, A. and Billett, S. (2003).  Making employers pay:  How do they do it overseas? Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Australian Technology Park, Sydney, 10-11 April.

Smith, A. (2003).  Another look at enterprise training.  Paper presented to the 13th Annual VET Research Conference, Central TAFE, Perth, 8-11 July.

Smith, E., MacIntosh, M. & Smith, A. (2004) The use of nationally-recognised training in call centres. Paper presented to the 2nd National Call Centre Conference, Monash University, Churchill August 19-20.

Smith, A (2004).  From VET to HRD.  Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Eaglehawk Resort, Canberra, 18-18 March.

Smith, A. (2004).  HRD and VET:  developments in Australia.  Paper presented to the Fifth International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe, University of Limerick,  27-28 May.

Smith, A (2004).  A marsupial HRD?  The emergence of learning and development.  Paper presented to the 12th Annual International Conference on Post-compulsory Education and Training, Surfers Paradise, December 2004.

Smith, E., Pickersgill, R., Smith, A. & Rushbrook, P. (2004). How enterprises engage with nationally recognised training. Doing, Thinking, Activity, Learning : 12th Annual International Conference on Post Compulsory Education and Training, Griffith University Centre for Learning Research, Surfers Paradise, December 6-9.

Smith, E., Smith, A., Pickersgill, R. & Rushbrook, P. (2005). Why Australian companies are turning to qualification-based training. Sixth International Conference on HRD Research and Practice across Europe, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, 25-27 May.

Smith, A. (2005). Stimulating employer learning cultures.  Paper presented to the 3rd International Conference on Researching Lifelong Learning and Teaching, University of Stirling, Scotland, 24-26 June.

Smith, A. and Smith, E (2005). Learning at a distance: how distance education students use their learning materials.  Paper presented to the 3rd International Conference on Researching Lifelong Learning and Teaching, University of Stirling, Scotland, 24-26 June.

Smith, A. (2005).  The development of employer training in Australia.  19th Annual Conference of the Australia and New Zealand Academy of Management, Rydges Lakeside Hotel, Canberra, 7-10 December.

Smith, A (2006).  The emergence of learning and development in Australian enterprises.  Paper presented to the Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Wollongong University, 19-21 April.

Smith, A (2006).  Training, human resource management and work organisation in Australian call centres.  Paper presented to the 2nd ACREW Conference, Monash Centre, Prato, Italy 1-4 July.

Smith, E. and Smith, A (2006).  How lower level and vulnerable workers benefit from employers’ engagement with the national qualification system in Australia. Paper presented to the 2nd ACREW Conference, Monash Centre, Prato, Italy 1-4 July.

Smith, A. (2006).  New directions for human resource development in Australian firms. 3rd International Conference on Contemporary Business.  Peppers Fairmont Resort, Leura, Australia.  21-22 September.

Smith, A. and Ling, P (2006).  Making a choice: why Australian universities adopt different modes of delivery. Annual Conference of the Australian Association for Research in Education, Adelaide, 27-30 November.

Smith, A (2007). Making the best of it:  strategic human resource management in Australian RTOs. Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Victoria University, Melbourne, 11-13 April.

Smith, A. and Oczkowski, E. (2007).  Keeping hold of skills:  the impact of human resource management and high performance work systems. The 8th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research & Practice across Europe.  Oxford Hotel, UK, 27-29 June.

Smith, A. and Oczkowski, E. (2007). To have and to hold:  Human resource management and skills retention in Australia. 21st ANZAM Conference, 4-7 December, Sofitel-Wentworth Hotel, Sydney.

Smith, A. and Smith, E (2005). Learning for success.  Distance education students and their learning materials.  Learning and teaching conference, Bright ideas and evolving evidence.  Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, 28-29 September.

Smith, A (2005).  Is your training program worth it? Evaluating your return on training investment. Keynote address to the National Training Summit, Watersedge, Sydney, 25-27 October.

Smith, A (2006).  Developing a competent workforce for the modern workplace. Keynote address to the EE-Oz Training Standards Conference, Best Practice in VTE, Joondalup Resort, Perth, 30-31 October.

Smith, A (2006).  Who or what is driving enterprise training? Keynote address to the Australian Industry Group Regional Human Resource Management Conference, Albury, 31 October.

Smith, A. (2006).  Government support for employer provided training. Paper given to the 10th Annual Conference of the Centre for the Economics of Education and Training, Ascot house, Melbourne, 3 November.

Smith, A. (2007).  The role of human resource management in improving outcomes from training and workplace learning.  NSW Department of Education and Training Conference “Workplace learning and the role of VET”, Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, 3 May.

Smith, A. (2007). Developing capability through human resources.  Address to the annual conference of TAFE Directors Australia, Melbourne Exhibition Centre, 24-25 September.

Smith, A. and Oczkowski, E. (2008). Reasons for training:  why Australian companies train their workers. 22nd ANZAM Conference, 3-5 December, University of Auckland Business School, Auckland, New Zealand.

Smith, A. (2009). Learning and development in the workplace.  Keynote address to the Workplace Productivity and Performance workshop run by the Queensland Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation, Brisbane Technology Park, August 28.

Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2009). What are the pros and cons of gaining qualifications through work? Lifelong learning revisited: What next? 5th International Conference, Centre for Lifelong Learning, Stirling, Scotland, 23-26 June.

Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., McEachern, S. and Tuck, J (2010). Building innovation capacity: the role of human capital formation in enterprises. Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Victoria University, Gold Coast 8-9 April.

Smith, A., Courvisanos, J., McEachern, S. and Tuck, J (2011). Management practices and innovation capacity in enterprises. Annual Conference of the Australian VET Research Association, Victoria University, Melbourne, April. 28-29.

Smith, A. (2014). Do or Die: the future of dual sector universities in Australia. Research in Post-Compulsory Education’s 1st International Research Conference of the Further Education Research Association, Harris Manchester College, Oxford, 11-13 July.

Junor, A., Hampson, I., Smith, E. & Smith, A. (2014). Views of skill in low-wage jobs: Australian security guards and cleaners. 28th Association of Industrial Relations Academics of Australia and New Zealand (AIRAANZ) Conference. Melbourne, 5-7 February 2014.

Smith, E. Smith, A, Hampson, I. & Junor, A. (2014). What do senior figures in Australian VET and industrial relations think about the concept of skill in work? Informing Changes in VET Policy and Practice: The Central Role of Research, 17th annual AVETRA Conference, Surfers Paradise, 22-24 April.

Smith, E., Smith. A. and Walker, A. (2015). When employers become training providers: What are some institutional issues?    Work and Learning in the Era of Globalisation:  Challenges for the 21st Century, 9th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning, School of the Arts, Singapore, 9-11 December.

Smith, E., & Smith. A. (2015). Work and learning in jobs that are traditionally considered unskilled or low-skilled.   Work and Learning in the Era of Globalisation:  Challenges for the 21st Century, 9th International Conference on Researching Work and Learning, School of the Arts, Singapore, 9-11 December.

Smith, A. (2015). Skills and training in an under-recognised occupation: The case of the Sales Assistant. Journal of Vocational Education and Training 11th International Conference. Worcester College, Oxford, 3-5 July.

Smith, A. (2016). Developments in Australian Vocational Education and Training: the fragmentation of a national system. Research in Post-Compulsory Education’s2nd International Research Conference of the Further Education Research Association, Harris Manchester College, Oxford, 8-10 July.