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Introduction

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You can use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication. Alternatively, you can check the archived APA6th Blog.

APA is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as the author’s family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page numbers (if applicable).

For each source cited in the text, you need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - APA Citing and referencing subject guide

Archived APA 6th Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author in your own words. When you are paraphrasing you must acknowledge each author or source of information with a citation.

Use round brackets to add the author’s family name and the year of publication, or use the author’s family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader locate the source of the information in a lengthy document. Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional and is not a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

When the name of the author appears outside of brackets as part of a sentence, after the first citation in each paragraph you do not need not to include the year in subsequent citations in the same paragraph as long as the study cannot be confused with others and the author’s name is part of the sentence.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that…. The population studied by Felton and Royal was…..

Parenthetical citations

All citations in brackets (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within brackets) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

General rules for in-text citations when quoting

When you are using a direct quote in your writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information.

Direct quotes are used if you are using the exact words of the author. Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number. Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does not contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the citation.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form: without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new line, and indent and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details in brackets.

Basic treatment for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

  • Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).

BASIC CITATIONS

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

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MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

  • Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

Three, four or five authors 

  • Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.

(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST CITATION

(Oakes et al., 1994) OR Oakes et al. (1994) … ALL FOLLOWING CITATIONS

Six or more authors 

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.

(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS

Group author (Government or organisation)

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put this extra line in your reference list:
  • WHO – see World Health Organization.

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS

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LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
  • Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

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NO AUTHOR

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each major word.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

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MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).


MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR

  • When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).


NO YEAR/DATE

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

(Smith, n.d.)  or Smith (n.d.)


QUOTATIONS

  • Add the page or other location/ label references when quoting from a specific part of the source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add the citation after the closing quotation mark.

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate paragraph, double spaced with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

No page numbers

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give the closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citation

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

  • A secondary citation is when you refer to a source cited in another source. You should always try and find the original source. Use the reference list from the source you read to try and find the original source referred to. You can ask a librarian if you need assistance.
  • You should only use a secondary citation if you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Book

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Creating a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Each source that is cited in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + Title+ Publisher Information or DOI or Retrieved from URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initials of their given names.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

2–7 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour

8 or more authors

Name the first six and last authors. Join last author by three dots (‘…’).

Donat, T. G., Jenkins, M., Baysch, V., Adamson, E., Wilkins, W. L., Lingstrom, A., … Farr, P. B.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health

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YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates, such as newspapers. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, p. 13.

Same author, Same year

Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia

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TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the exact words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the exact wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate the title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics are used for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

Edition number

  • Different edition: Add edition number (in round brackets, no italics) to the title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first and no statement is needed.
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

No title

If there is no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets with no italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Brisbane, Australia: Liberty Press.

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PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • If published in the USA, give city, US state (initials) and publisher.
  • If published outside the USA, give city, country and publisher.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the publisher is also the author, use ‘Author’ instead of repeating name.

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Chicago, IL: Bellinger.

Temple, P. (2009). Truth. Melbourne, Australia: Text.

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report. Sydney, Australia: Author.

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DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier [DOI]?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all online material has a DOI but you need to include one if it has, even for print material.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t give the URL or retrieval date.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • There is no full stop at the end. Give it exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi:’ (always use lower case). New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

doi:10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

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UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR [URL] AND RETRIEVAL DATE

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online that do not have a DOI. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there, if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the exact URL.
  • Do not include the retrieval date unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.
  • URLs should not be live in your reference list, so you will need to remove the hyperlink by highlighting the URL, right clicking and selecting “Remove hyperlink” in the pop-up menu.

Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com/

How to present a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Command+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Command+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T.D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. New York: NY: Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Statistical analysis primer. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002c). Computational methods. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A. & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and place and name of publisher.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Three, four or five authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, Steven J., & Deschenes, Michael R. (2012). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

  • List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Six or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: Pearson.

  • List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Eight or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Edition number

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When citing an entire edited book, use the editor as the author. If you are only using one chapter as your source, refer to the next section, ‘Book chapter from an edited book’.

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Saligari (2017) states …

Victorian law is very clear regarding … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The law relating to divorce and property settlements now covers…" (Saligari, 2017, p. 101).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Editor. (Ed.). (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Saligari, N. (Ed.) (2017). The law handbook 2017: Your practical guide to the law in Victoria. Fitzroy, VIC: Fitzroy Legal Service.

  • Use the editor as the author, followed by (Ed.). If there is more than one editor, list them all as for multiple authors, followed by (Eds.).

Book chapter from an edited collection

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, not the editors of the entire work. If you are using the entire book as a source, refer to the previous section, ‘Edited book’.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use the chapter author’s family name and the year of publication.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Chapter Author. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor (Ed.)., Book title (page numbers). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

  • Give the chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname of editor followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’ if multiple editors. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after the title.
  • The editor’s given name initials are before the family name in this format.

E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

e-book with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an ebook has a DOI, you must use this format.

From a database

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Available from http:xxxxxx

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

  • Use the URL of the ebook platform homepage, not the link you accessed it from through the library.

Accessed on e-reader

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [Platform]. Available from http:xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

  • After the title, add the platform in square brackets. Then add the website you accessed the book from.

e-book without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [File type]. Retrieved from http:xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Some books are available online as a PDF or other file type. After the title, add the file type in square brackets, then the URL the book was retrieved from.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI 

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

Print or online with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Three, four or five authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Name all authors the first time you refer to the source.
  • Separate each author by a comma. Join the last author by ‘&’ or ‘and’ in the sentence.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.
  • Later, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within the same paragraph in a sentence – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology26(4), 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

  • Use all the authors in the reference.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Six or seven authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Aleksankina, K., Heal, M. R., Smith, L., Dore, A. J., Van Oijen, M., & Reis, S. (2018). Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an atmospheric chemistry transport model: The FRAME model (version 9.15.0) as a case study. Geoscientific Model Development, 11(4), 1653-1664. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1653-2018

  • Use all the authors in the reference up to seven authors.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Eight or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Authors. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014

Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

Online with URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall and use the journal homepage for the URL. If the journal is freely available online, such as open access, introduce the URL with ‘Retrieved from’.

Print

  • As for online, but without a URL or DOI.

From a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age, p. 4. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do not italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as database homepage URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbucks … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

Online replica of a print edition

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, pp. 2–3. Retrieved from https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

Online edition

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name. DOI or URL

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • If the article is a digitised replica of a print edition, give the publication date of the print edition and include the page numbers. If the article is posted on a media outlet’s website, give the date of the post.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as database homepage URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

According to Hunt (1963) the assassination of President Kennedy has rocked …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. 

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune, 1, pp. 4–6.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

No author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in Headline Case enclosed by double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Article title. (Year/Date). Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian, p. 23. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Place the title of the article in the author position
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year

Act of Parliament

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section numbers (if applicable) in brackets.

  • It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.
  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s. Retrieved from URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

Goods Act 1958 (Vic)

Statutes online

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Statute references

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, for example, the jurisdiction of the legislation appears in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute. If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.
  • If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Legal cases

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

  • For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.
  • If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Civil law cases

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimons, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Reader) [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Reader) [CD]. Sydney, Australia: ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (P. Batchelor, Reader) [Audio file]. Available from http://www.audible.com.

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add the reader’s name in round brackets with given name initial first, then family name. Add recording format in square brackets.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give place and name of the record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details; use ‘Available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Give the full date the podcast was produced or uploaded, not just the year.

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29, 3:29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Episode title. Program title [Form]. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give primary contributor, role and date produced or uploaded.
  • Give the title of the episode (no italics) followed by the title of whole podcast/program in italics.
  • Give the URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription.

Music recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. (Year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist Name]. On Title of album [Form]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

Single track (LP)

Duke, V. (1934). Autumn in New York [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On Come fly with me [Vinyl recording]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol. (1958).

Single track (online)

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world. On Armageddon [MP3]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

Album (CD)

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol.

  • SINGLE TRACK/SONG: Give the name of songwriter and year of copyright. If the songwriter is not the recording artist, add recording artist in square brackets after the song title (no italics). Give the album title (italics) preceded by ‘On’. Give place and name of recording label. Add recording date at end if different from copyright year.
  • WHOLE ALBUM: Give name of album recording artist. Give album title (italics).

Speech or performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You should always try and find an authoritative transcript or recording of a speech, then cite and reference the source you use, such as a book, website or online video. If you cannot find a transcript or recording, follow the format below for citing and referencing a speech. For more information, see the APA6th Style Blog.

In-text citations

If you are using a transcript or recording, cite the author or editor of the source and the publication year. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

Paraphrasing

Performance

Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

From another source:

In his famous speech, Dr. King described …  (Smith, 2009).

If you can’t find a transcript or recording

Martin Luther King's often quoted catchphrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Follow the same rules as for paraphrasing, but additionally place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote if a recording, or the page number if from a transcript.

"Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared … (Kennedy, 1963, June 26, 2:41).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Speech

If you are using a transcript or recording, reference the author or editor of the source and the publication year. See the relevant section on FedCite to see how to reference the type of source you use, such as a blog, an online video or a podcast. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech. The following example is how to reference a speech if you are unable to locate it in a transcript or recording.

Speaker. (Year/Date). Title of speech [Speech]. Description of speech and location.

Clark, H. (2007, April 25). Prime Minister’s 2007 ANZAC Day message [Speech]. Speech presented on ANZAC Day 2007, New Zealand.

Performance (CD)

TEMPLATE

Performer’s name (Performer) & Director’s name (Director). (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Date of performance recording).

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …"
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add the original recording date if different or more specific than the publication date.

Streaming video from a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

InformitTV (2016) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Database name. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

  • Include the database name in the author position.
  • Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Television series episode

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the names of the primary contributors as the authors.

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title of episode [Form]. In Principal Contributor (Role), Title of series. City, State/Country: Production/Distribution Company. OR DOI/URL, Date of the broadcast.

Television episode broadcast

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002). Application anxiety [Television series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Producers), Gilmore girls. Melbourne, Australia: Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles, and episode title (no italics).
  • Give the city, station, and broadcast date.

Online video

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2014). The eternity ring [Television series episode; Video file]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

  • Give the URL of the site where you accessed the item.

DVD (whole series)

Gilligan, V. (Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [Television series; DVD]. Los Angeles, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).
  • Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets preceded by the principal contributors and roles.

Video or film (studio production)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the names of the primary contributors as the authors.

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985, 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Country: Distributor/Studio.

Film

Zemeckis, R. (Writer/Director), Gale, R. (Writer), & Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1985). Back to the future [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Z. (Director), & Goyer, D. S. (Writer). (2013). Man of steel [Blu-ray]. United States: Warner Bros.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (2003). Vertigo [DVD]. United States: Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958.

Online

Affleck, B. (Director), Terrio, C. (Writer), & Clooney, G. (Producer). (2012). Argo [Video file]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, and/or producer) and their roles. The examples above show various roles to illustrate options.
  • Give the title in italics. Add the form accessed in square brackets (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of the original release.
  • Give the place and name of the studio or, if accessed online, give URL of the site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘Retrieved from’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.

Video game

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the game title as the author.

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Fallout: New Vegas, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title [Form; Video game]. (Year). Place: Publisher.

Fallout: New Vegas [CD-ROM; Video game]. (2010). Rockville, Maryland: Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title (italics), then form and description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give the year of production. Give the place and name of producer, or URL if accessed online.
  • Game developer can be given in the author position.

Video podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use either the producer’s, presenter's or interviewee's family name as the author.

Paraphrasing

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops ... and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year/Date). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

  • Include details of the producer, presenter or interviewee etc. in the author position.
  • Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • Retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Web document (pdf)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document. If the document does not contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number, abbreviated as para.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Document type if required]. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a web page document, include the authors (which may be different from the site hosting it). If no authors are stated then use the company or organisation name.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • Add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.
  • A retrieval date is not needed because the content is fixed.

Website post or page (general treatment)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the World Health Organization (2018, March) ...

The My Aged Care website offers many support services for aged care including ... (Department of Health, 2018).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers unless they are in PDF format. In this case, use the paragraph number (you will have to count them yourself).
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is not a PDF document.
According to the Department of Health (2018) the services offered by My Aged Care "involve a wide range of people to make sure it meets users’ needs" (para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Retrieved from URL

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of the post/page (no italics). If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If the material is non-routine, add a description of form in square brackets.
  • Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of the home page, whichever is more direct/reliable.

Website

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Images not reproduced in your work

In APA, an image refers to things like a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you discuss in your work but do not reproduce. In this case, cite and reference the image according to the source you found it in, such as a website or book. The author will be the creator of the image.

Images reproduced in your work

figure is something such as a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you do reproduce in your work. Figures need a caption, citations in the text and a reference. If you are reproducing an image in your work, please see the relevant section for your figure type.

In-text citations

In the work by Wood (1930), we can see...

...in the eyes of the subject (McCurry, 1985).

References

Reference according to the type of source you saw the image in.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Retrieved from https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Except: if you saw it in person at a gallery or exhibition. In this case, please see the “Visual Artwork” section of this page.

Figure from a book or journal article

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So, if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Below the figure

Print book 

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Book Title”, by Author, Year, Place of Publication p. xx. City, State/Country: Publisher.

Online journal article

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Journal Article Title”, by Author, Year, Journal name, Volume(Issue), p. xx. Retrieved from URL or DOI

Old man in ragged clothes

Figure 1. Rip returns to his house by Felix Darley. Reprinted from "Rip van Winkle", by W. Irving, 1848, New York, p. 31. New York, NY: American Art Union.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink, 34(2), 101-102. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Web page

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Webpage title, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 2. Lungs diagram detailed. Reprinted from Wikimedia, by P. Lynch and C. Jaffe, 2006, Retrieved from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lungs_diagram_detailed.svg

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Fidelity. (2016). The world’s largest economies are all in expansion, though at various phases of the business cycle. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/business-cycle-update-December-2016

  • The image title is NOT italicised.
  • Also, include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Database, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 3. NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula. Reprinted from Hubblesite, by NASA, ESA and J. Kastner, 2020, Retrieved from https://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hvi/uploads/image/display_image/4680/STScI-H-p2031b-d-1280x720.png

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

The eye [Database image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Creative commons

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Creative Commons source, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 4. Classroom tour 3. Reprinted from Flicker, by Kathy Cassidy, 2006, Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Cassidy, K. (2006). Classroom tour 3. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no creator recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

The city of Casey as shown in Figure 4 … (Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012).

The Victorian Electoral Commission (2012) published a very useful map, shown in Figure 4 …

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Source Name, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 1. Victoria. Reprinted from University of Texas Libraries, by McCarron, Bird and co., 1916, Retrieved from https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form]. DOI/URL or Place of publication: Publisher

Online

Victorian Electoral Commission. (2012). City of Casey: Local council boundaries [Map]. Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

  • Give the author and the year of publication (or date of post). Then the title of the item (no italics) and add form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Photograph’) in square brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description in the same square brackets as form.

Print

Timms, P. E. (2006). Colonial settlement in Tasmania. Hobart, Australia: Tiger Press.

  • Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Title should be in italics. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: … (Timms, 2006, Figure 2).

Visual artwork

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

In-text citations

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

If you view artwork in person, such as at a gallery or museum visit, you refer to it in the text through a citation and include a reference. No caption is required as you cannot insert the original artwork into your document!

If you do want to include a picture of the artwork in your document, you will need to caption and reference it according to the source you retrieved the reproduction from, such as a book or a website, but include the medium in the reference as well.

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.
  • Use the artist’s name as the author

Figure 3 depicts ….. (Rackham, 1904).

The artwork by Rackham (1904)….

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Webpage title, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 3. The thundershower. Reprinted from The Smithsonian American Art Museum, by H. Lyman Sayen, 1916, Retrieved from https://www.si.edu/object/thundershower-study-painting:saam_1968.19.6Shape

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium]. City, State/Country: Gallery. OR DOI/URL

Original artwork is seen in person

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

  • Give the name of the artist, year artwork was created, the title of artwork (italics), medium (square brackets, no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery you saw the artwork at.

Online reproduction

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Retrieved from http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

  • Give the artist, year, title, medium, and URL.

Print reproduction

Bryant, H. (Ed.). (1993). Australian artists. Melbourne, Australia: Larwitt.

Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant, 1993, p. 46)’.

Blog post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvanian student bought WMD ingredients …

A Pennsylvanian student has been buying WMD ingredients … (Daly, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … " (Daly, 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Daly, Michael. (2014, January 29). Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the post as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Facebook post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) is pleased to announce ...

A recent announcement by Coles states that … (Coles Supermarket, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that "Our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …" (Coles Supermarket, 2014, para 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Coles Supermarkets. (2014, January 2). Good news: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the post as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Forum comment

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that …

Recent criticism leveled at Twitter search functions have … (GeekBoy, 2008, October 9).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …" (GeekBoy, 2009, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

GeekBoy. (2008, October 9). Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search? [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the comment as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Tweet

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

In a recent Twitter, Barack Obama paid tribute to Aretha Franklin who was well known as the Queen of Soul Obama, 2018).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"In her voice, we could feel our history, all of it and in every shade—our power and our pain, our darkness and our light, our quest for redemption and our hard-won respect" (Obama, 2018, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Obama, Barack. (2018, August 17). Aretha helped define the American experience. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1030129887623958538

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the tweet as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • Retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian Impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Taylor's (2013) exhibition catalogue presents Australian impressionists who have recently exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ..." (Taylor, 2013, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. City, State/Country: Publisher.  DOI/URL

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, E. (2013). Australian impressionists in France [Exhibition catalogue]. Melbourne, Australia: National Gallery of Victoria.

Brochure (online)

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • Give author and publication year or date as shown on the document. Give title in italics.
  • Add a description in square brackets (no italics) to the title.

Conference paper presented

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian Impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Wenzel (1998, June) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Films of Fellini have been very popular … (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Fellini's films always drew much attention from …" (Wenzel, 1998, June, p. 6).

Reference list

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

TEMPLATE

Presenter. (Year, Month). Title. Paper presented at Meeting Name, Place.

Wenzel, B. Q. (1998, June). Films of Fellini. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, Australia.

  • Give year and month of the conference, the title of paper (italics), followed by name and location of the meeting.

Conference paper published in proceedings

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour may benefit from … (Carbone et al., 2002).

Carbone et al. (2002) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour … (Carbone, et al., 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country, Publisher. DOI/URL

Carbone, A., Mitchell, I., Gunstone, D., & Hurst, J. (2002). Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour. In B. Werner (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 533-534). doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

Whole proceedings

Murphy, C. (2004). Job design and leadership. In G. Stewart, & P. Hyland (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association. Rockhampton, Australia: CQU.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, and title of the paper (no italics).
  • Give editor and title of proceedings. (Use initial capitals for conference name in the title.)
  • Add publication information or DOI. Give URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Course materials

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material in the reference list**

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES, AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, use the following format.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought-tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title[Format]. Other identifying detail or Retrieved from URL or DOI

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. 2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fl1D5Gg76dA

Print handout

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture handout]. Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, Australia.

  • The title for these sources is not in italics.

Encyclopaedia entry

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source**

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page or paragraph number(s) (if online).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Print

Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In Science Encyclopedia (5th ed., pp. 501–508). New York, NY: Academic Resources.

e-Book

McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com/

Online

Watergate scandal. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/

No author

The World Book encyclopedia. (2007). Chicago: World Book.

  • Give the author of entry if one is named, otherwise use the entry title.
  • Give the title of the entry (no italics) and the title of the whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give the page and any edition and volume numbers after the title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide the URL of the source (use the permanent link).
  • Include a retrieval date if the content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Interview transcript

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal interviews are those you conduct yourself to obtain more information to support a point you are making, such as emailing a professor. In this case, treat it as personal communications. 

Research participant interviews are if you interviewed people as part of your own research methodology. These do not need to be cited or referenced.

In-text citations

Use the name of the person being interviewed in the citation.

Paraphrasing

During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. (Year, Date). Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer) [Format]. Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong (S. E. Ambrose, Interviewer) [Transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications.
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give a description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Media release

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Qantas, 2011).

Qantas (2011) announced …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and the paragraph number(s).

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … " (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Date). Title [Description]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Qantas. (2011, October 29). Response to industrial action [Media release]. Retrieved from http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

MIMS Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Single reference:

... to ameliorate pain (MIMS Australia, n.d.).

Multiple references:

If you have multiple drug references from MIMS Online, reference them using a hyphen and lower-case letter after the n.d. (-a, -b, -c, etc), and in alphabetical order in the reference list:

... might use Advil (MIMS Australia, n.d.-a). Panadol might be used for older children (MIMS Australia, n.d.-b) ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number (count manually) as part of the in-text reference.

Using section name:

Coumadin is “completely absorbed after oral administration with peak concentration generally attained within the first 4 hours” (MIMS Australia, n.d., 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties).

Using paragraph number:

Advil in small children is used for the “temporary relief of pain, discomfort …” (MIMS Australia, n.d., para. 7).

Reference list

Single reference:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Coumadin. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/FullPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=warfarin&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=3050001_2

Multiple references:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-a). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-b). Panadol (children) 7+ years soluble tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=panadol&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.

  • Put the title (in this case the drug) in sentence case (the first word of the sentence and proper nouns start with a capital letter).
  • Follow the specific entry with In [encyclopaedia title], with the encyclopaedia title in italics. (In this case, In MIMS Online.)
  • n.d. (no date) is used for online encyclopaedias where the content is continuously updated
  • Use the URL of the specific page (note: URL shorteners are acceptable, if stable)
  • Include the date you looked at the MIMS entry (MIMS Online is being constantly updated, so information might change with time)

Personal communication

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in the surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • If class or lecture notes were taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

No reference entry required

(E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Report, government or corporate

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the 2016 Defence White Paper there are … (Department of Defence, 2016).

Outback Windmills are now subject to … (Department of Primary Industries, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …" (Department of Health, 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Series number). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

PDF 

Department of Defence. (2016). 2016 Defence white paper. Retrieved from http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

Print

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health 2004 (AIHW Cat. No. AUS 44). Canberra, Australia: Author.

  • If published by the author, use the word 'Author' for the publisher name.

Review

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences … (Schembri, 2008).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Croggon (2014) commented that "Private Lives is a play that resonates with many audiences because ..." p. 8.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. (Year/Date). Title of review [Review of Work reviewed, role and name of principal contributor, Year of production/release]. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

Film review (print newspaper)

Schembri, J. (2008, November 10). [Review of the motion picture Australia, directed by B. Luhrmann, 2008]. The Age, p. 8.

Theatre review (online)

Croggon, A. (2014, January 31). [Review of the play Private lives, by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014.] The Guardian Australia. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog?page=46

  • Give the author and date of review.
  • Give the title of the review followed by a description (no italics except for title of work being reviewed) in square brackets. If the review has no title, give a description alone.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or app

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Use the software title in place of the author
  • Use the version in place of the year.

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via Bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow, Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word, Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title (Version number) [Form]. (Year). City, State/Country: Company. OR DOI/URL

Mobile phone (app)

Weather Flow (Version 1.5.0) [Mobile phone application]. Available from http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

Computer software

Microsoft Word (Version 16.0.4639.1000) [Computer software]. Available from https://www.microsoft.com

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give the title of software (no italics) followed by the version number in round brackets. Add a description in square brackets after the version number. Give place and name of the company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Standards, Australian

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Residential timber framed construction techniques are … (Standards Australia, 2010).

Standards Australia (2010) claim that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames "have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …" (Standards Australia, 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number). City, State/Country: Publisher. Or URL

Standards Australia. (2010). Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). Sydney: Standards Australia.

Standards Australia. (2013). Scaffold decking components (AS/NZS 1577:2013). Retrieved from http://www.saiglobal.com

Thesis

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfunctional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional drivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

Print (unpublished)

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. 

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Online from a repository

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. DOI/URL

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

Online from a library database

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Available from Database. (Accession/Order Number).

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of the institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give the URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.

Introduction

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You can use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication. Alternatively, you can check the APA 7th Style Blog.

APA is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as the author’s family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page numbers (if applicable).

For each source cited in the text, you need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

References

Anderson, T. D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002c). Statistical analysis primer. Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A., & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

APA Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

When you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote in your writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information (whether print or online).

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author in your own words. When you are paraphrasing you must acknowledge each author or source of information with a citation.

Use round brackets to add the author’s family name and the year of publication, or use the author’s family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader locate the source of the information in a lengthy document. Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional and is not a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

When the name of the author appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the year in subsequent non-parenthetical citations in the same paragraph as long as the study cannot be confused with others.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that…. The population studied by Felton and Royal was…..

Parenthetical citations

All parenthetical citations (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within parentheses) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

General rules for in-text citations when quoting

When you are using a direct quote in your writing, you must acknowledge each author or source of information.

Direct quotes are used if you are using the exact words of the author. Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number. Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does not contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings, and paragraph numbers as part of the citation.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotations more than 40 words in length need to be in block form: without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new line, and indent and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details in brackets.

Basic treatment for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing, whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

  • Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).

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BASIC CITATIONS

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

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AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

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MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

  • Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

Three or more authors 

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication.

(Donat et al., 2002)

Group author (Government or organisation)

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS

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LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
  • Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

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NO AUTHOR

  • If the source has no author, give the first few words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each major word.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

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MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).


MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR

  • When an author has published more than one cited work in the same year, distinguish each work by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets. The letter should correspond to the letter assigned to the work in the reference list.
  • In the reference list, works by the same author in the same year are listed alphabetically by title, with the letter ‘a’ being assigned to the first work listed, ‘b’ to the second, etc.

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

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NO YEAR/DATE

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

(Smith, n.d.)  or Smith (n.d.)


QUOTATIONS

  • Add the page or other location/ label references when quoting from a specific part of the source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add the citation after the closing quotation mark.

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate doubled-spaced paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter et al. (2000) note that:

No page numbers

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give the closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • A secondary citation is when you refer to a source cited in another source. You should always try to find and cite the original source. Use the reference list from the source you read, and try and find the original source referred to. You can ask a librarian if you need assistance.
  • You should only use a secondary citation if you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Pearson Australia.

Creating a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Each source that is cited in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + Title+ Publisher Information or DOI or URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initials of their given names.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Picador.

2–20 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join the last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour

21 or more authors

Name the first nineteen authors and the last author. Join the last author by three dots (‘…’).

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full, even if you have abbreviated it within the text.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health

YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates, such as newspapers. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, 13.

Same author, Same year

List each work alphabetically by title and add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list, e.g., ‘a’ for the first entry, ‘b’ for the second entry, etc.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the exact words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the exact wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate the title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics are used for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

Edition number

  • Different edition: Add edition number (in round brackets, no italics) to the title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first and no statement is needed.
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

No title

If there is no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets with no italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Liberty Press.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media.
  • For online sources, you will usually use a DOI or URL.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • The publisher of a print source or broadcast media.
  • If the publisher is also the author, omit the publisher from the reference instead of repeating the name.
  • The location is only needed if the material is associated with a particular location, such as a conference.
  • A DOI if the source has one
  • The URL for online sources if there is no DOI

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Bellinger.

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report.

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DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all online material has a DOI but you need to include one if it has, even for print material.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t give the URL.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • There is no full stop at the end. It needs to be prefixed with http:// or https://

http://doi.org/10.1086/529076

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UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR [URL] AND RETRIEVAL DATE

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online that do not have a DOI. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet.
  • Provide the URL that links directly to the source.
  • When a website is the source for a webpage, give the website name before the URL.
  • The retrieval date is only included for content that is designed to change over time, such as social media posts. In this case, preface the URL with Retrieved Year, Month Day, from http://xxxxx

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

How to present a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Command+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Command+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • Do not add line breaks manually to the hyperlink; it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T. D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002c). Statistical analysis primer. Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A., & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Changes in APA 7th ed.

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

There are a number of changes that have been made to APA style referencing from the 6th edition to the 7th edition. Please check with your lecturer which edition you need to use for your referencing. The following is a summary of the major changes that have been made. Please check the relevant FedCite page for each source you are citing to ensure accuracy.

URLS

  • URLS no longer need to be preceded with ‘Retrieved from’ if the content is unlikely to change. If the content is likely to change, it is more appropriate to use n.d. (no date) for the page date and include the date of access.
  • Use the most specific date available.
  • Website names are now included if it is different to the author of the page.
  • Web page titles are italicised in the same way that other titles are.
  • The URL is able to be live, so the hyperlink does not need to be broken.

Old

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved 2019, November 16, from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

New

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

DOI

  • Any resource with a DOI needs to have it included in the reference, even if you accessed a print version.
  • The DOI needs to be in URL form (https://doi.org/); other forms of a DOI are not acceptable.
  • If an electronic resource is accessed from a database but does not have a DOI, reference it as for print, with the publisher details.

Old

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

New

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.

E-BOOKS

  • E-books no longer need the form listed (such as Kindle) as long as the content is the same.
  • The publisher now needs to be included in the reference in the same way as print books.
  • If the e-book has a DOI, this must be included as well. If not, reference e-books accessed from databases in the same way as a print book. E-books accessed from other online sources or from e-readers should include the URL.

Old

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

New

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby. Text Publishing. http://www.amazon.com

Bruck, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007978-90-481-2473-2

PUBLISHER LOCATION

  • The location is no longer required in publication details.

Old

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

New

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

SIX OR MORE AUTHORS

  • Up to twenty authors are now listed in a reference before ellipsis are used.
  • If there are more than 20 authors, include an ellipsis after the 19th author, and then the last listed author.

Old 

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., …, Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

New

Marinovich, M. L., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E. P., Von Minckwitz, G., Brennan, M. E., & Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djs528

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537

IN-TEXT CITATION

  • Any source with three or more authors is immediately shortened by et al.

Old

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

New

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

CONTRIBUTOR

  • There are clear guidelines when including contributors other than authors or editors, for example when citing a podcast, the episode needs to be included; for a TV series episode, the writer and director are cited. See each source for more details.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and name of publisher
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.
  • When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with ‘&’.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Three to twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and year of publication.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer et al., 2016).

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer et al., 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Kraemer, W., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2012).  Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Pearson.

  • List all authors, placing ‘& before the last name.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version

More than twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

  • List the first nineteen authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Edition number

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing an entire edited book, use the editor as the author. If you are only using one chapter as your source, refer to the next section, ‘Book chapter from an edited book’.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Editor. (Ed.). (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Mills, A. & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2001). Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable. Peter Lang.

  • Use the editor as the author, followed by (Ed.). If there is more than one editor, list them all as for multiple authors, followed by (Eds.).
  • If the edited book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Chapter from edited collection

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, not the editors of the entire work. If you are using the entire book as a source, refer to the previous section, ‘Edited book’.

IN TEXT CITATIONS

  • Use the chapter author’s family name and the year of publication.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Chapter Author. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor (Ed.)., Book title (page numbers). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). Peter Lang.

  • An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.
  • Give the chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname of editor followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’ if multiple editors. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after title.
  • The editor’s given name initials are before the family name in this format. If the edited book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000, p. 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

e-book with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an e-book has a DOI, you must use this format.

e-book from a database, without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.

  • If an e-book from a database does not have a DOI, cite it as you would a print book, including the name of the publisher.

e-book accessed on e-reader, without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby. http://www.amazon.com

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.

e-book without DOI, with non-database URL

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Online with DOI

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0720-048X(12)70007-4

Print

Normoyle, C. (2013). Nurses' wellbeing. Australian Nursing Journal, 20(10), 30–33.

Online with URL (no DOI)

Moran, W. (2014). Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3). http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI or URL.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Print or online with DOI

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI.

Three to twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva et al., 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(4), 541-549. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2825

  • List all authors, separated by commas, and place ‘& before the last name.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI.

More than twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Human colonization of Australia … (Tobler et al., 2017).

Tobler et al. (2017) state that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Reconstructing the genetic history of Aboriginal Australia is greatly complicated by past government policies of enforced population relocation and child removal that have eroded much of the physical connection between groups and geography in modern Australia" (Tobler et al., 2017, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Tobler, R., Rohrlach, A., Soubrier, J., Bover, P., Llamas, B., Tuke, J., Bean, N., Abdullah-Highfold, A., Agius, S., O'Donoghue, A., O'Loughlin, I., Sutton, P., Zilio, F., Walshe, K., Williams, A. N., Turney, C. S. M., Williams, M., Richards, S. M., Mitchell, ... Cooper, A. (2017). Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia. Nature, 544(7649), 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21416

  • List the first nineteen authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI

Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589.  http://www.jmptonline.org

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.

Online with non-database URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI.

Online from database (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database

Print (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database.

From a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age, p. 11.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year.
  • Include the DOI, if there is one.
  • If there is no DOI, omit the URL for newspaper articles accessed from a database.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbucks … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Online replica of print edition

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, 2–3. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

  • If the article is a digitised replica of a print edition, give the publication date of the print edition and include the page numbers.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online edition

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day, as well as the URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online article on a news website

Avramove, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

  • If the article is accessed from a news website, the title of the article is italicised, whereas the name of the website or media outlet is not.
  • Include the year, month and day, as well as the URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt, 1963).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune,  1, 4–6.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

No author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in Headline Case enclosed by double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 23).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Article title. (Year/Date). Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian, p. 23.

  • Place the title of the article in the author position
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day.

Act of Parliament/Statutes

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources. In Australia, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for legal citation to which we will refer here.  AGLC (4th ed.) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Start with the short title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text.
  • The long title of an Act should only be used if the Act does not have a short title.
  • The year in which the Act was originally passed is considered to be part of the title of the Act and therefore should be included in italics following the title, whether or not the Act includes it in the official short title.
  • Following the title and year, include the abbreviated form of the jurisdiction of the legislation enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth and (Vic) for Victoria.
  • To pinpoint a section or paragraph of an Act, use the abbreviation s or para followed by a space and the number. Other abbreviations are detailed in AGLC 4 section 3.1.4.

By virtue of s 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

According to the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 29 . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title and year of the Act in italics, jurisdiction in brackets and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 110).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s xxx. URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 110

  • The formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally, the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute.
  • Include the URL from which you retrieved the material. (optional; this is not strictly required for legal citations but may aid readers in retrieval)

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

OR

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/PubStatbook.nsf/edfb620cf7503d1aca256da4001b08af/0001F48EE2422A10CA257CB4001D32FB/$FILE/14-026aa%20authorised.pd

Bills

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources.

In Australia the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for legal citation.  AGLC (4th ed) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • The title and year of a Bill should not be italicised (unlike Acts).
  • The year of the Bill is considered to be part of the title and therefore should be included following the title. Following the title and year, include the abbreviated form of the jurisdiction of the legislation enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, and (Vic) for Victoria.
  • To pinpoint a clause or sub-clause of a Bill, use the abbreviation cl or sub-cl followed by a space and the number. Other abbreviations are detailed in AGLC 4 section 3.1.4.

…as detailed in the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83 . . .

According to the Transport Accident Further Amendment Bill 2013 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Bill, year, jurisdiction and clause number(s) (if applicable) enclosed in brackets.

" If a person (the supplier) supplies an amount of eligible 20 upstream fuel to another person (the recipient) who quotes the 21 recipient’s Obligation Transfer Number (OTN) in relation to 22 the supply, the supply will not count towards the supplier’s 23 liability for the financial year" (Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 16).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Title of Bill Year (jurisdiction) cl xxx. URL.

Bills

Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth)

  • Formatting of Bills appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the Bill, followed by the year. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction, e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally, the clause number and sub-clause number if referring to a particular section of the Bill.
  • Include the URL from which you retrieved the material. (optional; this is not strictly required for legal citations but may aid readers in retrieval)

For example:

Environment Legislation Amendment Bill 2013 (Cth). http://www.aph.gov.au

  • It is prudent to note that bills are not law and are rather proposals for law or to change a law. It is usually better to cite the relevant section of legislation in the place of a bill if it is available.

Legal cases

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources.

In Australia the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for re legal citation.  AGLC (4th ed) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para 5).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227.  http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

  • For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.
  • If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add the URL.

Civil law cases

  • If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

  • If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets.
  • Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. See above examples for guidance on using square or round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number. Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Treaties

Referencing of international treaties and conventions is detailed in Section 11 (Legal References) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). The Australian Guide to Legal Citation also deals with international treaties and conventions in AGLC – Part IV

The following examples are based on the information taken from the APA Manual.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Start with the title of the Treaty or Convention, and enclose the Year in brackets. If using the Treaty or Convention name in the sentence, including the Year in brackets.

Children have the right to privacy (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990).

According to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees(1954) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Treaty in italics, the year it entered into force and the article number(s) (if applicable).

" No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990, art 16.1).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Treaty name, full date opened for signature or signed or approval date, and a URL if available.

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, https://www.unhcr.org/5d9ed32b4

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimons, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Narrator) [Audiobook]. Publisher. DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Narr.) [Audiobook]. ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (S. Vance, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Tantor.  http://www.audible.com (Original work published 1837-1839)

  • Treat author, year and title as for the basic book.
  • Add narrator’s name in round brackets with given name initial first, then family name. Add audiobook in square brackets.
  • Give the name of the publisher.
  • If accessed online, give the DOI, if there is one, or the URL.
  • If the audiobook was released in a different year to the original publication date, add in round brackets the year the original work was published.

Podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Give the full date the podcast was produced or uploaded, not just the year.

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29, 3:29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Podcast

Host’s name. (Host). (Date range). Title: Subtitle [Audio/Video podcast]. Publisher (if available). URL

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015–present).  Hidden brain [Audio Podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

  • Give the host’s name, role and dates the podcast has aired
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.
  • If the URL is unknown as the podcast was accessed through an app, omit the URL.

TEMPLATE

Podcast episode

Host’s name. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (Episode number) [Audio/Video podcast episode]. In Program title. Production company. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Host). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war (No. 442) [Audio podcast episode]. In Background briefing. ABC Radio National.  http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give the host’s name, role and exact date produced/uploaded.
  • Give title of episode (no italics) followed by the episode number (if there is one) and the form in square brackets, followed by the title of whole podcast/program in italics.
  • Give the production company and the URL of the item.
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or paid subscription.

Music recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

Singletrack: Modern music

TEMPLATE

Recording artist. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label.

Sinatra, F. (1958). Autumn in New York [Song]. On Come fly with me. Capitol.

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world [Song]. On Armageddon.

Singletrack: Classical music

TEMPLATE

Composer. (Year of Recording). Title of song [Song recorded by Artist]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year)

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staats-kapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

  • Give the name of the recording artist or composer and the year of recording.
  • Give the title of the song followed by Song in square brackets.
  • If it is classical music, after the song title, in square brackets add ‘Song recorded by’ then the recording artist’s name.
  • Give the album title in italics preceded by ‘On’.
  • Give the name of the recording label.
  • For classical music, add original publication year in brackets.

Album: Modern music

TEMPLATE

Recording artist. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label.

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [Album]. Capitol.

Album: Classical music

TEMPLATE

Composer. (Year of Recording). Title of album [Album recorded by Artist]. Label. (Original work published Year)

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

  • Give the name of the recording artist or composer and the year of recording.
  • Give the title of the album in italics, followed by ‘Album’ in square brackets. For classical music, add ‘recorded by’ and the artist’s name after the word album.
  • Give the name of the recording label.
  • For classical music, add original publication year in brackets.

Speech or performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

Paraphrasing

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase … (King,1963).

Direct quote

Follow the same rules as for paraphrasing, but additionally place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared … (Kennedy, 1963, 2:41).

Reference list

Speech

Use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

TEMPLATE

Speaker. (Year, Month Day). Title of speech [Speech audio recording]. Publisher. URL

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

Streaming video from a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the latest research . . . (Cutts, 2017).

Cutts (2017) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"To be truly happy…" (Cutts, 2017, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Format]. Website. URL

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542

BBC World News. (2019, December 21). Meet the maestro: Leo Nucci [Video]. Informit EduTV. https://edutv-informit-com-au /watch-screen.php?videoID=4493898

Catalyst. (2019, October 22). Investigating body dsymorphia [Video]. ABC. https://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/s20-e10-investigating-body-dysmorphia/11564912

  • The person or organisation who uploaded the video is in the place of the author. Include the screen username in square brackets if different from the author’s real name.
  • Give the full date the video was uploaded.
  • Add the title in italics and the format in square brackets.
  • Give the website name you accessed the video from and the full URL.

Television series episode

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TV series 

TEMPLATE

Executive producer’s name/s (Executive Producer). (Year range). Series Title [Form].  Production/Distribution Company.

Gilligan, V. (Executive Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [TV series]. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Use the executive producer as the author.
  • Give the year range the series was broadcast for the date. If the series is still airing, use ‘present’ for the second year.
  • Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets.
  • Give the production company name.

TV series episode or webisode 

TEMPLATE

Writer’s name (Role), & Director’s name (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season and Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producers’ Names (Executive Producers), Title of series. Production/Distribution Company. 

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002, April 21). Application anxiety (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Executive Producers), Gilmore girls. Warner Bros. Television.

  • Give names of episode’s director and writer and their roles, and the exact date the episode was the first broadcast.
  • Give the episode title (no italics) including the episode and series number in brackets.
  • Give the executive producers names and roles, then the series title in italics
  • Give the production company.

Online video

TEMPLATE

Writer’s name (Role), & Director’s name (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season and Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producers’ Names (Executive Producers), Title of series. Production/Distribution Company. URL.

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2013, March 24). The eternity ring (Series 7, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. ITV. http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

  • Follow the same format as for a TV episode but add the URL of the site where you accessed the item.

Video or film (studio production)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the name of the director as the author.

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, 1985, 10:06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Director. (Role). (Year). Title [Film]. Studio.

Zemeckis, R. (Director). (1985). Back to the future [Film]. Universal Pictures.

  • Give the director and the roles.
  • Give the title in italics. Add film in square brackets (no italics). If needed, add more details to the word film after a semi-colon e.g. [Film; educational DVD].
  • Give the name of the studio.
  • However, you accessed the film, reference it as above. There is no need to include a URL even if you watched the film online.

Video games

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the game developer as the author.

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (Obsidian Entertainment, 2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Obsidian Entertainment, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Developer. (Year). Title [Video game]. Publisher. URL

Obsidian Entertainment(2010). Fallout: New Vegas [Video game]. Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give the game developer as the author.
  • Give title (italics), then the description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give the name of publisher, and URL if accessed online.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robonaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a time stamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. Website name. URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video]. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [NASA] (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video]. Youtube. http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is used as the author, even if they did not create the work. Give their real name if available. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).

TED Talk

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Watched on TED website:

Amanda Palmer (2013) used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy.

Watched on YouTube:

Amanda Palmer used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy (TED, 2013).

  • Use the speaker's name in the context of your sentence if necessary.

Direct quote

Watched on TED website:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (Palmer, 2013).

Watched on YouTube:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (TED, 2013).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Watched on TED website:

Speaker. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month). Title [Form]. TED Conferences. URL

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

Watched on YouTube:

TEMPLATE

TED. (Year, Month Day). Speaker: Title [Form]. YouTube. URL

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMj_P_6H69g

  • The author's name is 'TED' in this case because the TED organisation posted the video to YouTube.
  • YouTube shows the date that the video was posted as March 1, 2013, so that's the date to use in this reference.

Web document (pdf)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • If the name of an organisation or government body is long and is well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first in-text citation e.g. (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)
  • In all subsequent in-text citations, give abbreviation only. e.g.  (DET, 2020). Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

The outcomes for early years learning and development ... (Department of Education and Training [DET] & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority [VCAA], 2016).

The Department of Education and Training & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (DET & VCAA, 2016) state that ….

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote from the PDF document.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Document type if required]. Site name. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Department of Education and Training, & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2016). Victorian early years learning and development framework: For all children from birth to eight years. https://www.education.vic.gov.au/documents/childhood/providers/edcare/veyldframework.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. City of Brambuk. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a web page document, include the authors (which may be different from the site hosting it). If no authors are stated then use the company or organisation name.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • When the site name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • Give the name of the corporate author in full (not as an abbreviation or acronym) in the reference list. Include only the specific agency responsible for the publication - do not include the name of parent organisations (e.g. State Government of Victoria) unless you need to avoid ambiguity

Online curriculum resources

Website post or page (general treatment)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • If the name of an organisation or government body is long and is well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first in-text citation e.g. (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)
  • In all subsequent in-text citations, give abbreviation only. e.g.  (DET, 2020). Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

Paraphrasing

According to the World Health Organization (2018) ...

The My Aged Care website offers many support services for aged care including ... (Department of Health, 2018).

The design of the curriculum ... (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.)

According to the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, n.d.) curriculum design should ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers unless they are in PDF format. In this case, use the paragraph number (you will have to count them yourself).
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is not a PDF document.

According to the Department of Health (2018) the services offered by My Aged Care "involve a wide range of people to make sure it meets users’ needs" (para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Site name. URL

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.). English as an additional language (EAL). https://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/english/english-as-an-additional-language-eal/

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en

TEMPLATE WITH RETRIEVAL DATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Site name. Retrieved Month Day, Year from URL

Department of Health. (n.d.). Coronavirus (COVID-19) current situation and case numbers. Retrieved August 13, 2020 from https://www.health.gov.au/news/health-alerts/novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov-health-alert/coronavirus-covid-19-current-situation-and-case-numbers

  • You must include an in-text citation and reference list entry for a website/webpage if you mention specific information from it, whether you are paraphrasing or quoting directly.
  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the page (as displayed on the individual page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of the page. If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If the material is non-routine, add a description of form in square brackets.
  • When the site name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.
  • Give URL of the page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of the home page, whichever is more direct/reliable.
  • Provide a retrieval date for references where the content changes over time, such as for non-archived social media pages.
  • If the content changes over time, use n.d. for the publication date.

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • Give the name of the corporate author in full (not as an abbreviation or acronym) in the reference list. Include only the specific agency responsible for the publication - do not include the name of parent organisations (e.g. State Government of Victoria) unless you need to avoid ambiguity.

Online curriculum resources

REFERRING TO A WEBSITE IN TEXT

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

No reference entry required

  • When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Website

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

If there is no artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference, using the author of the article or book you found the image in.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Below the figure

Print book

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted from/From “Book Title”, by Author, Year, p. xx. Publisher.

Online journal article

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted from/From “Journal Article Title”, by Author, Year, Journal name, Volume(Issue), p. xx. URL or DOI

Rip van winkle stands in front of his cottage. He is old and wearing ragged clothes

Figure 1. Rip returns to his house in ruins by Felix Darley. From "Rip van Winkle", by W. Irving, 1848, p. 31. American Art Union.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink34(2), 101-102. https://www.artlink.com.au

Web page

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

if there is no artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted from/ From Webpage title, by Author, Year, URL

diagram of lungs

Figure 2. Lungs diagram detailed. From Wikimedia, by P. Lynch and C. Jaffe, 2006, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Lungs_diagram_detailed.svg

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Website name. URL

Fidelity. (2016). The world’s largest economies are all in expansion, though at various phases of the business cycle. [Photograph]. Fidelity. https://www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/business-cycle-update-December-2016

  • Also, include the image type in square brackets e.g. [Photograph].

Library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

If there is no author or artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image [Form]. Adapted from/From Database, by Author, Year, URL

nebula

Figure 3. NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula [Photograph]. From Hubblesite, by NASA, ESA and J. Kastner, 2020, https://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hvi/uploads/image/display_image/4680/STScI-H-p2031b-d-1280x720.png

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Database name. URL

The eye [Illustration]. (n.d.). Anatomy TV. http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Illustration].

Creative commons

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

If there is no artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted from/From Creative Commons source, by Author, Year, URL

Figure 4. Classroom tour 3. From Flickr, by K. Cassidy, 2006, https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

REFERENCE LIST

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Website name. URL

Cassidy, K. (2006). Classroom tour 3. [Photograph]. Flickr. https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Photograph].

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

If there is no author or artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

The city of Casey as shown in Figure 4 … (Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012).

The Victorian Electoral Commission (2012) published a very useful map, shown in Figure 4 …

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted from/From Source Name, by Author, Year, URL

old map of victoria

Figure 1. Victoria. From University of Texas Libraries by McCarron, Bird and co., 1916, https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Reference list

Online

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Publisher. DOI/URL

Victorian Electoral Commission. (2016). Electoral structure of Casey City Council  [Map]. Casey City Council. https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/electoral-boundaries/local-councils/casey-city-council

  • Give the author and the year of publication. If the author is the same as the publisher, there is no need to state a publisher before the URL.
  • Then the title of the item (no italics) and add form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Photograph’) in square brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description in the same square brackets as form.

Print

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Publisher.

Timms, P. E. (2006). Colonial settlement in Tasmania. Tiger Press.

  • Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. The title should be in italics. Add the identifying number to the in-text citation: ‘… (Timms, 2006, Figure 2)’.

Visual artwork

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

If you view artwork in person, such as at a gallery or museum visit, you refer to it in the text through a citation and include a reference. No caption is required as you cannot insert the original artwork into your document!

If you do want to include a picture of the artwork in your document, you will need to caption and reference it according to the source you retrieved the reproduction from, such as a book or a website, but include the medium in the reference as well.

In-text citations

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.
  • Use the artist’s name as the author

Figure 3 depicts ….. (Rackham, 1904).

The artwork by Rackham (1904)….

Below the figure

TEMPLATE 

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted from/From Webpage title, by Artist, Year, URL

abstract art

Figure 3. The thundershower (study for painting). From The Smithsonian American Art Museum, by H. Lyman Sayen, 1916, https://www.si.edu/object/thundershower-study-painting:saam_1968.19.6Shape

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium]. Gallery, City, Country: OR URL

Original artwork seen in person

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne, Australia.

  • Give the name of the artist, year artwork was created, the title of artwork (italics), medium (square brackets, no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery you saw the artwork at.

Online reproduction

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne. http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

  • Give the artist, year, title, medium, and URL.

Print reproduction

Bryant, H. (Ed.). (1993). Australian artists. Melbourne, Australia: Larwitt.

Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant, 1993, p. 46)’.

Blog post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvanian student buys WMD ingredients …

A Pennsylvanian student has been buying WMD ingredients … (Daly, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … " (Daly, 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title. Name of blog. URL

Daly, Michael. (2014, January 29). Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon. The Daily Beast. http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

  • If both an author’s real name and username are known, provide the real name of the individual (in inverted format) or group, followed by the username in square brackets. If their real name is unknown, use just their username without brackets.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Facebook post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) is pleased to announce ...

A recent announcement by Coles states that … (Coles Supermarket, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that "Our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …" (Coles Supermarket, 2014, para 1).

Reference list

Facebook post

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Website title. URL

Coles Supermarkets. (2014, January 2). Good news: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved [Facebook post]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

  • If both an author’s real name and username are known, provide the real name of the individual (in inverted format) or group, followed by the username in square brackets. If their real name is unknown, use just their username without brackets.
  • For social media posts, use up to the first 20 words of the post as the title
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • A retrieval date is not needed for posts as the post has a specific date linked to it.

Facebook page

TEMPLATE

Author. (n.d.). Title [Facebook page]. Website title. Retrieved URL

Smithsonian’s National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019 from https://facebook.com/nationalzoo

  • If both an author’s real name and username are known, provide the real name of the individual (in inverted format) or group, followed by the username in square brackets. If their real name is unknown, use just their username without brackets.
  • Use n.d. (no date) if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • The title will be the page title, eg Home, About, Photos
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title, eg Facebook post, Facebook page, infographic.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is needed for whole feeds or pages because the content will change over time.

Forum comment

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that …

Recent criticism leveled at Twitter search functions have … (GeekBoy, 2008, October 9).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …" (GeekBoy, 2009, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Website name. URL

National Aeronautics and Space Administration [nasa]. (2018, September 12). I’m NASA astronaut Scott Tingle. Ask me anything about adjusting to being back on Earth after my first spaceflight! [Online forum post]. Reddit. https://www.reddit.com/r/IAmA/comments/9fagqy/im_nasa_astronaut_scott_tingle_ask_me_anything/

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their exact screen name in square brackets. If their real name is unknown, just give their screen name without brackets.
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • Give up to the first 20 words of the comment as the title.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).

Tweet

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

In a recent Twitter, Barack Obama paid tribute to Aretha Franklin who was well known as the Queen of Soul Obama, 2018).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"In her voice, we could feel our history, all of it and in every shade—our power and our pain, our darkness and our light, our quest for redemption and our hard-won respect" (Obama, 2018, para. 1).

Reference list

Tweet

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Website name. URL

Badlands National Park [@BadlandsNPS]. (2018, February 26). Biologists have identified more than 400 different plant species growing in @BadlandsNPS #DYK #biodiversity [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BadlandsNPS/status/968196500412133379

  • Give the real name of the poster, followed by their exact screen name in square brackets. Use just their screen name without brackets if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • Give up to the first 20 words of the tweet as title (no italics). If there is anything included in the Tweet such as GIFs, images or links, indicate this in square brackets after the title.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post.

Twitter profile

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (n.d.). Title [Form]. Website name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved November 1, 2019, from https://twitter.com/APA_Style

  • Give the real name of the poster, followed by their exact screen name in square brackets. Use just their screen name without brackets if their real name is unknown.
  • Use n.d. (no date) if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • The title will be the tab title, usually Tweets for a Twitter feed.
  • Add the form “Twitter profile” in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is needed for whole feeds because the content will change over time.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robonaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a time stamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. Website name. URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video]. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [NASA] (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video]. Youtube. http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is used as the author, even if they did not create the work. Give their real name if available. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).

TED Talk

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Watched on TED website:

Amanda Palmer (2013) used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy.

Watched on YouTube:

Amanda Palmer used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy (TED, 2013).

  • Use the speaker's name in the context of your sentence if necessary.

Direct quote

Watched on TED website:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (Palmer, 2013).

Watched on YouTube:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (TED, 2013).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Watched on TED website:

Speaker. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month). Title [Form]. TED Conferences. URL

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

Watched on YouTube:

TEMPLATE

TED. (Year, Month Day). Speaker: Title [Form]. YouTube. URL

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMj_P_6H69g

  • The author's name is 'TED' in this case because the TED organisation posted the video to YouTube.
  • YouTube shows the date that the video was posted as March 1, 2013, so that's the date to use in this reference.

Indigenous knowledge

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Terms related to Indigenous Peoples need to be capitalised, such as names of nations or groups (Cherokee, Wurundjeri) and words related to Indigenous culture (Oral Traditions, Traditional Custodian). This demonstrates respect for Indigenous Peoples and perspectives.

RECORDED TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OR ORAL TRADITIONS

The way in which Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples are cited depends on the way the information has been recorded.

  • If the information is recoverable by readers, such as in a book or YouTube video, cite it in the text and include a reference for that type of source.
  • Care must be taken when using older works to make sure that the information about Indigenous Peoples is accurate and appropriate to share, for example, some stories are only told by certain people or at a certain time of year.
  • Collaboration with Indigenous people is recommended to ensure the information is able to be shared and accurately reflect their perspectives. Additionally, Indigenous cultural heritage belongs to Indigenous Peoples, so consideration of copyright and authorship must be taken.

TEMPLATE

Use the appropriate format for the source type, for example:

Whap, G. (2001). A Torres Strait Islander perspective on the concept of Indigenous Knowledge. Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 29(2), 22–29. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1326011100001368

Cool Australia. (2014, July 31). Traditional Knowledge – Cool burning [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YzuV5jsoqGY

UNRECORDED TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OR ORAL TRADITIONS

If the Traditional Knowledge or Oral Traditions have not been recorded and are therefore not recoverable by readers, cite them as personal communications with as much detail as possible. A reference entry is not needed.

If you spoke with an Indigenous person to find information but they were not a research participant, use a variation of the personal communication citation. Provide the person’s

  • Full name
  • Indigenous nation or group they belong to
  • Location
  • Any other relevant details about them
  • Follow with the words ‘personal communication’ and the exact date of correspondence. If communication was over a time period, give a date range.

TEMPLATE (In-text citation only)

Full name, Nation or Group, Location, personal communication, date of correspondence

We spoke with Anna Grant (Haida Nation, lives in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, personal communication, April 2019) about traditional understandings…

  • If you are presenting an Oral History of research participants, use the usual format for quotations but no formal citation or reference entry is needed. Just state in the text that the quote is from a research participant.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian Impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Taylor's (2013) exhibition catalogue presents Australian Impressionists who have recently exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ..." (Taylor, 2013, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Brochure]. Publisher. DOI/URL

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, E. (2013). Australian impressionists in France [Exhibition catalogue]. National Gallery of Victoria.

Brochure (online)

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Brambuk Council. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • Give author and publication year or date as shown on the document. Give title in italics.
  • Add a description in square brackets (no italics) to the title.

Conference papers

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Wenzel (1998) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Films of Fellini have been very popular … (Wenzel, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Fellini's films always drew much attention from …" (Wenzel, 1998, p. 54).

Reference list

Conference presentation

TEMPLATE

Presenter. (Year, Month Days). Title [Form]. Conference name, City, State, Country. URL

Wenzel, B. Q. (1998, June 12-14). Films of Fellini [Conference presentation]. Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, Australia.

  • Give the entire date range of the conference, the title of the paper (italics) and the presentation type in square brackets, followed by the name and location of the meeting.

Conference paper published

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. xx–xx). Publisher OR DOI/URL

Carbone, A., Mitchell, I., Gunstone, D., & Hurst, J. (2002). Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour. In B. Werner (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 533-534). https://doi.org/10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

  • Reference a conference paper published in a collection as an edited book.

Course materials

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material as a reference source**

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, use the following format.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title [Format]. Platform. DOI/URL

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. (2011, February 17). Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare. https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Moodle. https://moodle.federation.edu.au/login/index.php

Print handout (lecture notes)

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture notes]. School of Arts, Central University.

  • Use the platform as the publisher (eg Moodle). If you retrieve content from a classroom website or learning management system (such as Moodle) that you need to log in to access, use the login page for the URL.
  • For paper handouts, use the School or Faculty as the publisher and include the institution name.

Encyclopaedia entry

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source**

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page or paragraph number (if online).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Individual author

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Editor names (Eds.), Title of reference work (Edition information) (pp. xx–xx). Publisher. DOI/URL

Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In E. Smith (Ed.), Science Encyclopedia (5th ed.), (pp. 501–508). Academic Resources.

McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century. Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315062051

Group author

TEMPLATE

Group Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from DOI/URL

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.) Self-report. In Merriam-Webster.com dictionary. Retrieved July 12, 2019, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/self-report

  • Give the author of entry if one is named, otherwise use the entry title.
  • Give the title of the entry (no italics) and the title of the whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give the page and any edition and volume numbers after the title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide the URL of the source (use the permanent link).
  • Include a retrieval date if the content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated). If this is the case use n.d. for the date of publication.

Interview transcript

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal interviews are those you conduct yourself to obtain more information to support a point you are making, such as emailing a professor. In this case, treat as personal communications. 

Research participant interviews are those you conduct yourself as part of your own original research methodology. These do not need to be cited or referenced.

TRANSCRIPT

For published interviews, reference it according to the source you found it in (eg magazine, YouTube). Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications.

RECORDING

For an archived radio interview, use the following format.

In-text citations

Use the name of the person being interviewed in the citation as the author.

Paraphrasing

During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. (Year, Month, Day). Title [Format]. Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong [Interview]. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry. If there is no title, give a description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.

Media release

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Qantas, 2011).

Qantas (2011) announced …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and the paragraph number(s).

"We apologise for the interruption to international flights due to recent industrial action … " (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title [Description]. Publisher. URL

Qantas. (2011, October 29). Response to industrial action [Media release]. http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

MIMS Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Single reference:

... to ameliorate pain (MIMS Australia, n.d.).

Multiple references:

If you have multiple drug references from MIMS Online, reference them using a hyphen and lower-case letter after the n.d. (-a, -b, -c, etc), and in alphabetical order in the reference list:

... might use Advil (MIMS Australia, n.d.-a). Panadol might be used for older children (MIMS Australia, n.d.-b) ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number (count manually) as part of the in-text reference.

Using section name:

Coumadin is “completely absorbed after oral administration with peak concentration generally attained within the first 4 hours” (MIMS Australia, n.d., 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties).

Using paragraph number:

Advil in small children is used for the “temporary relief of pain, discomfort …” (MIMS Australia, n.d., para. 7).

Reference list

Single reference:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Coumadin. MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/FullPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=warfarin&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=3050001_2

Multiple references:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-a). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-b). Panadol (children) 7+ years soluble tablets. MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=panadol&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=41310001_2

  • Put the title (in this case the drug) in sentence case (the first word of the sentence and proper nouns start with a capital letter) and in italics.
  • Follow the specific entry with the site title. (In this case, MIMS Online.)
  • n.d. (no date) is used for online material where the content is updated without notice (no “Updated on [date]”).
  • Use the URL of the specific page (note: URL shorteners are acceptable, if stable)
  • Include the date you looked at the MIMS entry (MIMS Online is being constantly updated, so information might change with time).

Personal communication

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material as a reference source**

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in the surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Class or lecture notes were taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

No reference entry required

E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008  IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008)  IN-TEXT CITATION

Report, government or corporate

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • If the name of an organisation or government body is long and is well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first in-text citation e.g. (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)
  • In all subsequent in-text citations, give abbreviation only. e.g.  (DET, 2020). Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

Paraphrasing

According to the 2016 Defence White Paper, there are … (Department of Defence, 2016).

Outback Windmills are now subject to … (Department of Primary Industries, 2014).

The design of the curriculum ... (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.)

According to the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, n.d.) curriculum design should ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …" (Department of Health, 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Series number). Publisher. DOI/URL

PDF 

Department of Defence. (2016). 2016 Defence white paper. http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

Print

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health 2004 (AIHW Cat. No. AUS 44).

  • When the publisher is the same as the author, omit the publisher to avoid repetition.

Online curriculum resources

Review

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences … (Schembri, 2008).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Croggon (2014) commented that "Private Lives is a play that resonates with many audiences because ..".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. (Year, Month Day). Title of review [Review of the film/ book etc Title of work reviewed, by name of principal contributor, role]. Name of Publication. URL

Film review (print newspaper)

Schembri, J. (2008, November 10). [Review of the motion picture Australia, by B. Luhrmann, Dir.]. The Age, p. 8.

Theatre review (online)

Croggon, A. (2014, January 31). [Review of the play Private lives, by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014]. The Guardian Australia. https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog?page=46

  • Give the author and date of the review.
  • Give the title of the review followed by a description (no italics except for title of work being reviewed) in square brackets. If the review has no title, give a description alone in square brackets.
  • Where the work being reviewed is a book, omit the author’s role after their name.
  • Where the work being reviewed is a live performance e.g. a play, you may include the location and year of the performance to enable the reader to identify the production.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or app

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via Bluetooth technology to a compatible device (WeatherFlow, Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word, Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Developer. (Year). Title (Version number) [Form]. Company. URL

Mobile phone (app)

WeatherFlow. (2017). WeatherFlow (Version 1.5.0) [Mobile app]. Microsoft. http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

Computer software

Microsoft Word. (2019). Microsoft Word (Version 16.0.4639.1000) [Computer software]. Microsoft. https://www.microsoft.com

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give the title of software followed by the version number in round brackets. Add a description in square brackets after the version number. Give the name of the company and DOI/URL if accessed online.

Standards, Australian

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Residential timber framed construction techniques are … (Standards Australia, 2010).

Standards Australia (2010) claims that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames "have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …" (Standards Australia, 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

Print standards

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number).

Standards Australia. (1994).  Information processing - text and office systems - office document architecture (ODA) and interchange format: part 10: formal specifications (AS 3951.10:1994).

  • Provide the title (in italics), followed by the Standard number in round brackets.
  • As the publisher is the same as the author, the publisher field can be omitted to avoid repetition.

Online standards

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number). URL

Standards Australia. (2010). Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). http://www.saiglobal.com

  • Provide the title (in italics), followed by the Standard number in round brackets.
  • Include the homepage URL of the database from which the standard was accessed.

Thesis

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reid (1998) found that dysfunctional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional drivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

Print (Unpublished)

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis [Unpublished master's thesis/doctoral dissertation]. Institution. 

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Melbourne.

Online from a repository

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis [Master's thesis/Doctoral dissertation, Institution]. Name of repository or archive. DOI/URL

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision [Doctoral dissertation, Queensland University of Technology]. QUT ePrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

Online from a library database

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Publication No. #) [Master's thesis/Doctoral dissertation,  Institution Name]. Database name.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics (Publication No. 3738948[Doctoral dissertation, California Institute of Technology]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer.

Australian Harvard is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The in-text citation is made up of the source’s author and year of publication enclosed in round brackets.

For each source identified in the text, you also need to create a matching entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Creating in-text citations

Basic treatment (Australian Harvard)

As explained in the Australian Harvard overview, you need to insert a brief reference into your writing whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Include page numbers when you are quoting a source directly, or if the reference is long (e.g. a book or chapter) and it may be useful for the reader.

(Author Year) or (Author Year, Page)

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins 2013). BASIC AUTHOR AND YEAR

was ‘fully confirmed by these results’ (Jenkins 2013, p. 213).    

PAGE NUMBER FOR QUOTE

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.  AUTHOR IN SENTENCE

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (Grech, M 1994). AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Enclose the author’s surname and year in round brackets without a comma between them.
  • Insert the citation before the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in sentence, give year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • Write the initials and surname in your sentence if you have sources by authors with the same surname. Use their first initial/s in the reference list, as with other authors.

More than one author

2 OR 3 AUTHORS

(Hendricks & Angwin 1975)  OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

(Smith, Hendricks & Angwin 1975) OR Smith, Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

  • Name all authors in all in-text citations.
  • In your text, separate each author by a comma.
  • Join authors with ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

4 OR MORE AUTHORS

(Oakes et al. 1994) OR Oakes et al. (1994) … ALL MENTIONS

  • In your in-text citations, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) in all mentions.
  • Name all authors in the reference list, as given in the source.

Group author (government or organisation)

(Amnesty International 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO] 2013) LONG NAME, FIRST WHO (2009) SUBSEQUENT

  • Give full name of group if you only cite it once in your work, without initials or abbreviations.
  • If you cite the same group source two or more times, include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For subsequent in-text citations, use only initials.
  • Long group names can be abbreviated in the text (optional), but show them in full the first time. Similarly, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name plus the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention.
  • In all later mentions, give the abbreviation only.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put an extra line in your reference list:
    ‘WHO – see World Health Organization’.
  • Use the full group name for all entries in the reference list. Include initials in round brackets only if you used initials in your sentences.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case.
  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

No author (Australian Harvard)

WHOLE TITLE, FIRST MENTION

(Style manual for authors, editors and printers 1996)  OR Style manual for authors, editors and printers (1996)

PART OF TITLE, SUBSEQUENT MENTIONS

(Style manual 1996)     OR  Style manual (1996)

  • Use the title of the work in italics in place of the author.
  • If you only cite a source using the title in place of the author once in your work, use the full title without initials or abbreviations.
  • In second/subsequent citations of the same source, you can give an abbreviation of the title, e.g. the first two to three words. If you use an abbreviated title in your text, add a separate line in your reference list that refers to the full source. For example: ‘Style manual – see Style manual for authors, editors and printers (1996)’.

Page numbers 

BASIC TREATMENT

(Johnson 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett 1998, pp. 55­–63) … (Wong 2012, Figure 3)

  • Page numbers are required for all direct quotes. Page numbers are not required when paraphrasing, however may be included where it would be useful for the reader.
  • Add the page number after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, or ‘pp.’ before a page range, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ to refer to a particular section or item. Indicate non-consecutive pages as (p.23, p.31).

QUOTATIONS

It was described as ‘a stunning victory’ (Harrison 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as ‘a stunning victory’ (p. 15).

  • In direct quotations, use single quotation marks to indicate exact words from the source. Use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote.
  • Short quotes (less than 30 words) are incorporated into your sentence, with the page reference included after the closing quotation mark.
  • If author and year are already part of the sentence, give the page reference alone at the end of the sentence or section.
  • Long quotes (30 words or more) are often referred to as block quotations, and should be separated from your writing with a semi colon, and placed on a new line. Indent the whole quote, use single line-spacing in one size smaller font, without quotation marks. The brackets with page reference details sit outside the full stop.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).

NO PAGE NUMBERS

(Duer, 1974, ‘Introduction’, para. 12).

If no page numbers are shown on the source, you can pinpoint the information by doing one of the following:

  • Give an approximate page number (p.3 or 9; pp. 3-7).
  • Give a paragraph number/s if shown (para. 2).
  • Give a relevant heading or sub-heading from the source, and paragraph number/s (as counted by you).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Multiple references in same parentheses

Studies by Keen (2005); Lee (2004); and Wojk (2003) indicate that…

… along with other studies (Keen 2005; Lee 2004; Wojk 2003).

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • Use ‘et al.’ for a source with four or more authors.
  • All sources must be included in the reference list.

Multiple works by same author in same year

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Matthews (2010a; 2010b) writes for both teenagers and very young children. AUTHOR PROMINENT

A crime committed in Australia is the basis for her first fictional account (Matthews 2010a); while in the second the narrative inches slothfully into adventure (Matthews 2010b). INFORMATION PROMINENT

Direct quote

Mathews' use of dialogue shifts from the idiomatic, 'she jumps a mile and screams' (2010a, p. 47).

Reference list

Matthews, P 2010a, A girl like me, Penguin Books, Camberwell.

Matthews, P 2010b, Zizzy, Omnibus Books, Malvern.

  • Order alphabetically by the next element (title)
  • Add 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year of publication (e.g. 2010a, 2010b, 2010c).

Secondary citation

IN-TEXT CITATION

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters 2012, p. 109).

REFERENCE ENTRY 

Meldrum, K & Peters, J 2012, Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Pearson Australia, Sydney.

  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation).

Creating reference entries

As explained in the Australian Harvard overview, each source that is referred to in the text needs a matching entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic Australian Harvard reference entry is made up of the following parts.

AUTHOR + YEAR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION OR DOI OR URL VIEWED

All the details you need for each part should be found on the source itself. Instructions and examples of how to format each part are given over the page.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.)
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

PUBLISHER
INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • Where e-books are accessed by an e-book reader (e.g. Kindle, Nook, Sony Reader), include the edition and/or version, where relevant.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material has a DOI, but you need to include one whenever it has been assigned.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t need to give the URL or the date viewed.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.

DATE VIEWED and URL

What is the address of the source online, and when did I view it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it. It is only included if the source has no DOI.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the full URL.
  • Do not include the date viewed unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an Australian Harvard reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that almost every part ends with a comma followed by a space. The exceptions are:

  • No punctuation after DOIs and URLs.
  • No punctuation after the author’s initial (only a space).

AUTHOR + YEAR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION OR DOI OR DATE VIEWED and URL

Author

ONE AUTHOR

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

  • Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initial/s of the given name/s.

TWO AUTHORS

Hall, JL & Ashton, BT 2005, A spoonful of valour

  • Name both authors and join second author by ‘&’.

THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

Donat, T, Jenkins, M, Baysch, V, Adamson, E & Farr, P 2010, Shared care…

  • Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

GROUP AUTHOR (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, Australia’s health

  • Give the name of the group in full followed immediately by the year of publication.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case. Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See following for more examples.

Year

BASIC

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

Greendale, N 2006,Road toll rising, The Age, 4 May, p. 13.

  • The year of publication follows the surname and initial.
  • Add month and day after the title for sources with specific publication dates. (Give only year in in-text citation.)

SAME AUTHOR, SAME YEAR

Harris, DW 2001a, Hadrian’s wall

Harris, DW 2001b, Julius Caesar

  • Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.
  • Use the year with the additional letter as normal in the text.

NO YEAR/DATE

Gardiner, IT n.d., Life in rural Australia

  • Use ‘n.d.’, (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source. This is uncommon in academic sources.

Title 

BASIC

Harris, M 1983, The mighty Yarra: rivers of Victoria. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, NB 2001, ‘Method in action’, Journal of Health,PART OF WORK & WHOLE WORK

  • Give the title in italics in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and to any proper nouns.
  • If the source is part of a larger work, such as an article in a journal, place the title of the article in single quote marks, and no italics. Place the name of the journal, or larger work, in italics.
  • Translate the title if relevant, giving the English translation in brackets after the original title and without italics.

NO TITLE

Jensen, PR 1945, [Wartime navy reminiscences], Liberty Press, Brisbane.

  • If no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets. No italics. This is uncommon in academic texts.

Publisher information

Gourley, D 2002, Action man, Bellinger, Chicago.

Temple, P 2009, Truth, Text, Melbourne.

Gull Group 1992, Annual report, Gull Group, Sydney.

Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, A 2000, Building cross-cultural competence: how to create wealth from conflicting values, e-book, Yale University Press, New Haven, http://ebscohost.com

  • Give publisher first, followed by the city of publication. Add further detail if required for clarification, e.g. Cambridge, Mass. or Cambridge, UK.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city. If the publisher is also the author, restate the author or group name.
  • If the source is an e-book, state the digital format (including edition where relevant) after the title (e.g. e-book, Kindle 3G edition, Nook, PDF). Include publication details if supplied, as well as a DOI or URL.

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

doi: 10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

  • Use a DOI when one has been assigned, even for print material. No full stop at the end.
  • Give exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi:’ and add a space before the ‘10’. New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

Date Viewed and URL

…, viewed 5 May 2010, https://www.yourhealth.com.au

  • Introduce URL with ‘viewed’ and the date in the above format.
  • Remove hyperlinks so that there is no underlining or blue lettering (right click on the hyperlink, then click on ‘Remove hyperlink’.
  • Break URLs (if needed) before a punctuation mark or symbol. No full stop at end.
  • Include the date viewed if the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

How to create a reference list

How to set up the list

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the heading ‘References’ and make the heading left-aligned and bold.
  • Use a line break between each reference.
  • Australian Harvard is normally single-spaced, however use double line-spacing for your reference list if your lecturer has specified double-spacing in your assessment guidelines.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every recoverable source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.
  • In entries that include website URLs, remove the hyperlinks so that there is no underlining or blue lettering (right click on the hyperlink, then click on ‘Remove hyperlink’).

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second, etc. (See Hillsdon entries below.)

Example of an Australian Harvard reference list

References

Anderson, TD 1985, Panel data: a primer, Paragon, New York.

Baxter, BH 2005, Models of economic analysis, Wiley, Sydney.

Breen, HP 1977, ‘An empirical test of the impact of managerial self-interest on corporate capital structure’, Journal of Finance, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 271-281.

Chen, JJ 2004, ‘Determinants of capital structure of Swedish companies’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 41-52.

Dorgan, D 1972, Future funds, Penguin, Melbourne.

Friedman, BM 1985, Corporate capital structure in the United States, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hillsdon, M 2002, Statistical analysis primer, Lansdowne, Melbourne.

Hillsdon, M 2004a, Basic econometrics, 4th edn., Hill, Sydney.

Hillsdon, M 2004b, Computational methods. Landsdowne, Melbourne.

Johnson, A & Hanson, S 1995, ‘Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 91-102.

Keen, RP 2004, Strategy, structure and economic performance, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Lee, BL 1982, Credit risk and high yield bonds, Wiley, New York.

Linheiro, J & Bates, DM 2000, Mixed-effects models, Springer, New York.

Nguyen, BV 1994, Swedish economic reform, Griffin Press, Los Angeles.

Basic

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The main characters in Tim Winton's new book met for the first time after Geogie's car broke down … (Winton 2001, p. 64).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Luther suddenly feels spooked after his first encounter with Georgie and asks himself: 'What is this lurching, plunging sensation, this panic …' (Winton 2001, p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # edn, vol. #, Publisher, City.

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

Different edition or multi volume

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

African villages are often … (Goh 1984, p.  132).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lee Goh (1984, p. 5) describes the landscape of Africa as 'extremely variable due to  …'.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # edn, vol. #, Publisher, City.

Goh, L 1984, African voyages, 2nd edn, vol. 2, Greyguides, Montreal.

  • Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).

Edited collection

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Mills and Smith (2001, p. 13) taboo in literature is …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'All the papers in our collection deal with power of breaching taboo and speaking the unspeakable' (Mills & Smith 2001, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # edn, vol. #, Publisher, City.

Mills, A & Smith, J (eds) 2001, Utter silence: voicing the unspeakable, Peter Lang, New York.

  • Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ – note: no full stop for plural abbreviations.

Chapter from edited collection

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Brown (2001, p. 84) states that infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …' (Brown 2001, p.  83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # edn, vol. #, Publisher, City.

Brown, J 2001, ‘Silence, taboo and infectious disease’, in A Mills & J Smith (eds), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable, Peter Lang, New York, pp. 83-91.

  • Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ – note: no full stop for plural abbreviations.

Online or e-book

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars (2000, p. 15) believe that building cross-cultural  competence ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'Building cross-cultural  competence is seen as an essential skill …' (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars 2000,  p 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, digital format, publication details if supplied, DOI/URL

LIBRARY E-BOOK

Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, A 2000, Building cross-cultural competence: how to create wealth from conflicting values, e-book, Yale University Press, New Haven, http://www.ebscohost.com

ACCESSED ON E-READER

Fitzgerald, F S 1925, The great Gatsby, Kindle Edition, available from http://www.amazon.com

E-BOOK WITHOUT DOI

Kirkwood, R & Goldsworthy, S 2013, Fur seals and sea lions, PDF, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Print

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Normoyle (2013, p. 30)  states that nurses are ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'I teamed up with an IT specialist friend and the myShift concept was born' (Normoyle 2013, p. 30).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Normoyle C 2013, ‘Nurses' wellbeing’, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 20, no.10, pp. 30.

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.

Online with DOI

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Krueger and Gray (2013, p. 201) the influenza virus originated in pigs during ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'Influenza-like illness in pigs was first recognised ...' (Krueger & Gray 2013, p. 201).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

PRINT OR ONLINE WITH DOI

Krueger, WS & Gray, GC 2013, ‘Swine influenza virus infections in man’, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 370, pp. 201-225, doi: 10.1007/82_2012_268

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Online with URL

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Moran (2014, p. 68) discusses a new model for teaching rounds in Australia that could benefit ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'A primary aim of teacher education institutions is to create quality courses that effectively prepare preservice teachers (PSTs) for their future career.' (Moran 2014, p. 68).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Moran, W 2014, ‘Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 39, no.3, pp. 68-85, available from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Abstract (non preferred source)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Patients with Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) are at risk of ... (Gray & Bolitho 2003, p. 58).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Gray and Bolitho (2003, p. 58) report on  'a new treatment for Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) which is now available ...'.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, [Abstract], Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Gray, E & Bolitho, AJ 2003, ‘Patients with COAD’, [Abstract], Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, no. 55, p. 58, viewed 26 September 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Basic

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt 1963, p. 1).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …' (Hunt 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Hunt, J 1963, ‘Assassin kills Kennedy’, The Chicago Tribune, 22 November, pp. 1, 4–6.

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).

Separate section

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Rousseau (2008, p. 4) can recommend many restaurants and cafes in Melbourne that serve wonderful African dishes full of exotic spices ..

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

There are 'a bunch of African bakeries and groceries have sprung up in Footscray' that offer ... (Rousseau 2008, p. 4).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Rousseau, N 2008, ‘Arrival of the spice setters’, The Age, Epicure section, 3 June, p. 4.

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Online replica of print edition

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Craig (1968, p. 2) reports on the memorial service held for Prime Minister Harold Holt who was remembered as ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'When Mrs Holt, a small, most dignified figure in black - her face, under the mourning veil showing signs of the terrible strain ...' (Craig 1968, p. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author (Year, Month, Day), ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Craig, B (1968, January 10), ‘Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow’, The Australian Women’s Weekly, 10 January, pp. 2–3, viewed 22 March 2015, http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Online edition

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Rosen (2014) the elderly find it difficult to get a seat at Starbucks because ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'Invariably there are no seats because they are occupied by young people with their laptops and cellphones using the cafe as their private office' (Rosen 2014).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Rosen, L 2014, ‘Occupy Starbucks’, letter to the editor, The New York Times, 22 January, viewed 14 May 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Civil law cases

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In a case that involves a long-running dispute over ... (Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72, para. 5).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

Hungry Jacks argued that Burger King 'must act reasonably in exercising its powers under the Development Agreement; and that there was an implied obligation  ...' (Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187, para 141).

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year). Volume. Law report. Page number.

Plaintiff v Defendant [Year]. Series (if present). Law report. Page number.

CIVIL LAW CASES

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (stands for ‘and’ or ‘against’), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), the year the case was reported, is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Statutes

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s. 124(1) outlines the powers that a company has in regards to ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

Section 1 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) outlines the purpose of this Act: 'The object of this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection' (2).

Reference list

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s. 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

TEMPLATE

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in Italics, followed by the year the statute was passed. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the parliament which passed the Act, and finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute.

Audio book or recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

FitzSimons (2011)  believes that 'the history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …' (min. 4.50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, Reader, Format, Label, City OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P 2011, Kokoda, L FitzGerald, reader, CD, ABC Audio, Sydney.

ONLINE

Dickens, C 2013, Oliver Twist, P Batchelor, reader, audio file, available from http://www.audible.com

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add reader’s name, and recording format.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give name and place of record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details (‘viewed [date], URL); use ‘available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen 2013).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, sec. 0.20)  stated that due to the recent 'supermarket war many small farmers are suffering … '.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor (role) Year, ‘Episode title’, Program title, form, viewed date, DOI/URL

Cohen, H (presenter) 2013, ‘Casualties in the supermarket war’, Background Briefing, audio podcast, viewed 29 December, available from https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/

  • Give the date viewed and URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription, login, or search.

Music recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches on a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Won't let the big bad world get you no way' (Sebastian 2012, sec. 0:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer Year, ‘Title of song’ recorded by Artist Name, on Title of album, form, Label, City OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

SINGLE TRACK (LP)

Duke, V 1934, ‘Autumn in New York’, recorded by F. Sinatra, on Come fly with me, vinyl recording, Capitol, Los Angeles. (1958)

SINGLE TRACK (ONLINE)

Sebastian, G 2012, ‘Big bad world’, on Armageddon, MP3, available from http://store.apple.com/au

ALBUM (CD)

Perry, K 2013, Prism, CD, Capitol, Los Angeles.

Performance

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Seinfeld and Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'I'm telling you for the last time don't ...' (Seinfeld & Callner 1998, min. 20:15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer (role) Year Title, by Author, format, date, label/company, City, viewed date OR DOI/URL

PERFORMANCE (CD) 

Seinfeld, J (performer) & Callner, M (director) 1998, I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway, CD, performance recorded August 9, 1998, Universal, Los Angeles.

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES: These are not recoverable so they are not included in the reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add any identifying details not already in the surrounding sentence in round brackets (e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …’
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add original recording date if different or more specific than publication date.
  • PERFORMER role in this context could be director, choreographer, performer, etc.
  • FORMAT in this context could be theatre performance, dance performance, concert performance, etc.

Speech

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase 'I have a dream' … (King 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared …' (Kennedy 1963, June 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer (role) Year Title, by Author, format, date, label/company, City, viewed date OR DOI/URL

SPEECH RECORDING (VINYL)

Churchill, W (speech) 1964, ‘In a solemn hour’, on Winston Churchill: A selection from his famous wartime speeches, vinyl recording, recorded 19 May, 1940, Decca, London.

SPEECH RECORDING (ONLINE VIDEO)

Kennedy, J. F (speech) 1963, Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner), video file, 26 June, viewed 12 April 2015, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

SPEECH RECORDING (ONLINE AUDIO)

King, M. L. Jr (speech) 1963, I have a dream, audio file, 28 August, viewed 25 March 2014, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/

Television/radio news or current affairs broadcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

WIN News (2013) reported that recent council elections ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Councillor Julie Smith stated that: 'I am pleased to represent Alfredton residents. Over the next twelve months I aim to ...' (WIN News 2013, min. 13.15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, description, Broadcast Station, City, broadcast date OR viewed date, URL (if from an online source).

TELEVISION BROADCAST

WIN news 2013, television broadcast, WIN Television, Ballarat, viewed 12 November.

RADIO BROADCAST

Sunday profile 2009, radio broadcast, ABC Local Radio, Melbourne, viewed 18 August.

Television series episode

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Sherman-Palladino and Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Loralai, how is your anxiety today?' (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso 2002, min. 9.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor (role) Year, ‘Episode number OR title’, Title of series, Form, Production/Distribution Company, broadcast date OR DOI/URL.

TELEVISION BROADCAST

Sherman-Palladino, A (writer) & Mancuso, G (director) 2002, ‘Application anxiety’, Gilmore girls, television series episode, Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

ONLINE VIDEO

Horowitz, A (writer) & Orme, S. (director) 2014, ‘The eternity ring’, Foyle’s war, television series video file, ABC TV, viewed 9 February 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

DVD (SINGLE EPISODE)

Gilligan, V (writer) & MacLaren, M (director) 2012, ‘Madrigal’, Breaking bad, television series episode, DVD, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, California.

DVD (WHOLE SERIES)

Gilligan, V (producer) 2008-2013, Breaking bad, television series, DVD, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, California.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles in brackets, as the author. Give the name of the producer when referencing an entire series.
  • The episode title appears in single quote marks, no italics. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options. Give the series title (in italics) and form.
  • BROADCAST: Give station and broadcast date.
  • ONLINE: Give URL of site where you viewed item.
  • DVD: Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).

Video or film (studio production)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?' (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg 1985, min. 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, form, Distributor/Studio, Country, credits and other information.

FILM

Back to the future 1985, motion picture, Universal Pictures, United States, R Zemeckis (writer/director), R Gale (writer) & S Spielberg.

DVD/BLU-RAY RELEASE

Man of steel 2013, Blu-ray, Warner Bros., United States, Z Snyder (director) & DS Goyer (writer).

DVD/BLU-RAY RE-ISSUE

Vertigo 2003, DVD, Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958, United States, A Hitchcock (producer/director).

ONLINE

Argo 2012, video file, B Affleck (director), C Terrio (writer) & G Clooney (producer), available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give title in italics. Add form of version accessed (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of original release.
  • Give place and name of studio or, if accessed online, give URL of site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘viewed’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.
  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, producer, and/or starring actors) and their roles if the information is useful. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options.

Video game

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Ulysses cried out: 'Who are you, that you do not know your history?' (Fallout: New Vegas 2010, min. 13.05).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, form, video game, Publisher, Place.

Fallout: New Vegas 2010, CD-ROM, video game, Rockville, Maryland, Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title in italics, then year of production (no italics).
  • Give form and description. Give name and place of producer, or URL if accessed online.

Video post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A video on BuzzFeedVideo (2016) shows some hilarious video people are trying to walk their cats on a lead.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'I have tried so many times to walk mt cat on a lead but ...' (BuzzFeedVideo 2016, min. 3.05).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster (screen name) year, Title, form, date of posting, site authority, viewed date, URL

BuzzFeedVideo 2016, People try to walk their cats, video file, 12 April, YouTube, viewed 28 June 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9C1leq--_wM

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2014, Robonaut supports telemedicine advances, video file, viewed 17 January, YouTube, viewed 30 February 2015, http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

** Also, see examples in: Lecture or class material - Online lecture;  Speech - Speech recording (online video) 

  • Give name of poster (real name plus screen name, or just screen name if real name is unknown).
  • Give year of posting. Give title in italics, followed by form (no italics), and date of posting (if available), followed by the overall site owner or authority.
  • Give URL of individual post (archived URL if available—click date stamp to access).

Website document (PDF)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In Federation University Australia's (2016, p. 3) annual report for 2015 the Vice Chancellor summarises ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

'Over the past 12 months there have been many highlights including ...' (Federation University Australia 2016, p. 3).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, date viewed, DOI or URL

Federation University Australia 2016, Annual report 2015, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, viewed 30 February 2016, https://federation.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/297610/FedUni_AnnualReport_2015.pdf

Phillips, A, Bohning, G, Allan, C & Edwards, G 2006, Agnote: the European rabbit - pastoral pest, leaflet, Northern Territory Government, viewed 30 February 2015, http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Anim_Man/437.pdf

  • Give the author and year shown on the document (which may be different from the site hosting it).
  • Give the title in italics. Give the form if useful.
  • Give the source sponsor or provider, and location, if supplied.
  • Give the date viewed and the full URL (without a full stop at the end).

Website post or page (general treatment)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Wilcken (2011) claims that jogging can trigger osteoarthritis due to the ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

'The link between jogging and osteoarthritis in older people has been investigated recently with ...' (Wilcken 2011).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year/Date, Title, (form, if needed) Date viewed, URL

Department of Health and Ageing 2009, Aged care, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, viewed 27 December 2009, http://www.yourhealth.gov.au/

Wilcken, H 2011, Does jogging up the risk of knee osteoarthritis?, 27 June, Medical Observer, viewed 31 June 2016,  http://www.medicalobserver.com.au/medical-news/does-jogging-up-the-risk-of-knee-osteoarthritis

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year posted or updated.
  • Give the title of post/page in italics. If material is non-routine, add description of form.
  • Give the specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page).
  • Give the source sponsor or provider, and location, if supplied. Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of home page, whichever is more direct/reliable. Give date viewed even if post/page has a specific date.

Website

In-text citations

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is …  IN-TEXT ONLY

Reference list

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

  • When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Map, chart, illustration, figure, image

In-text citations

Details of Victorian towns are clearly marked on the attached map (McCarron, Bird and co. 1916, Figure 1).

Figure layout

Fig. 1. Victoria (McCarron, Bird and co. 1916).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, Form, DOI OR publisher, place OR viewed date, URL

ONLINE

Victorian Electoral Commission 2012, City of Casey: Local council boundaries, map, viewed 22 July 2015, https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

PRINT

Timms, PE 2006, Colonial settlement in Tasmania, Tiger Press, Hobart.

  • ONLINE: Give author/poster and the year of publication. Give title of the item (in italics). Add form (e.g., ‘map’, ‘photograph’) without brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description (no italics).
  • Give either DOI or publishing details. If no DOI and online, give viewed date and URL.
  • PRINT: Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: ‘… (Timms, 2006, Figure 2)’.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. the VEC for the Victorian Electoral Commission, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Visual artwork

If you view artwork in person, cite and reference it in the following way.

In-text citations

Brack's (1955) painting 'The Fish Shop' is painted with oils ...

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist Year, Title of artwork, medium, Gallery, City, date viewed. OR DOI/URL

ORIGINAL ARTWORK

Brack, J 1955, The fish shop, oil on composition board, Museum of Modern Art Melbourne, Australia.

If you view an artwork online, reference it in the following way. If you also reproduce the artwork in your work, follow the example below to caption it as well.

Figure layout

Fig. 1. The thundershower (Sayen 1916).

ONLINE REPRODUCTION

Brack, J 1955, The fish shop, digital image of painting, National Gallery of Victoria, viewed 26 March 2015, http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

PRINT REPRODUCTION

Bryant, H (ed.) 1993, Australian artists, Larwitt, Melbourne, Australia.

  • ORIGINAL: Give name of artist, year artwork was created, title of artwork (italics), medium, (no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery.
  • ONLINE REPRODUCTION: Give artist, year, title, medium, and DOI/URL.
  • PRINT REPRODUCTION: Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant 1993, p. 46)’.

Personal photographs

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED  

Personal photograph taken by yourself

In-text

While touring the Netherlands recently I visited the De Adriaan (Figure 1) which  ...

Fig. 1 De Adriaan Windmill, Haarlem, Netherlands, 26 July 2019 (pers. photo.).

  • Do refer the reader to the photograph.
  • Provide a citation under the photograph.
  • Personal photographs are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list.

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

Personal photograph taken by someone else

In-Text

The Netherlands is a country full of canals, for example, in Amsterdam (Figure 2) there seems to be one on every corner.

Fig. 2 One of the many canals in Amsterdam, Netherlands, 28 July 2019 (copyright permission of P Johnson, pers. photo.).

  • Do refer the reader to the photograph.
  • Provide a caption under the photograph, and identify the photographer after seeking approval to use the photograph.
  • Personal photographs are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list.

Forum comment

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008) reports that  …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …' (GeekBoy 2008,  para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name], Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

GeekBoy 2008, ‘Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search?’, online forum comment, 9 October, viewed 24 September 2011,  http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics). Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Tweet

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ...' (West 2013, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name] Year, ‘Title’, form, viewed date, URL

West, K [kanyewest] 2013, ‘Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future’, tweet, 9 December, viewed 19 February 2014, https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Facebook post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) are pleased to announce ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that 'our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …' (Coles Supermarkets 2014, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name] Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

Coles Supermarkets 2014, ‘Good news: in another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved’, Facebook post, 2 January, viewed 23 February 2014,  https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Blog post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvanian student buys WMD ingredients …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … ' (Daly 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name] Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

Daly, M 2014, ‘Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon’, blog post, 29 January, viewed 13 March 2014, http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Brochure, pamphlet or catalogue

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Taylor's (2013, p. 1) exhibition catalogue presents Australian  impressionists who have recently  exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ...' (Taylor 2013, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author, Year, Title, brochure type, DOI OR Publisher, City OR viewed date, URL

EXHIBITION CATALOGUE (PRINT)

Taylor, E 2013, Australian impressionists in France, exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

BROCHURE (ONLINE)

Parks Victoria 2004, Fire ecology in the Grampians, brochure, viewed 9 May 2015, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Wenzel (1998, June, p. 8) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Fellini's films always drew much attention from …' (Wenzel 1998, June, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Presenter Year, Title, paper presented at Meeting Name, place, date(s) and month of conference.

Wenzel, BQ 1998, Films of Fellini, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, 7-8 December.

  • Give name of presenter, year of conference, title of paper (italics), followed by name of conference or meeting, the location and date/s.

Conference paper published in proceedings

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Carbone, A, Mitchell, I, Gunstone, D & Hurst, J (2002, p. 26) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour …' (Carbone, A, Mitchell I, Gunstone, D, & Hurst, J 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Title of paper’, Title of proceedings of Conference Name, Date of conference (if available), City, Publisher, pp. xx–xx OR DOI/URL

PAPER IN PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS (ONLINE)

Carbone, A, Mitchell, I, Gunstone, D & Hurst, J 2002, ‘Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour’, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, pp. 533-534, doi: 10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

PAPER IN PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS (PRINT)

Murphy, C 2004, ‘Job design and leadership’, Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association, CQU, Rockhampton, pp. 1-13.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, title of paper (no italics) and title of proceedings (italics).
  • Use initial capitals for conference name in title.
  • Add the date of the conference, publication information and page range OR page range and DOI. Give viewed date, URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Encyclopedia entry

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed 2003, p. 502).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Recent discoveries of black holes …' (Reed 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Title of entry’, Editor (ed.), Title of reference work, Publisher, City. OR DOI/URL.

PRINT

Reed, DL 2003, ‘Black holes’, Science Encyclopedia, 5th edn, Academic Resources, New York.

E-BOOK

McColl, G 2014, ‘Abba’, L Stacy & L Henderson (eds), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century, Kindle version, available from http://www.amazon.com/

ONLINE

‘Watergate scandal’, 2009, Encyclopaedia Britannica online, viewed 7 March 2015, http://www.britannica.com/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Give any edition and volume numbers after title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide URL of item (use the permanent link).
  • Include date viewed if content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Government documents

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the Department of Health (2014, p. 6) breastfed babies are thought to  ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …' (Department of Health 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Dependent on source

PDF DOCUMENT

Department of Defence 2016, 2016 Defence white paper, Department of Defence, Canberra, viewed 28 June 2016, http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

PRINTED FACT SHEET

Department of Education & Training 2015, Resources for inclusion, fact sheet, The State of Victoria, Melbourne.

WEB PAGE

Department of Health 2014, Breastfeeding, May 27, Department of Health, Canberra, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-brfeed-index.htm

PRINT DOCUMENT

Department of Primary Industries 2014, Windmills in the outback, report prepared by A Smith & B Jones, DPI, Sydney.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using a fact sheet as a reference source. These are usually not acceptable as academic sources unless as objects of research.

  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. the ADF for the Australian Defence Force, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Interview

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong 2001, September 19, p. 5).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'When we finally landed on the moon …' (Armstrong 2001, September 19,  p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee Date, Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer), transcript, Publisher. OR DOI/URL

ONLINE (TRANSCRIPT)

Armstrong, NA 2001, September 19, An interview with Neil Armstrong (SE Ambrose, Interviewer), transcript, Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, viewed 16 July 2014, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications (see example in Other sources - Personal communication).
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give description in square brackets. Give form where needed, and the date of the interview if provided.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Lecture or class material

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Hull and Drennon (2011, February 17) Plants lose 95% of their moisture through the stomata spore ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.

A stomata is "a microscopic spore in the epidermis of a plants" (Hull & Drennon 2011, February 17).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year/Date, Title, format, other identifying detail OR DOI/URL

ONLINE DOCUMENT/FILE

Hull, B & Drennon, D  2011, February 17, Stomata density, PowerPoint slides, online course materials, February 17, 2011, SlideShare, available from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

ONLINE LECTURE

Lucas, J 2012, September 4, Drought tolerant plants: Introductory lecture, video file, online course materials, viewed 30 February 2016, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v6GNvGWIL5

PRINT HANDOUT

Huang, L 2012, March 5, The cost of retribution, lecture handout, Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including lecture/class material in the reference list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.

Media release

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Qantas 2011, October 29 ).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number(s).

'We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … ' (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Date, Title, description, Publisher, City OR DOI/URL

Qantas 2011, October 29, Response to industrial action, media release, viewed 30 July 2012, http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

Personal communication

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED  

(E Jensen 2008, pers. comm., 7 June) IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (2008, Festival Theatre, 6 May) IN-TEXT CITATION

Personal communications (pers. comm.) are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Class/lecture notes taken by yourself/other students, and material accessible only to enrolled students.

Report, government or corporate

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2004) the nation's health is slowly ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Average Australian's are generally not aware that a health diet can ...' (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, p. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, Series number, Publisher, City. OR DOI/URL

PRINT

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, Australia’s health 2004, AIHW cat. no. AUS 44, AIHW, Canberra.

ONLINE

City of Ballarat 2011, Annual report, viewed 26 August 2012, http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

  • Give title of report in italics.
  • Add any series name or number, no italics, after report title.
  • If published by the same institution and an unambiguous abbreviation is used for the institution, use the abbreviation for publisher name. Otherwise, repeat the full institution name.
  • If accessed online, add DOI or URL in place of publisher name and location.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. AIHW for Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Review

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008, p. 8) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences …' (Schembri 2008, p. 8).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer Year, ‘Title of review’, review of Work reviewed by  name (and role) of principal contributor, Date of production/release. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

FILM REVIEW (PRINT NEWSPAPER)

Schembri, J 2008, review of the motion picture Australia by B. Luhrmann (director), 2008, The Age, 10 November, p. 8.

THEATRE REVIEW (ONLINE)

Croggon, A 2014, review of the play Private lives by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014, The Guardian Australia, 31 January, viewed 4 April 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/

  • Give author and year of review.
  • Give title of review in single quote marks followed by description (no italics except for title of work reviewed). If review has no title, give description alone. Give name and role of principal contributor to work reviewed.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Standards, Australian

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Residential timber framed construction  techniques are … (Standards Australia 2010, p. 6).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames 'have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …' (Standards Australia 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Standard title, standard number, Publisher, Location.

Standards Australia 2010, Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010), Standards Australia, Sydney.

Thesis

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reid (1998, p. 56) found that dysfunctional drivers ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Dysfunctional rivers have caused chaos on most major freeways …' (Reid 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author year, Title of thesis, description, Institution, Location. OR DOI/URL 

PRINT (UNPUBLISHED)

Reid, JM 1998, ‘A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours’, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.

ONLINE

Ryan, DA 2013, ‘Crowd monitoring using computer vision’, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, viewed 31 January 2014, http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

Software or app

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges 'certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems' (Microsoft Word Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, Version number, form, Company, City, State, DOI/URL

MOBILE PHONE APP

Weather Flow 2014, Version 1.5.0, mobile phone application, http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Dolphin 2013, Version 4.0.2, computer software, https://dolphin-emu.org/

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give title of software (in italics) followed by year (no italics) and version number. Add description after version number. Give name and place of company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the following resources to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples:

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., 2010)

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed., 2013) by Kate L. Turabian

Overview of Chicago/Turabian full note citation style

This guide describes the basic features and gives examples of Turabian and Chicago full note citation styles. (Each style also has an author-date version not covered here.) Chicago and Turabian styles follow the notes-bibliography system, which involves citing sources in footnotes (or endnotes) and then presenting a list of the cited sources in a bibliography at the end of your work. Turabian style is based on and largely mirrors Chicago style, with some minor differences. To avoid repetition, separate explanations and examples have been given in this guide only when there is a difference in treatment.

Footnotes

Footnotes are created by inserting a superscript reference number (i.e., smaller and above the line) in your writing directly after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) containing the words or information you are citing. The reference number directs the reader to the corresponding footnote, which should contain the bibliographic details of the source.

Numbering and formatting of footnotes is an automatic function in most word-processing programs via the insert footnote command. Notes are normally set one or two points smaller than the general text, and the footnote number is followed by a full stop and a space before the bibliographic details, as in the examples below. Refer to the general rules and punctuation section for more detailed information.

Bibliography

The bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the sources cited. It should begin on a separate page at the end of your paper and provide enough identifying details to allow the source to be located by someone else. Refer to the general rules and punctuation sections following for more detail.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - Chicago

Creating full note citations

Creating the footnote

Insert the footnote number immediately after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) where you have used the source. The first time you cite a source, the corresponding footnote should contain the full source information.

  1. First name Surname, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page reference.
  2. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.

Basic full footnote in Chicago/Turabian note style

  • Use the author’s full name in standard order, i.e. first name followed by surname.
  • Set titles of larger works (e.g. books and journals) in italics, and capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose titles of smaller works (e.g. chapters, articles), parts of works, or unpublished sources in double quotation marks without italics.
  • Enclose publication details in parentheses (round brackets). If the city is likely to be unknown to the reader or confused with another city of the same name, add the state (abbreviated) or country.
  • Add the page number or range (or figure or table number) when quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source. Use of ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ before the page number is not necessary. If the source shows no page numbers, give paragraph number/s or closest heading.
  • Separate the elements with a comma, and end the note with a full stop.
  • Use abbreviations such as ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’ (for editor/edited by), ‘trans.’ (translator/translated by), ‘vol.’ (volume), ed. (edition), ‘pt.’ (part) and rev. (revised, revised by, revision and review).

Repeating citations by using ibid. or shortening

Once you have provided a full citation, subsequent citations for the same source can be repeated by either using ‘ibid.’ if the notes are consecutive, or shortening the note if there are notes intervening.

How to use ‘ibid.’ to repeat notes

  • If a citation directly follows a citation for the same work, use ‘ibid.’ (abbreviation of Latin ‘ibidem’ meaning ‘in the same place’) to stand for repeated parts. Add page numbers if these are different.
  • Use a capital letter to begin ‘ibid.’ if it begins the note.
  • Do not use ibid. if the immediately preceding note contains more than one citation.

How to shorten repeated notes

If there are intervening notes between a repeated citation, shorten the note as follows.

  • Give author’s last name only (add first name or initial/s to differentiate if citing authors with the same last name) and omit any abbreviations (e.g., ed. or trans.) used in the full reference. Use the accepted abbreviation for organisation names and include the abbreviation in the first mention.
  • Shorten titles of over four words by omitting ‘A’ or ‘The’, and selecting key words. Preserve the same word order and format (italics or quotations marks) as in the full title.
  1. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.
  2. Ibid., 34–36.  ‘IBID.’ STANDS FOR REPEATED PART OF IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING NOTE
  3. Tom Edgerson, Drama Therapy (Melbourne: Harrap, 2011), 19.
  4. Gleeson, Medical Experience, 86. SHORTENED REPEATED NOTE (NON-CONSECUTIVE)

Author variations

In each section of this guide, you will see examples of shortened notes for each category of source type.

Author variations

Full note

ONE AUTHOR

1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, …

TWO AUTHORS

2. Hazel Smith and R. T. Dean, …

THREE AUTHORS

3. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Jit Kanwar, …

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

4. Jane Medwell et al., …

GROUP AUTHOR (ORGANISATION OR GOVERNMENT)

5. World Health Organization [WHO], …

BASIC

  • Present the author’s name as it appears on the source.
  • In the note, present the name in normal order;   i.e., First name (and/or initials) Surname.
  • In the bibliography, present the name in reverse order; i.e., Surname, First name (and/or initials).

MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR

  • Two or three authors: Name all authors in the note and bibliography. Join the last author by ‘and’.
  • Four or more authors: In the note, name first author only followed by ‘et al.’. Name all in bibliography.
  • In the bibliography, present the first author’s name in reverse order; present co-authors’ names in normal order.

GROUP AUTHOR

  • If  there is no personal author credited, give the group as the author (even if it is also the publisher).
  • Give the name in full in the first note and in a bibliography entry.
  • Use the accepted abbreviation (include in the first full note) in all subsequent notes if the group has a long name.

Multiple sources in the same note

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Two interesting novels spring to mind ...1

Direct quote

"Now Mr Gatsby do you think I could ..."3

Full note

1. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms (New York: Scribner, 2012); F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003).

Subsequent note

2. Hemingway, Farewell to Arms, 58.

3. Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby, 82.

Bibliography

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner, 2012.

  • Group multiple sources that support a single point into one note and separate by a semicolon.
  • If you have named the sources in your writing, list them in the same order in the note.
  • Do not use ‘ibid.’ to repeat a source if an immediately preceding note containing multiple sources.

Multiple works by same author in same year

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Cultural insights can be found in ...1

Celebrations in certain cultures ...3

Full note

1. Jeremy Smith. “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies 30, no. 3 (2009): 236, accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/07256860903003559. Jeremy Smith. “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations.” Atlantic Studies 6, no. 1 (2009): 74-75, accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/14788810902731984.

Subsequent notes

3. Smith, “Civilisational Analysis", 240. Smith, "Outside and Against", 69.

Bibliography

  • In the bibliography, use a long dash (or three hyphens) to stand for a repeated author name.

Smith, Jeremy “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 233-248. Accessed June 28, 2018. doi: 10.1080/07256860903003559.

--- “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations.” Atlantic Studies, 6, no. 1 (2009): 63-80. Accessed June 28, 2018. doi: 10.1080/14788810902731984.

No date and/or place of publication

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The vicar had been based in Wakefield for many years when ...2

Direct quote

"I have been in the parish of Wakefield for many years now and recently ..."4

Full note

DATE AND/OR PLACE UNKNOWN

1. Edith M. Harrison, Pacific Travels (n.p.: Collins, n.d.), 56.

PUBLISHER UNKNOWN

2. Oliver Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield (Salisbury, 1766).

Subsequent notes

3. Harrison, Pacific Travels, 82.

4. Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, 16–22.

Bibliography

Goldsmith, Oliver. The Vicar of Wakefield. Salisbury, 1766.

Harrison, Edith M. Pacific Travels. N.p.: Collins, n.d.

  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘n.p.’ (for ‘no place’) in the note and ‘n.p.’ in the bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.
  • If the date is unknown, use ‘n.d.’ (for ‘no date’).

Secondary citation

If you are using words or ideas from a source that you found quoted or cited in another (secondary) source, you must identify both of the sources.

  • Give one entry that includes both sources.
  • Begin the entry with the original source and add 'cited in' or 'quoted in' (as relevant) in front of the full details for the secondary source.

Full note

1. Fiona Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia,” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58, quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum (Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012), 109.

Subsequent notes

3. Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism.”

Bibliography

Hilferty, Fiona. “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia.” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58. Quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum, Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012.

Creating a bibliography

Looking at the elements

Each source cited in a footnote needs a corresponding entry in the bibliography. This entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else.

In Chicago/Turabian style, the bibliography entry and the full footnote contain the same information, with minor formatting differences.

A basic Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry is made up of the following elements:

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR+ ACCESS DATE + URL or DOI

AUTHORS

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work   (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include both titles.

PUBLISHER INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher of the version you used and their location (city). You need to include this for print books and physical media. You don’t need it for journals and newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.
  • For online sources, this is the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document) or the date of posting   (for a post).

ACCESS DATE

If I accessed this source online, when did I do this?

  • This tells your reader the date you accessed an online source.
  • Include an access date for all sources accessed online unless you are instructed otherwise by your teacher or lecturer.

URL or DOI

If I accessed this source online, what is its Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

If there is no DOI, what is the address of the source one?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material will have a DOI, but you need to include it if one has been assigned.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • If there is no DOI, include a URL.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise, give the full URL.
 

Creating the bibliography entry

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of a Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry. Note that every part ends with a full stop, and there is a space after each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR + ACCESS DATE + URL OR DOI

Author

Hall, Jane. L., and Brian. T. Ashton. A Spoonful of Valour

Smith, Gina, Terry L. Ferris, and Erin Henderson. Rainfall

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. …

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.
  • Name all authors if there are more than one. Invert the first author’s name only.
  • For more detail on author treatment, see the example section.

Title

Harris, Miles. The Mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. …

Irwell, Maria. “Reimagining Dadaism.” Journal of Abstract Art …

Jensen, Paul. R. Wartime Navy Reminiscences

  • Give the title in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work.
  • Enclose parts of works in quotation marks and set larger work in italics.
  • Give initial capitals to the first, last and principal words of the title and the subtitle.
  • Separate title and any subtitle by a colon.
  • If no title is shown, give a brief descriptive title, using no italics or quotation marks.

Publisher information

Gourley, Dianne. Action Man. Chicago: Bellinger, 2002.

  • Give the city and name of the publisher. Add state (initials) or country if extra identification is needed.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘N.p.’ (for ‘No place’) in the bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.

Year

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Gardiner, Ian T. Life in Rural Australia. Adelaide: Phoenix, n.d.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

  • Add year after publisher details for books, or in parentheses after issue number for journals.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates (newspapers, magazines).
  • Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Access date

  • Turabian style requires an access date for all sources accessed online, whereas Chicago suggests inclusion only if the content is likely to change. Because it may be difficult to judge if the content is static, and because your teacher or lecturer may require you to provide access dates for all such sources, the examples in this guide include access dates for both styles.
  • Give the date of access before URL or DOI.
  • Note that access dates are not necessary for sources that are electronically published and downloaded in a dedicated e-book format (e.g., Kindle).
  • If you are unsure whether or not to include access dates for particular online sources, seek advice from your teacher or lecturer for their preference.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

URL/DOI

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed June 12, 2014. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

  • Give the DOI, when one has been assigned, exactly as found on the source.
  • If DOI is in the old format (beginning with ‘10’), introduce it by ‘doi:’.
  • New format DOIs beginning with ‘http’ don’t need ‘doi:’ added in front.
  • If no DOI, give the URL. Break the URL/DOI (if needed) before a single slash or punctuation mark.

How to present a bibliography

How to set up the bibliography

  • Begin the list with the heading ‘Bibliography’ on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken across a line, break before a single slash or punctuation mark.

What to include

Unless advised otherwise by your teacher or lecturer:

  • Include an entry for every source you have cited in a note.
  • Do not include entries for sources you have not cited, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • Alphabetise entries by author’s last name (which begins the entry).
  • Use a long dash (or three hyphens) to stand for a repeated author name.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list alphabetically by title.

Example of a Chicago/Turabian bibliography

Basic

C

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Travelling through Italy, India and Indonesia provided Elizabeth Gilbert with ... 1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As I travelled through Italy ..."5

Full note

1. Elizabeth Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia (New York: Viking, 2006), 22.

Subsequent notes

5. Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love, 59.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia. New York: Viking, 2006.

  • Give the author’s name in normal order in the note, inverted in the bibliography.
  • Give title in full, including any subtitle separated by a colon. Capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose publisher, place and year in parentheses in the note, but not in the bibliography.
  • Add page numbers when referring to a specific page, or page range.

Translation

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Albrecht Dϋmling paints a powerful picture of the Jewish refugee experience in Australia by ...2

Direct quote 

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Jewish refugees in Australia during the ..."6

Full note

2. Albrecht Dϋmling, The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia, trans. Diana K. Weekes (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016), 98.

Subsequent notes

6. Dϋmling, Vanished Musician, 105.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Translated by name of translator. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Dϋmling, Albrecht. The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia. Translated by Diana K. Weekes. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016.

  • Name translator after the title, preceded by ‘trans.’ in the note, and ‘Translated by’ in the bibliography.

Different edition

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Those new to writing will benefit from the many topics covered in this book including ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note."Correct grammar is essential because ..."7

"Correct grammar is essential because ..."7

Full note

3. William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000), 41–50.

Subsequent notes

7. Strunk and White, Elements of Style, 58.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. # ed. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

  • Add edition description after the e (abbreviate to ‘ed.’).
  • Edition information is not given for first editions. (If no edition statement is shown, assume it is the first.)

Volume from a multi-volume work

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Dramatic performance is an art dating from ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent performances by young actors has shown that ..."8

Full note

4. Jennifer Roberts, ed., Dramatic Arts (Sydney: Milton Press, 1987), 1:234.

Subsequent notes

8. Roberts, Dramatic Arts, 1:68-73.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Vol. #. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Roberts, Jennifer, ed. Dramatic Arts. Vol. 1. Sydney: Milton Press, 1958.

  • If citing a volume of a multi-volume work, add volume number before page reference (separated by a colon).
  • If the volume has its title, add volume number and title after title of whole work

Edited book/ Book chapter

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith discuss the complex topic of taboo ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The silence surrounding infectious disease is often deafening ..."2

Full note

EDITED COLLECTION

1. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, eds., Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

CHAPTER FROM EDITED COLLECTION

2. Janet Brown, “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease,” in Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, ed. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith (New York: Peter Lang, 2001), 86.

Subsequent notes

3. Mills and Smith, Utter Silence.  NB: OMIT ‘ed.’ OR ‘eds.’ IN SUBSEQUENT NOTES
4. Brown, “Silence, Taboo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Chapter title." In Title of book, edited by authors, Page range. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Brown, Janet. “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease.” In Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, edited by Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, 83–91. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

Mills, Alice, and Jeremy Smith, eds. Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

  • If citing the collection, give editor/s in author position, followed by ‘ed.’ (or ‘eds.’). Treat remaining elements as for a basic book.
  • If citing a chapter from an edited collection, begin with chapter author and title, followed by title of work, editor/s and page reference to passage being cited; in bibliography give the chapter page range.

Online or e-book

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Great Gatsby is set in the roaring twenties ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Gatsby entered the room with an air of contempt ..."4

Full note

ACCESSED ONLINE

1. Scott Dorkins, Good Times (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.

DOWNLOADED AS E-BOOK

2. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), Kindle edition.  NB: Turabian uses single word ‘Kindle’ (without edition).

Subsequent notes

3. Dorkins, Good Times, chap. 10

4. Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Dorkins, Scott. Good Times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Kindle edition.

NB: Turabian uses single word ‘Kindle’ (without edition).

  • Treat as for a print book in the relevant category.
  • If pages are not static, give relevant heading or chapter or other numbered division as a location reference.
  • If book is consulted online, add Access date and URL, DOI or database name.
  • If downloaded as a dedicated e-book, add 'e-reader' format. No access date or URL is needed.
  • Note that Turabian uses the single word ‘Kindle’, and Chicago uses ‘Kindle edition’.

Print

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Patient wellbeing is important because ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent studies investigating patient wellbeing have found that ..."6

Full note

1. Chris Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 31.

Subsequent notes

6. Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” 32.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 30–33.

  • NB: Turabian includes ‘abstract’ in note but omits it from bibliography entry.
  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online with DOI

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The term homophily refers to ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Friends, spouses, romantic partners, co-workers, colleagues, and other professional and recreational associates all tend to be more similar to each other than randomly chosen members of the same ..."9

Full note

4. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Subsequent notes

9. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 406.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. Accessed date. DOI.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume, and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of the whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online with URL

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The quality of teaching rounds is often inconsistent due to a range of factors such as ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The method of observation imitates that used by medical students completing medical rounds and ..."8

3. Wendy Moran, “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 212, accessed June 22, 2016, http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

Subsequent notes

8. Moran, “Enhancing Understanding,” 72.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. URL.

Moran, Wendy. “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 68–85. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online from database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to recent research ...5

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The quality of treatment is linked to selective contracting due to ..."10

Full note

5. David H. Howard, “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation,” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008): 214, accessed April 15, 2015, PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

Subsequent notes

10. Howard, “Hospital Quality,” 218.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year).  Accessed date. Database name.

Howard, David H. “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008). Accessed April 15, 2015. PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Abstract

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

  • Paraphrasing

Vitiligo is a condition that ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Many patients receive treatment which increases their quality of life ..."7

Full note

2. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar, “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo,” abstract, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

Subsequent notes

7. Davinder, Dogra, and Kanwar, “Quality of Life,” 22.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Abstract. Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Davinder, Parsad, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar. “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo.” Abstract. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

NB: Turabian includes ‘abstract’ in the note but omits it from bibliography entry.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume, and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of the whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Print

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Kennedy's assassin has been identified as ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The president was shot today as he ..."7

Full note

1. Jim Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy,” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

Subsequent notes

7. Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy,” 1.

Bibliography

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, Date.

Hunt, Jim. “Assassin Kills Kennedy.” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Separate section

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

There are many restaurants and cafes in Melbourne that serve wonderful African dishes full of exotic spices ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The exotic tastes of Africa have added a new dimension to Melbourne dining"8

Full note

2. Nina Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters,” Age (Melbourne), June 3, 2008, Epicure sec.

Subsequent notes

8. Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters," 5.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Section.

Rousseau, Nina. “Arrival of the Spice Setters.” Age (Melbourne), June 3, 2008, Epicure sec.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • If the article is in a separate section, add the name (no italics) after the title (see Rousseau example above).
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

No author credited

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent advertisement supporting the Republican candidate ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The race for Governor in the state of ..."3

Full note

3. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor,” New York Times, July 30, 2002, 2.

Subsequent notes

9. “Ad Heats Up Race.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Newspaper name. "Article title." Date.

New York Times. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Letter to the editor

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In a recent letter to the editor ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"I would like to make readers aware that ..."10

Full note

4. Jamila Khan, letter to the editor, Australian, September 7, 2012.

Subsequent notes

10. Khan, letter to editor, 43.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Letter to the editor. Newspaper name, Date.

Khan, Jamila. Letter to the editor. Australian, September 7, 2012.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Online replica of print edition (e.g., from Trove)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Mrs Holt's Sorrow is an excellent example of ...5

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As Mrs Holt entered the room it was apparent that ..."11

Full note

5. Brian Craig, “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow,” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. Accessed July 14, 2016, https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185?searchTerm=%22Mrs%20Holt%27s%20Sorrow%22&searchLimits=.

Subsequent notes

11. Craig, “Mrs Holt's Sorrow,” 2.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Accessed date. URL.

Craig, Brian. “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. Accessed July 14, 2016. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185?searchTerm=%22Mrs%20Holt%27s%20Sorrow%22&searchLimits=.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Online edition

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Russia's journey with Scientology has been ...6

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Scientology has been ..."12

6. Wendy Cole and Janice Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia,” Time, April 13, 1992. Accessed May 1, 2011, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

Subsequent notes

12. Cole and Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse,” 7.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Accessed date. URL.

Cole, Wendy, and Janice Castro. “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia.” Time, April 13, 1992. Accessed May 1, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Oliver finds himself in trouble when ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Fagin's boys were always on the look out for ..."4

CD

1. Peter FitzSimons, Kokoda, read by Lewis FitzGerald (Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013), audiobook, compact disc.

ONLINE

2. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, read by Peter Batchelor (New York: Random House Audible, 2013), audiobook, MP3 audio, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.audible.com.

Subsequent notes

3. FitzSimons, Kokoda.
4. Dickens, Oliver Twist, 00:10:04.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Read by name. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Medium, Format. Accessed date. URL.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Read by Peter Batchelor. New York: Random House Audible, 2013. Audiobook, MP3 audio. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.audible.com.

FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Read by Lewis FitzGerald. Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013. Audiobook, compact disc.

TURABIAN

Full note

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Peter FitzSimon's trip to Kokoda provided him with experiences that ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"When I first arrived in Kokoda I was amazed by ..."3

CD

1. Peter FitzSimons, Kokoda, read by Lewis FitzGerald (Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013), CD.

ONLINE

2. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, read by Peter Batchelor (New York: Random House Audible, 2013), MP3, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.audible.com.

Subsequent notes

3. FitzSimons, Kokoda, 00:05:32.
4. Dickens, Oliver Twist.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Read by name. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Format. Accessed date. URL.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Read by Peter Batchelor. New York: Random House Audible, 2013. MP3. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.audible.com.


FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Read by Lewis FitzGerald. Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013. CD.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Treat as for print book and add reader’s name after the title.
  • If accessed as physical recording, add format at end. Note Chicago does not abbreviate compact disc to CD.
  • If accessed online, add file format, access date and URL or DOI.

Audio podcast

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A special episode of American Life featured a discussion regarding troubled friendships among teens in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Two best friends now enemies are about to embark on a ..."2

Full note

1. “Frenemies,” This American Life, podcast audio, Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009, accessed July 17, 2016, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies.

Subsequent notes

3. “Frenemies, 00:01:00”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

"Title of podcast." Program.  Medium. Publisher, Date. Accessed date. URL.

“Frenemies.” This American Life. Podcast audio. Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009. Accessed July 17, 2016. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A special episode of American Life featured a discussion regarding troubled friendships among teens in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Two best friends now enemies are about to embark on a ..."1

Full note

1. “Frenemies,” This American Life (MP3 podcast), Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009, accessed July 17, 2016, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies, 00:02:05.

Subsequent notes

3. “Frenemies.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

"Title of podcast." Program (Format Medium). Publisher, Date. Accessed date. URL.

“Frenemies.” This American Life (MP3 podcast). Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009. Accessed July 17, 2016. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Give episode (quote marks), podcast title (italics), description, production entity and date, access date, URL.

Movie, screen or recording

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Back to the Future is a wonderful adventure story ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Well Marty it's time to get the ..."5

Full note

MOVIE SCREEN

1. Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis (Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985).

DVD

2. Man of Steel, directed by Zach Snyder (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013), DVD.

DVD RE-ISSUE OF EARLIER FILM

3. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1958; Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003), DVD.

ONLINE

4. Argo, directed by Ben Affleck (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012), accessed June 13, 2016, https://www.apple.com/au/.

Subsequent notes 

5. Back to the Future, 01:13:55.

6. Man of Steel.

7. Vertigo.

8. Argo.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

DVD

Title. Directed by name.  City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. Medium.

Back to the Future. Directed by Robert Zemeckis.  Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985.DVD.

Man of Steel. Directed by Zach Snyder. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013. DVD.

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1958. Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.

Online

Title. Directed by name.  City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Argo. Directed by Ben Affleck. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016. https://www.apple.com/au/.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alfred Hitchcock films are always very ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"What are we going to do Scottie?"7

Full note

MOVIE SCREEN

1. Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis (Universal Pictures, 1985).

DVD

2. Man of Steel, directed by Zach Snyder, DVD (Warner Bros, 2013).

DVD RE-ISSUE OF EARLIER FILM

3. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (Paramount, 1958), DVD (Universal Home Entertainment, 2003).

ONLINE

4. Argo, directed by Ben Affleck (Warner Bros, 2012), accessed June 13, 2016, https://www.apple.com/au/.

Subsequent notes

5. Back to the Future.

6. Man of Steel.

7. Vertigo, 00:27:00.

8. Argo.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

DVD

Title. Directed by name. Publisher, Year. Accessed date. Medium.

Back to the Future. Directed by Robert Zemeckis. Universal Pictures, 1985.

Man of Steel. Directed by Zach Snyder. DVD. Warner Bros, 2013.

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Paramount, 1958. DVD. Universal Home Entertainment, 2003.

Online

Title. Directed by name. Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Argo. Directed by Ben Affleck. Warner Bros, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016. http://store.apple.com/au.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Give title (italics), roles and names of primary contributors (e.g., director, writer), studio and year of release.
  • If focusing on the contribution of the director or writer, begin the entry with him/her followed by title.
  • If accessing a re-issue of an earlier studio version, include the original release year as well.
  • If accessing online, add access date and URL

Music recording

CHICAGO

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

A classic song about autumn in New York warms the heart after a long winter.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Autumn in New York, why does it seem so inviting?"5

Full note

ALBUM (CD)

1. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

ALBUM TRACK

2. Frank Sinatra, vocal performance of “Autumn in New York,” by Vernon Duke, recorded October 8, 1957, on Come Fly with Me, Capitol, 1958, LP.


ONLINE MUSIC VIDEO

3. Sheppard, “Geronimo,” YouTube music video, posted August 1, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw

Subsequent notes

4. Strauss, Don Quixote.

5. Sinatra, “Autumn in New York,” 00:01:14.

6. Sheppard, “Geronimo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. "Title of song." Form. Posted date. Accessed date. URL.

Sheppard. “Geronimo.” YouTube music video. Posted August 1, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Sinatra, Frank. Vocal performance of “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Recorded October 8, 1957. On Come Fly with Me. Capitol, 1958, LP.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

TURABIAN

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

Popular band Sheppherd have a great hit with Geronimo which is topping the charts this week.3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Consider the first two lines of the song Geronimo: "Can you feel it? Now it's coming back we can steel it."3

Full note

1. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, CD.

2. Frank Sinatra, “Autumn in New York,” by Vernon Duke, recorded October 8, 1957, on Come Fly with Me, Capitol, 1958, LP.

3.  Sheppard, “Geronimo” (music video), posted Aug 1, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw, 00:01:03.

Subsequent notes

4. Strauss, Don Quixote.

5. Sinatra, “Autumn in New York.”

6. Sheppard, “Geronimo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. "Title of song" (Form). Posted date. Accessed date. URL.

Sheppard. “Geronimo” (music video). Posted August 1, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Performer. "Title of song." By writer of song. Recorded date. On Album title. Label, Year, Format).

Sinatra, Frank. “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Recorded October 8, 1957. On Come Fly with Me. Capitol, 1958, LP.

Performer. "Title of song." With name of accompanying performer/s. Conducted by name. Recorded date. Label, Year, Format.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991. CD.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

A music recording can be cited in the notes and bibliography if you are using it as a source. For a general mention, just identify the work in your writing unless extra detail needs to be added in a note.

  • ALBUM: Give principal contributor (performer or composer), album title (italics), any other major contributors, label, year and form. Any useful extra information (e.g., names of other major contributors) is added after title.
  • TRACK FROM ALBUM: Give performer and title of song (in quotation marks), songwriter (if different from performer), recording date (if available), album title (italics), recording label information, year and form.
  • ONLINE: If accessed online, add access date and URL.

Performance (recorded)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

Private lives is a great comedy set in the 1930s ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"I think very few people are completely normal really, deep down in their private lives."5

Full note

PLAY

1. Private Lives, by Noel Coward, directed by Sam Strong, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014.

MUSICAL THEATRE

2. Nice Work If You Can Get It, by Joe DiPietro, music by George and Ira Gershwin, directed by Annette Zol, Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society, Broadford Shire Hall, June 10, 2016.

CONCERT

3. Glenda Harris (violin) and Kurt Hegelmann (piano), Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014.

RECORDED PERFORMANCE

4. Jerry Seinfeld, I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998 (Los Angeles: Universal, 1998), CD.

Subsequent notes

5. Private Lives, 00:30:12.

6. Nice Work.

7. Harris and Hegelmann.

8. Seinfeld, I’m Telling You.

Bibliography

Harris, Glenda (violin), and Kurt Hegelmann (piano). Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014.

Nice Work If You Can Get It. By Joe DiPietro. Music by George and Ira Gershwin. Directed by Annette Zol. Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society. Shire Hall, Broadford, June 10, 2016.

Private Lives. By Noel Coward. Directed by Sam Strong. Melbourne Theatre Company. Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014.

Seinfeld, Jerry. I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded, Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998. Los Angeles: Universal, 1998. CD.

Live performances are not normally included in the bibliography, and you can also do without a note by weaving the identifying details into your writing. However, different units will have different requirements, so seek your teacher’s or lecturer’s advice on their preference for citing such sources.

  • Begin with title (italics), or if the performance is untitled or is focused on individual performance, give performer/s name at the beginning.
  • Add names of major contributors (writers, composers, directors, etc.) and performance group.
  • Give the venue and date of the performance, if these details are known.
  • If accessing a recording, treat according to relevant category above and add the form of recording.
  • If accessing online, add access date and URL.

Speech (recorded)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During his speech Dr Martin Luther King stated with great passion ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"I have a dream!"4

Full note

PRINT TRANSCRIPT

1. Patrick Henry, “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death” (speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775), in The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, ed. Brian MacArthur (London: Penguin, 1995), 88–90.

ONLINE TRANSCRIPT

2. Paul Keating, “The Redfern Address” (speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992), transcript, accessed 14 July 2016, http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/.

ONLINE VIDEO

3. John F. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner)” (speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963), video file, accessed May 11, 2016, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html.

ONLINE AUDIO

4. Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream” (speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963), MP3, accessed April 2, 2016, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/, 00:01:03.

Subsequent notes

5. Henry, “Give Me Liberty.”

6. Keating, “Redfern Address.”

7. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner.”

8. King, “I Have a Dream.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Speaker's name. "Title of speech." Speech, City, State/Country, Date. Format. Accessed date. URL.

Henry, Patrick. “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death.” Speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775. In The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, edited by Brian MacArthur, 88–90. London: Penguin, 1995.

Keating, Paul. “The Redfern Address.” Speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992. Transcript. Accessed 14 July 2016. http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/extras/.

Kennedy, John F. “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner).” Speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963. Video file. Accessed May 11, 2016. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. “I Have a Dream.” Speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963. MP3. Accessed April 2, 2016. http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/.

  • Begin entry with speaker. Give title of speech in quotation marks, and place and date of speech.
  • If accessed in a print source, treat like a chapter in a book.
  • If accessed online, add file type, access date and URL.

Streaming video from a library database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The central character in Ang Lee's film, Master Chef Chu is struggling to ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Tonight's fabulous menu will really please our diners!" 2

Full note

1. Eat Drink Man Woman, directed by Ang Lee (Kew, Victoria: Umbrella Entertainment, 1994), accessed December 19, 2018, https://www.kanopy.com/product/eat-drink-man-woman.

Subsequent notes

2. Eat Drink Man Woman, 00:52: 15.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Name, director. Title. Year. Database name. Publisher, Yea, URL.

Lee, Ang, director. Eat Drink Man Woman. 1994. Kanopy, Umbrella Entertainment, 2016, www.kanopystreaming.com/product/eat-drink-man-woman.

  • Include year film was made after the title.
  • Include year published in database after publisher name.

Television series episode

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Lorelai, how is your anxiety today?"4

Full note

BROADCAST

1. Gilmore Girls, season 3, episode 3, “Application Anxiety,” directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 13, 2005, on WINTV.

ONLINE

2.  Foyle’s War, season 7, episode 1, “The Eternity Ring,” directed by Stuart Orme, accessed October 12, 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/7968839.

DVD

3.  Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 2, “Madrigal,” directed by Michelle MacLaren (Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD, disc 1.

Subsequent notes

4. Gilmore Girls, 00:13:12.

5. Foyle’s War.

6. Breaking Bad.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name. Production/Distribution Company, Year. Format, disc#.

Breaking Bad. Season 5, episode 2, “Madrigal.” Directed by Michelle MacLaren. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD, disc 1.

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name.  Accessed date. URL.

Foyle’s War. Season 7, episode 1, “The Eternity Ring.” Directed by Stuart Orme. Accessed October 12, 2013. http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/7968839.

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name. Aired date, on name of television network.

Gilmore Girls. Season 3, episode 3, “Application Anxiety.” Directed by Gail Mancuso. Aired September 13, 2005, on WINTV.

  • Give program title (italics), season and episode numbers (if known).
  • Give episode title (quotation marks) and role and name of principal contributor/s (e.g., director and/or writer).
  • If accessed via television broadcast, give date aired and broadcast station.
  • If accessed in recorded form, give production studio, year of production and form.
  • If accessed online, give access date and URL.

Television or radio broadcast, live to air

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When Tony Jones comments on the situation in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Good evening and welcome to Lateline. My name is Tony Jones. Tonight we will be reporting on ...!"1

Full note

TELEVISION BROADCAST

1. Lateline, Tony Jones, aired June 2, 2016, on ABC TV News 24, 00:21:04.

RADIO PROGRAM

2. Late Night Live, Phillip Adams, aired July 14, 2016, on ABC Radio National.

Subsequent notes

3. Lateline, June 2, 2016.

4. Late Night Live, July 14, 2016.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Program title. Presenter. Aired date, on name of television network.

Lateline. Tony Jones. Aired June 2, 2016, on ABC TV News 24.

Late Night Live. Phillip Adams. Aired July 14, 2016, on ABC Radio National.

  • Give program title (italics), name of presenter, date of broadcast, and broadcast station.
  • If accessed online (after broadcast), give access date and URL.

Video game

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

For those of us into video games with adventure Minecraft will ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

Minecraft is "set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain - icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more - filled with secrets, wonders and peril!"3

Full note

1. Minecraft (version 1.10.2), video game (Mojang, 2016), accessed July 21, 2016, https://minecraft.net/en/.

Subsequent notes

3. Minecraft.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Title (version #). Video game. Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Minecraft (version 1.10.2). Video game. Mojang, 2016. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://minecraft.net/en/.

  • It is not necessary to give a note or bibliography entry for video games unless your paper is focused on this area. Otherwise, simply identify such works in the body of your writing.

YouTube video

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleepwalking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog,” YouTube video, 0.23, posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit,” 00:10:05.

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog.” YouTube video, 0.23. Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleep walking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video), posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit,” 00:10:05.

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video). Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

Video posts are normally cited in the notes only; however, if the video is important to your argument, a bibliography entry can be included (as above).

  • Give screen name of the poster, title (quotation marks), description, length (CHICAGO STYLE ONLY), date posted, access date and URL.

Web document (pdf)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Parks Victoria, the Grampians ...1

Direct quote

"Bushfires are often considered to be disasters, but fire is a natural occurrence that has influenced the Gariwerd/Grampians plant and animal diversity."3

Full note

1. Parks Victoria, “Fire Ecology in the Grampians,” accessed July 14, 2004, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

Subsequent notes

3. Parks Victoria, “Fire Ecology,” 2.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Accessed date. URL.   

Parks Victoria. “Fire Ecology in the Grampians.” Accessed July 14, 2004. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

  • Give the author, title (quotation marks) and retrieval details of the document. Include date if one is shown.

Website post or page (general treatment)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The ABC has recently introduced a new policy dealing with privacy issues that ...1

Direct quote

"A new policy has just been implemented by the ABC to address the privacy concerns of ..."3

Full note

1. “ABC Privacy Policy,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, last modified March 12, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, http://about.abc.net.au/abc-privacy-policy/.

2. “Employment Conditions,” Country Fire Authority, last modified December 8, 2015, accessed May 3, 2016, http://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/volunteer-careers/employment-conditions/.

Subsequent notes 

3. “ABC Privacy Policy.”

4. “Employment Conditions.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Last modified date. Accessed date. URL.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “ABC Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 12, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://about.abc.net.au/abc-privacy-policy/.

Country Fire Authority. “Employment Conditions.” Last modified December 8, 2015. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/volunteer-careers/employment-conditions/.

  • Give the title of page/post in quotation marks followed by the website name or publisher/sponsor.
  • If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase (no quotation marks).
  • Give the date of the last modification or update, access date, and URL.

Website

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Donald Trump’s campaign website is illustrative of …1

Direct quote

Donald trump's campaign motto is as follows: "Make America Great Again!"3

Full note

NOTE CONTAINING EXTRA DETAIL

1. Make America Great Again! (official 2016 campaign website of Donald Trump), accessed July 23, 2016, https://www.donaldjtrump.com/.

Subsequent notes

3. Make America Great Again!

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

  • When referring to a website (as distinct from a specific document, page or post on the site), identify the website (by name, sponsor/owner or descriptive phrase) in your writing in place of a note.
  • If extra identifying detail is likely to be helpful to your reader, either include this in a note as in the example above or weave it into your writing in place of the detailed note.
  • No bibliography entry is needed.

Book or print journal article

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Figure 1 shows an illustration by Felix Darley which depicts....1

Full note

1. Irving, W., Rip van Winkle, (New York: American Art Union, 1848), 31.

Subsequent notes

3. Irving, Rip van Winkle.

Figure layout

Fig. 1. Rip returns to his house 1848. (Washington Irving, Rip van Winkle, New York: American Art Union, 1848, 31)

No bibliography entry required.

  • Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information in place of medium and gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Caption notes:

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions, gallery name and city
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information instead of gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • No period after the figure number.
  • Captions are numbered consecutively.
  • Other collection information such as “gift of . . . ,” accession number, etc.
    When available, copyright or credit-line info regarding both the artwork and the photograph is supplied in brackets.
  • No period at the end of the caption.

Web page

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Wright's painting entitled 'The Synnot Children' in figure 1 is painted with oils that are ...1

Full note

1. Joseph Wright, The Synnot Children, 1781, oil on canvas, 152.4 x 125.8 cm, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, accessed September 10, 2020, https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/work/4491/

Subsequent notes

3. Wright, The Synnot Children.

Figure layout

Fig. 1. The Synnot Children. (Joseph Wright, The Synnot Children, 1781, oil on canvas, 152.4 x 125.8 cm. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/work/4491/

No bibliography entry required.

  • Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Caption notes:

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions, gallery name and city
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information instead of gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • No period after the figure number.
  • Captions are numbered consecutively.
  • Other collection information such as “gift of . . . ,” accession number, etc.
    When available, copyright or credit-line info regarding both the artwork and the photograph is supplied in brackets.
  • No period at the end of the caption.

Library database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

See figure 1 for an example of a nebula ...1

Full note

1. NASA, ESA and Kastner, J. "NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula." Accessed September 18, 2020, Hubblesite, https://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hvi/uploads/image/display_image/4680/STScI-H-p2031b-d-1280x720.png

Subsequent notes

3. NASA, ESA and Kastner, "NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula".

Figure Layout

Fig. 1  NASA, ESA and J. Kastner, "NGC 6302: The Butterfly Nebula." Accessed September 18, 2020, Hubblesite, https://imgsrc.hubblesite.org/hvi/uploads/image/display_image/4680/STScI-H-p2031b-d-1280x720.png

No bibliography entry required.

  • Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Caption notes:

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions, gallery name and city
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information instead of gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • No period after the figure number.
  • Captions are numbered consecutively.
  • Other collection information such as “gift of . . . ,” accession number, etc.
    When available, copyright or credit-line info regarding both the artwork and the photograph is supplied in brackets.
  • No period at the end of the caption.

Creative commons

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Oscar Schindler's grave seen in figure 3 is inscribed with ...1

Full note

1. Adam Jones, “Details of Grave of Oskar Schindler – Old City – Jerusalem – Israel – 02,” 2011. Photograph.  Source: Flickr, posted 1 May, 2011, accessed 19 June, 2014, https://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/5676126945.

Subsequent notes

2. Jones, “Details of Grave of Oskar Schindler”.

Figure layout

Fig.3 Adam Jones, Details of Grave of Oskar Schindler – Old City – Jerusalem – Israel – 02, 2011, photograph. Artwork in the public domain; Source: Flickr, posted 1 May, 2011, accessed 19 June, 2014, http://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/5676126945

No bibliography entry required.

  • Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Caption notes:

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions, gallery name and city
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information instead of gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • No period after the figure number.
  • Captions are numbered consecutively.
  • Other collection information such as “gift of . . . ,” accession number, etc.
    When available, copyright or credit-line info regarding both the artwork and the photograph is supplied in brackets.
  • No period at the end of the caption.

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

CHICAGO

In-text citations

In figure 2 the local council boundaries for Casey can be seen ...2

PRINT

1. Richard Sobel, ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993), 87, table 5.3.

ONLINE

2. McCarron, Bird and Co., "Victoria", map, accessed September 10, 2020, https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Subsequent notes

3. Sobel, Public Opinion, 92, table 6.4.  DIFFERENT MAP, SAME SOURCE

4. McCarron, Bird and Co., “Victoria.”

Figure layout

Fig. 2. McCarron, Bird and Co., Victoria, map, accessed September 10, 2020, https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Bibliography

Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

McCarron, Bird and Co. "Victoria.", Map. Accessed September 10, 2020. https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Local council boundaries for Casey (see figure 2) show that  ...2

Full note

PRINT

1. Richard Sobel, ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993), 87, table 5.3.

ONLINE

2. McCarron, Bird and Co, "Victoria", (map), accessed September 10, 2020, https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Subsequent notes

3. Sobel, Public Opinion, 92, table 6.4.  DIFFERENT MAP, SAME SOURCE

4. McCarron, Bird and Co. “Victoria.”

Figure layout

Fig. 4. McCarron, Bird and Co., "Victoria" (map), accessed September 10, 2020, https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

Bibliography

Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

McCarron, Bird and Co. "Victoria" (map). Accessed September 10, 2020. https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/australia_1916_victoria.jpg

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • PRINT: If you have accessed the item in a published work (e.g., a book or journal), give an entry for the source containing the item, not the item itself, and add the item’s identifying label (e.g., table or figure number) after the page reference.
  • ONLINE: If you have accessed the item online (e.g., from a website or web page) give the author, title (in quotation marks) and description (e.g., map, chart). Note that the description is given in parentheses in Turabian but not Chicago style. Give access date and URL or DOI.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Caption notes:

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions, gallery name and city
  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.
  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information instead of gallery. Add page/plate number.
  • No period after the figure number.
  • Captions are numbered consecutively.
  • Other collection information such as “gift of . . . ,” accession number, etc.
    When available, copyright or credit-line info regarding both the artwork and the photograph is supplied in brackets.
  • No period at the end of the caption.

Visual artwork

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

John Brack's painting of 'The Fish Shop' shows ...1

Full note

1. John Brack, The Fish Shop, 1955, oil on composition board, 60.0 x 71.6 cm, Melbourne, Heide Museum of Modern Art.

Subsequent notes

3. Brack, The Fish Shop.

No bibliography entry required.

  • Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.
  • Viewed in a gallery or other venue: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions (when required), place and gallery name.
  • Images of performance art, architecture, photographs of etchings and other prints, etc. that are not themselves artwork, may not have all of the elements. For example, where works do not provide dimensions or medium, include such descriptors as: Location unknown, Private collection, Collection of the artist.

Blog post

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Melinda Chang's blog has many interesting insights about ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number(s).

"During a recent discussion with a close friend I realised ..."3

Full note

WHOLE BLOG

1. Melinda Chang, Heart of Me (blog), accessed July 15, 2016, http://heartofme.blogspot.com/2016/07/.

BLOG POST

2. Kevin Ferris, “Close Borders Now,” Half-Baked Times (blog), May 5, 2016, accessed May 7, 2016, http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com/2016/05/.

Subsequent notes

3. Chang, Heart of Me, para. 2.
4. Ferris, “Close Borders Now.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title (Form). Accessed date. URL.

Chang, Melinda. Heart of Me (blog). Accessed July 15, 2016. http://heartofme.blogspot.com/2016/07/.

Ferris, Kevin. “Close Borders Now.” Half-Baked Times (blog). Accessed May 7, 2016. http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com//2016/05/.

Blogs and blog posts are normally cited in the notes only; however, if the source is cited frequently in your paper or if it is important to your argument, a bibliography entry can be included (as shown above).

  • BLOG
  • Give the author and the blog name (italics) followed by ‘blog’ in round brackets (unless already in blog name).
  • Give access date and URL.
  • BLOG POST
  • Give author, the title of the post (in quotation marks), blog name (italics) followed by ‘blog’ in round brackets.
  • Give the date of the post, the date you accessed it, and the URL.

Facebook post

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent post on Telstra's Facebook page was ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number.

"All men must dial. What a deal. Get in quick."6

Full note

3. All Men Must Dial, post to Telstra’s Facebook page, June 27, 2016 (8.53 p.m.), accessed July 20, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/Telstra/.

Subsequent notes

6. All Men Must Dial, Facebook post, para. 1.

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

Forum comment

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent discussions have centred on Kevin Ferris' opinions regarding ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number.

Subsequent notes

"According to Kevin Ferris our borders are ..."4

Full note

1. Bazza34, May 6, 2016 (11.23 p.m.), comment on Kevin Ferris, “Close Borders Now,” The Half-Baked Times (blog), May 5, 2016, accessed May 7, 2016, http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com.au/2016/05/05/, para. 2.

Subsequent notes

4. Bazza34, comment on Ferris, “Close Borders Now.”

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

Tweet

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During the recent campaign trail Hillary Clinton repeatedly promoted ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"I believe that Americans need ..."5

Full note

2. Hillary Clinton, Twitter post, July 19, 2016 (8:09 p.m.), accessed July 20, 2016, https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton.

Subsequent notes

5. Clinton, Twitter post.

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

YouTube video

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleepwalking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog,” YouTube video, 0.23, posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit,” 00:10:05.

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog.” YouTube video, 0.23. Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleep walking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video), posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit,” 00:10:05.

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video). Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

Video posts are normally cited in the notes only; however, if the video is important to your argument, a bibliography entry can be included (as above).

  • Give screen name of the poster, title (quotation marks), description, length (CHICAGO STYLE ONLY), date posted, access date and URL.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the catalogue, the National Gallery of Victoria will hold this exhibition in honour of ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"This exhibition features the most prominent Australian impressionist who travelled to France during ..."3

Full note

EXHIBITION CATALOGUE (PRINT)

1. Elena Taylor, Australian Impressionists in France (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2013), 24, exhibition catalogue.

BROCHURE (ONLINE)

2. Parks Victoria, Fire Ecology in the Grampians (Melbourne: Parks Victoria, 2004), accessed March 5, 2016, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/.

Subsequent notes

3. Taylor, Australian Impressionists, 12.

4. Parks Victoria, Fire Ecology.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country, Year. Form. Accessed date. URL.

Parks Victoria. Fire Ecology in the Grampians. Melbourne: Parks Victoria, 2004. Accessed March 5, 2016.  http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/.

Taylor, Elena. Australian Impressionists in France. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2013. Exhibition catalogue.

  • Treat as for a book.
  • ONLINE: If accessed online, add date of access and URL or DOI.
  • PRINT: Note the form, for example, brochure, exhibition catalogue, pamphlet, etc.

Conference paper presented

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The importance of Fellini's films are ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Fellini's films often depict characters that ..."3

Full note

1. Barry Q. Wenzel, “Films of Fellini” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, June 4, 1998).

Subsequent notes

3. Wenzel, “Films of Fellini,” 3.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Presenter. “Title." Paper presented at Meeting name, City, State/Country, date.

Wenzel, Barry Q. “Films of Fellini.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, June 4, 1998.

  • If the paper is presented only, give the presenter’s name, title (quotation marks), name of the meeting, location, and date.

Conference paper published in proceedings

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour is now possible with the help of technology.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The use of programming tasks have proven to be ..."4

Full note

2. Angela Carbone et al., “Designing Programming Tasks to Elicit Self-Management Metacognitive Behaviour,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, 2002, ed. B. Werner (Washington, DC: IEEE, 2002), 533-34, accessed May 12, 2016, doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998.

Subsequent notes

4. Carbone et al., “Designing Programming Tasks,” 533.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title of paper." In Proceeding of the title, edited by name, page range, City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Carbone, Angela, Ian Mitchell, Dick Gunstone, and John Hurst. “Designing Programming Tasks to Elicit Self-Management Metacognitive Behaviour.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, edited by B. Werner, 533-34. Washington, DC: IEEE, 2002. Accessed 8 June 2016. doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998.

  • If the paper is part of published conference proceedings, treat like a chapter from an edited collection.
  • If accessed online, add date of access and URL or DOI.

Course materials

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Keith Barrett's lecture on cell structure ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Remember that the cell structure in amphibians differs from ..."4

Full note

ONLINE DOCUMENT/FILE

1. Keith Barrett, “Cell Structure” (topic notes, Biology 112 tutorials, Barrett Education, June 19, 2010), accessed June 20, 2010, http://www.barrett.edu/openaccess/courses/lectureNotes.

ONLINE LECTURE

2. Rebecca Claskich, “BOT234: Week 1 Video Lecture,” posted June 2, 2015, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.hewsoncollege.com/watch?v=-v6LKvGQIL7.

PRINT HANDOUT

3. Lee Huang, “The Cost of Retribution” (class handout, Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, March 5, 2012).

Subsequent notes

4. Barrett, “Cell Structure.”

5. Claskich, “BOT234 Lecture.”

6. Huang, “Cost of Retribution.”

Bibliography

See the notes below.

Barrett, Keith. “Cell Structure.” Topic notes prepared for Biology 112 tutorials, Barrett Education, June 19, 2010. Accessed June 20, 2010. http://www.barrett.edu/openaccess/courses/lectureNotes.

Claskich, Rebecca. “BOT234: Week 1 Video Lecture.” Posted June 2, 2015. Accessed June 3, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v6GNvGWIL5.

**Seek advice from your teacher or lecturer before citing lecture/class material as sources.

  • ONLINE LECTURES, PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so can be cited as sources but only if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to type (e.g., video post, website document, etc.).
  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable. If permitted for use as a source, treat as personal communications (see Other resources, Personal communication).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as for Huang example, above.

Encyclopaedia entry

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Smashing Pumpkins recent tour of the United States ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Constructivism can be defined as  ..."1

Full note

PRINT

1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “constructivism,” 12.

ONLINE

2. Grove Music Online, s.v. “Smashing Pumpkins,” accessed July 31, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

AUTHORED ENTRY (ESSAY OR CHAPTER)

3. Chris McConville, “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929,” in The Australian Dictionary of Biography (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013), accessed 22 July 2016, http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

Subsequent notes

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “constructivism.”

5. Grove Music Online, “Smashing Pumpkins."

6. McConville, “Melbourne Crime.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed.

Grove Music Online. Accessed July 31, 2016. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

McConville, Chris. “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929.” In The Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013. Accessed 22 July 2016. http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

**Ask your teacher or lecturer for guidelines on using Wikipedia as a reference source.

Well-known reference works are normally cited in the notes only; ask your teacher or lecturer for advice before including in your bibliography. (Bibliography entries have been given above as examples if needed).

  • Place, publisher and year can be omitted from well-known reference works but edition number (if not the first) should be included.
  • Specialised or less well-known reference works should be included in the bibliography with the details of their full publications.
  • If the reference work is alphabetically arranged, precede the entry by ‘s.v.’ or ‘s.vv.’ (abbreviation for ‘sub verbo’, which is Latin for under the word/words). If entries are non-alphabetical, give the page number.
  • If an item has a named author and is lengthy and substantial (see McConville example above), treat like a chapter in an edited book and include in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the date of access and URL or DOI. If downloaded to an e-reader add format.

Interview transcript or recorded

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"When we finally landed on the moon ..."3

Full note

TRANSCRIPT

1. Neil A. Armstrong, interview by S. E. Ambrose, September 19, 2001, transcript, Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, NASA, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf/.

RECORDING

2. David Astle, interview by Jane Hutcheon, One Plus One, ABCTV News 24, November 28, 2018, accessed December 5, 2018, https://iview.abc.net.au/show/one-plus-one#

Subsequent notes

3. Armstrong, interview by Ambrose, 3.

4. Astle, interview by Hutcheon.

Bibliography

Name. Interviewed by name. Date. Transcript. Place interviewed. Accessed date. URL.

Armstrong, Neil A. Interview by S. E. Ambrose. September 19, 2001. Transcript. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, NASA. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf/.

Brett, Lily. Interview by Jane Hutcheon. One Plus One. ABC TV News 24, July 28, 2016. Accessed August 6, 2016. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-28/one-plus-one:-lily-brett/7670520.

The treatment above applies to transcripts of recorded interviews. Private or informal interviews should be treated as personal communication.

  • Give the interviewee’s name at the beginning of the entry followed by the name of the interviewer.
  • Add other details relevant to the format you consulted. If accessed online, add access date and URL or DOI.

Media release

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action has disrupted ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number(s) in the note.

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … "3

Full note

1. Qantas, “Response to Industrial Action,” media release, October 29, 2011, accessed June 1, 2012, http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/.

Subsequent notes

3. Qantas, “Response to Industrial Action,” para. 1.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Media release. Date. Accessed date. URL.

Qantas. “Response to Industrial Action.” Media release. October 29, 2011. Accessed June 1, 2012. http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/.

Music score

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

Treat the music score or sheet music as an image from a book.

In-text citations

Figure 1 shows the first three bars of “Pretude No. 12” by Fournier…1

Label the image as a Figure:

Fig. 1 Guillaume Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” in 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition Pour Piano/Piano Score, United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013, 40, score.

CHICAGO

Full note

1. Guillaume Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score (United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013), 40, score.

Subsequent notes

3. Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” 45.    (DIFFERENT EXCERPT, SAME SOURCE)

Bibliography

TEMPLATE: Composer. Title. City: State/Country, Year.

Fournier, Guillaume. “Pretude No. 12.” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score, 40-45. Score. United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013.

TURABIAN

Full note

1. Guillaume Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score (United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013), 40, score.

Subsequent notes

3. Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” 45.  (DIFFERENT EXCERPT, SAME SOURCE)

Bibliography

Fournier, Guillaume. “Pretude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score, 40-45 (score). United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013.

  • Published musical scores are treated like books.
  • Any useful extra information (e.g., name of transcriber or arranger) can be added after the title.
  • If accessed online, treat as above and add access date and URL or DOI.

Fig. 1 Guillaume Fournier,“Pretude No. 12,”in 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition Pour Piano/Piano Score, United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013, 40, score.

CHICAGO

Full note

1. Guillaume Fournier, “Pretude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score (United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013), 40, score.

Subsequent notes

3. Fournier, “Pre-etude No. 12,” 45.    (DIFFERENT EXCERPT, SAME SOURCE)

Bibliography

TEMPLATE: Composer. Title. City: State/Country, Year.

Fournier, Guillaume. “Pre-etude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score, 40-45. Score. United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013.

TURABIAN

Full note

1. Guillaume Fournier, “Pre-etude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score (United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013), 40, score.

Subsequent notes

3. Fournier, “Pre-etude No. 12,” 45.  (DIFFERENT EXCERPT, SAME SOURCE)

Bibliography

Fournier, Guillaume. “Pre-etude No. 12,” In 24 Pre-etudes d'apres/after Chopin: Partition pour Piano/Piano Score, 40-45 (score). United Kingdom: Lulu.com, 2013.

  • Published musical scores are treated like books.
  • Any useful extra information (e.g., name of transcriber or arranger) can be added after the title.
  • If accessed online, treat as above and add access date and URL or DOI.

Personal communication

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Regional art has been great for the community because ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number(s) in the note.

"Local artists have renewed this town's appeal to visitors as evidenced by a recent exhibition during the holiday period."4

Full note

1. Elizabeth Jensen, email message to author, June 7, 2008.

2. Interview with a regional arts administrator, July 1, 2016 (interviewee’s name withheld by mutual agreement).

Subsequent notes

3. Jensen, email to author.

4. Interview with regional arts administrator, para 2.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry is required for personal communications.

Personal communications such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on sites protected by privacy settings may be cited in the notes but are not included in the bibliography.

  • Identify the communicator (seek their approval) and give the date of the communication.
  • If the communicator wishes to be anonymous, use a generic description and add a phrase that explains the absence of a name (see note 2 above). If your paper has multiple instances of anonymous interviewees, add a general explanation to the first interview note; e.g., ‘All interviews cited in this paper were confidential and names have been withheld by mutual agreement.’

Play or film script

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In the first act the tension steadily builds as the characters ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and include the number of the act or scene in the note.

"I can't take it any more, I'm leaving you!"3

Full note

PUBLISHED (PLAY)

1. Joanna Murray-Smith, Honour (Sydney: Currency Press, 1997), act 1.

UNPUBLISHED

2. Gleeson, Miranda, “Daylight Shines Darkly” (film script, final draft, March 8, 2015), scene 15, accessed July 19, 2016, http://www.scriptheaven.com.au/.

Subsequent notes

3. Murray-Smith, Honour, act 1.

4. Gleeson, “Daylight,” scenes 53–55.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Gleeson, Miranda. “Daylight Shines Darkly.” Film script, final draft, March 8, 2015. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://www.scriptheaven.com.au/.

Murray-Smith, Joanna. Honour. Sydney: Currency Press, 1997.

  • If published, treat like a book.
  • If unpublished, give the title in quotation marks (not italics), and add a description and any other identifying information and date as shown on the title page.
  • In the notes, give act (and scene and line numbers if relevant) when quoting or referring to specific passages.
  • If accessed online, add access date and URL/DOI.

Report, government or corporate

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The mental health of the homeless people in our community ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Homeless people in Australia are often grappling with mental health issues that go untreated."4

Full note

PRINT

1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW cat. no. AUS 44 (Canberra: AIHW, 2004), 25.

ONLINE

2. Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], Mental Health and Experiences of Homelessness, Australia, 2014, cat. no. 4329.0.00.005 (Canberra: ABS, 2014), 5, accessed July 11, 2016, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/.

Subsequent notes

3. AIHW, Australia’s Health 2004, 22.

4. ABS, Mental Health, 8.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Series Name/Number. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Mental Health and Experiences of Homelessness, Australia, 2014. Cat. no. 4329.0.00.005. Canberra: ABS, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2016. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW]. Australia’s Health 2004. AIHW Cat. No. AUS 44. Canberra: AIHW, 2004.

  • If the author’s name is long, use accepted abbreviation for subsequent citations (add to full form in square brackets in the first note). Give the title of the report in italics. Add any series name or number (no italics) after the title.
  • Add access date and URL or DOI if accessed online.

Review

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

For those interested in classical music a must-see performance is scheduled for ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) if print item in the note.

"Timothy Fain and Steven Beck were well received by the audience tonight in New York and graciously responded to many calls for an encore."7

Full note

FILM REVIEW

1. Jim Schembri, review of Australia, directed by Baz Luhrmann, Age (Melbourne), November 10, 2008.

THEATRE REVIEW

2. Alison Croggon, review of Private Lives, by Noel Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, Guardian Australia, January 31, 2014, accessed July 11, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/.

CONCERT REVIEW

3. Allan Kozinn, review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano), 92nd Street Y, New York, April 20, 2000, New York Times, April 21, 2000.

EXHIBITION REVIEW

4. Denise Taylor, review of Degas: A New Vision, National Gallery of Victoria, June 2016, accessed July 17, 2016, http://www.denisemtaylor.com.au/2016/07/review-degas-a-new-vision/.

Subsequent notes

5. Schembri, review of Australia.

6. Croggon, review of Private Lives.

7. Kozinn, review of Fain and Beck, p. 5.

8. Taylor, review of Degas.

Bibliography

See the notes below.

Croggon, Alison. Review of Private Lives, by Noel Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, January 30, 2014. Guardian Australia, January 31, 2014. Accessed July 11, 2016. http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/.

Kozinn, Allan. Review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano), 92nd Street Y, New York, April 20, 2000. New York Times, April 21, 2000.

Schembri, Jim. Review of Australia, directed by Baz Luhrmann. Age (Melbourne), November 10, 2008.

Taylor, Denise. Review of Degas: A New Vision, National Gallery of Victoria,
June 2016. Accessed July 17, 2016. http://www.denisemtaylor.com.au/2016/07/review-degas-a-new-vision/.

  • Give reviewer, the words ‘review of’ followed by the work being reviewed and its major contributors (e.g., author, director, performance company).
  • For reviews of performances, exhibitions, etc., give the venue and date of work being reviewed.
  • Format the remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or App

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via Bluetooth technology to a compatible device.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"This software is compatible with ..."5

Full note

1. Dolphin (version 4.0.2), computer software (Dolphin Emulator Project, 2013), accessed January 14, 2014, https://dolphin-emu.org/.

2. Weather Flow (version 1.5.0), mobile phone application (Microsoft, 2013), accessed December 12, 2013, http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/.

3. Minecraft (version 1.10.2), video game (Mojang, 2016), accessed July 21, 2016, https://minecraft.net/en/.

Subsequent notes

4. Dolphin.

5. Weather Flow.

6. Minecraft.

Bibliography

It is not necessary to give a note or bibliography entry for software unless your paper is focused on this area. Otherwise, simply identify such works in the body of your writing.

TEMPLATE

Title (Version #). Computer software. Company, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Dolphin (version 4.0.2). Computer software. Dolphin Emulator Project, 2013. Accessed January 14, 2014. https://dolphin-emu.org/.

Minecraft (version 1.10.2) Video game. Mojang, 2016. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://minecraft.net/en/.

Weather Flow (version 1.5.0). Mobile phone application. Microsoft, 2013. Accessed December 12, 2013. http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/.

Standards, Australian

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Standards Australia heat packs can now be filled with ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"derived from plant matter, typically the dried ..."3

Full note

1.  Standards Australia, Microwaveable Heat Packs – Wheat and Other Organic Filling Materials, AS/NZS 5116:2016 (Sydney: Standards Australia, 2016).

Subsequent notes

3. Standards Australia, Microwaveable Heat Packs, 6.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Standard numbers. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Standards Australia. Microwaveable Heat Packs – Wheat and Other Organic Filling Materials. AS/NZS 5116:2016. Sydney: Standards Australia, 2016.

Thesis

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Research has shown that dysfunctional drivers are often ..."1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Dysfunctional driver behaviour is connected to ..."3

Full note

PRINT

1. John Maxwell Reid, “A Cognitive Study of Dysfunctional Driving Behaviours.” (PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998), 34.

ONLINE

2. Carol Tocknell, “Student Acquisition of Social Skills through Teacher Modelling.” (PhD thesis, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, 2015), 13, accessed August 2, 2016, http://researchonline.federation.edu.au:8080/vital/access/HandleResolver/1959.17/75649.

Subsequent notes

3. Reid, “Cognitive Study,” 43.

4. Tocknell, “Student Acquisition,” 25–27.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Form, University name, Location, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Reid, John Maxwell. “A Cognitive Study of Dysfunctional Driving Behaviours.” PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998.

Tocknell, Carol. “Student Acquisition of Social Skills through Teacher Modelling.” PhD thesis, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, 2015. Accessed August 2, 2016. http://researchonline.federation.edu.au:8080/vital/access/HandleResolver/1959.17/75649.

  • Give the author and title (in quotation marks).
  • Give a description and name and location of the institution. Omit location if part of institution name.
  • If accessed online, add date of access and URL/DOI or database name.

Introduction

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the following resources to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples:

The Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed. 2017)

Overview of Chicago full note citation style

This guide describes the basic features and gives examples of Chicago's full note citation style. Chicago style follows the notes-bibliography system, which involves citing sources in footnotes and then presenting a list of the cited sources in a bibliography at the end of your work.

Footnotes

Footnotes are created by inserting a superscript reference number (i.e., smaller and above the line) in your writing directly after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) containing the words or information you are citing. The reference number directs the reader to the corresponding footnote, which should contain the bibliographic details of the source.

A number inserted into the writing directs the reader to a corresponding footnote.

The corresponding footnote contains bibliographic details of the source.

Numbering and formatting of footnotes is an automatic function in most word-processing programs via the insert footnote command. Notes are normally set one or two points smaller than the general text, and the footnote number is followed by a full stop and a space before the bibliographic details, as in the examples below. Refer to the general rules and punctuation section for more detailed information.

Bibliography

The bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the sources cited. It should begin on a separate page at the end of your paper and provide enough identifying details to allow the source to be located by someone else. Refer to the general rules and punctuation sections following for more detail.

Bibliography

Craig, Brian. “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

Dϋmling, Albrecht. The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia. Translated by Diana K. Weekes. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

Harrison, Edith M. Pacific Travels. N.p.: Collins, n.d.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

McConville, Chris. “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929.” In The Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013. http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

Moran, Wendy. “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 68–85. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Smith, Jeremy “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559.

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Creating full note citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

Creating full note and shortened citations

Creating the footnote

Insert the footnote number immediately after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) where you have used the source. The first time you cite a source, the corresponding footnote should contain the full source information.

First name Surname, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page reference.

  1. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.

The basic full footnote in Chicago note style

  • Use the author’s full name in standard order, i.e. first name followed by surname.
  • Set titles of larger works (e.g. books and journals) in italics, and capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose titles of smaller works (e.g. chapters, articles), parts of works, or unpublished sources in double quotation marks without italics.
  • Enclose publication details in parentheses (round brackets). If the city is likely to be unknown to the reader or confused with another city of the same name, add the state (abbreviated) or country.
  • Add the page number or range (or figure or table number) when quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source. Use of ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ before the page number is not necessary. If the source shows no page numbers, give paragraph number/s or closest heading.
  • Separate the elements with a comma, and end the note with a full stop.
  • Use abbreviations such as ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’ (for editor/edited by), ‘trans.’ (translator/translated by), ‘vol.’ (volume), ed. (edition), ‘pt.’ (part) and rev. (revised, revised by, revision and review).

How to shorten repeated notes

If a citation is repeated, shorten the note as follows.

  • Give author’s last name only (add first name or initial/s to differentiate if citing authors with the same last name) and omit any abbreviations (e.g., ed. or trans.) used in the full reference. Use the accepted abbreviation for organisation names and include the abbreviation in the first mention.
  • Shorten titles of over four words by omitting ‘A’ or ‘The’, and selecting key words. Preserve the same word order and format (italics or quotations marks) as in the full title.
  1. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.
  2. Tom Edgerson, Drama Therapy (Melbourne: Harrap, 2011), 19.
  3. Gleeson, Medical Experience, 86. SHORTENED REPEATED NOTE

N.B. In each section of this guide, you will see examples of shortened notes for each category of source type.

Author variations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

 

Full note

Bibliography

ONE AUTHOR

1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, …

Fitzgerald, F. Scott.

TWO AUTHORS

2. Hazel Smith and R. T. Dean,

Smith, Hazel, and R.T. Dean.

THREE AUTHORS

3. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Jit Kanwar, …

Davinder, Parsad, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Jit Kanwar.

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

4. Jane Medwell et al., …

Medwell, Jane, David Wray, Louise Poulson, and Richard Fox.

GROUP AUTHOR (ORGANISATION OR GOVERNMENT)

5. World Health Organization [WHO], …

World Health Organization.

BASIC

  • Present the author’s name as it appears on the source.
  • In the note, present the name in normal order;   i.e., First name (and/or initials) Surname.
  • In the bibliography, present the name in reverse order; i.e., Surname, First name (and/or initials).

MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR

  • Two or three authors: Name all authors in the note and bibliography. Join the last author by ‘and’.
  • Four or more authors: In the note, name first author only followed by ‘et al.’. Name all in the bibliography.
  • In the bibliography, present the first author’s name in reverse order; present co-authors’ names in normal order.

GROUP AUTHOR

  • If there is no personal author credited, give the group as the author (even if it is also the publisher).
  • Give the name in full in the first note and in the bibliography entry.
  • Use the accepted abbreviation (include in the first full note) in all subsequent notes if the group has a long name.

Multiple sources in the same note

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Two interesting novels spring to mind ...1

Direct quote

"Now Mr Gatsby do you think I could ..."2

Full note

1. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms (New York: Scribner, 2012), 92; F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), 43.

Subsequent note

3. Hemingway, Farewell to Arms, 58; Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby, 82   .

Bibliography

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner, 2012.

  • Group multiple sources that support a single point into one note and separate by a semicolon.
  • If you have named the sources in your writing, list them in the same order in the note.

Multiple works by same author in same year

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Cultural insights can be found in ...1

Celebrations in certain cultures ...3

Full note

1. Jeremy Smith, “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies,” Journal of Intercultural Studies 30, no. 3 (2009   ): 236, https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559; Jeremy Smith, “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations,” Atlantic Studies 6, no. 1 (2009): 74-75, https://doi.org/10.1080/14788810902731984.

Subsequent notes

3. Smith, “Civilisational Analysis", 240; Smith, "Outside and Against", 69.

  • The above examples relate to multiple works by the same author in the same year when appearing in the same note.
  • Where multiple works by the same author in the same year appear in separate notes, they are formatted as any other source of the same type (eg book, journal article.) Since the tile appears in each note, there is no risk of ambiguity.

Bibliography

  • In the bibliography, list works by the same author name alphabetically by title.

Smith, Jeremy. “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559.

Smith, Jeremy. “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations.” Atlantic Studies, 6, no. 1 (2009): 63-80. https://doi.org/10.1080/14788810902731984.

  • A bibliography of works by a single author is usually arranged chronologically, with the earliest written work first. In this case, multiple titles written in the same year would be listed alphabetically.

No date and/or place of publication

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The vicar had been based in Wakefield for many years when ...2

Direct quote

"I have been in the parish of Wakefield for many years now and recently ..."4

Full note

DATE AND/OR PLACE UNKNOWN

1. Edith M. Harrison, Pacific Travels (n.p.: Collins, n.d.), 56.

PUBLISHER UNKNOWN

2. Oliver Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield (Salisbury, 1766), 29.

Subsequent notes

3. Harrison, Pacific Travels, 82.

4. Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, 16–22.

Bibliography

Goldsmith, Oliver. The Vicar of Wakefield. Salisbury, 1766.

Harrison, Edith M. Pacific Travels. N.p.: Collins, n.d.

  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘n.p.’ (for ‘no place’) in note and ‘N.p.’ in the bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.
  • If the date is unknown, use ‘n.d.’ (for ‘no date’).

Secondary citation

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

A secondary citation is when you refer to a source cited in another source. You should always try to find and cite the original source. Use the reference list from the source you read, and try and find the original source referred to. You can ask a librarian if you need assistance.

If you are using words or ideas from a source that you found quoted or cited in another (secondary) source, you must identify both of the sources.

  • Give one entry that includes both sources.
  • Begin the entry with the original source and add 'cited in' or 'quoted in' (as relevant) in front of the full details for the secondary source.

Full note

1. Fiona Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia,” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58, quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum (Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012), 109.

Subsequent notes

3. Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism.”

Bibliography

Hilferty, Fiona. “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia.” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58. Quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum, Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012.

Creating a bibliography

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

Looking at the elements

Each source cited in a footnote needs a corresponding entry in the bibliography. This entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else.

In Chicago Note style, the bibliography entry and the full footnote contain the same information, with minor formatting differences.

A basic Chicago Note bibliography entry is made up of the following elements:

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR+ URL or DOI

AUTHORS

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work   (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include both titles.

PUBLISHER INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher of the version you used and their location (city). You need to include this for print books and physical media. You don’t need it for journals and newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.
  • For online sources, this is the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document) or the date of posting   (for a post).

URL or DOI

If I accessed this source online, what is its Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

If there is no DOI, what is the address of the source one?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material will have a DOI, but you need to include it if one has been assigned.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • If there is no DOI, include a URL.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise, give the full URL.

Creating the bibliography entry

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of a Chicago Note bibliography entry. Note that every part ends with a full stop, and there is a space after each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR + URL OR DOI

Author

Hall, Jane. L., and Brian. T. Ashton. A Spoonful of Valour

Smith, Gina, Terry L. Ferris, and Erin Henderson. Rainfall

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. …

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.
  • Name all authors if there are more than one. Invert first author’s name only.
  • For more detail on author treatment, see the example section.

Title

Harris, Miles. The Mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. …

Irwell, Maria. “Reimagining Dadaism.” Journal of Abstract Art …

Jensen, Paul. R. Wartime Navy Reminiscences

  • Give the title in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Give both titles if source is part of a larger work.
  • Enclose parts of works in quotation marks and set larger work in italics.
  • Give initial capitals to the first, last and principal words of the title and the subtitle.
  • Separate title and any subtitle by a colon.
  • If no title is shown, give a brief descriptive title, using no italics or quotation marks.

Publisher information

Gourley, Dianne. Action Man. Chicago: Bellinger, 2002.

  • Give city and name of publisher. Add state (initials) or country if extra identification is needed.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘N.p.’ (for ‘No place’) in the bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.

Year

Gardiner, Ian T. Life in Rural Australia. Adelaide: Phoenix, n.d.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

  • Add year after publisher details for books, or in parentheses after issue number for journals.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates (newspapers, magazines).
  • Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

URL/DOI

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

  • Include the DOI when one has been assigned.
  • DOIs begin with ‘https://doi.org/’ eg https://doi.org/10.1086/679716
  • If no DOI, give the URL. Break the URL/DOI (if needed) EITHER after a colon or double slash OR before a single slash or other punctuation marks.

ACCESS DATES

  • No access date is required unless:
  • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
  • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
  • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.
  • Notes for Authors:
  • Some publishers may require an access date so check with the individual publisher before submitting a work for publication.
  • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748.

How to present a bibliography

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

How to set up the bibliography

  • Begin the list with the heading ‘Bibliography’ on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken across a line, break EITHER after a colon or double slash ORbefore a single slash or punctuation mark.

What to include

Unless advised otherwise by your teacher or lecturer:

  • Include an entry for every source you have cited in a note.
  • Do not include entries for sources you have not cited, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • Alphabetise entries by author’s last name (which begins the entry).
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list alphabetically by title under the author’s name.

Example of a Chicago Note bibliography

Bibliography

Craig, Brian. “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

Dϋmling, Albrecht. The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia. Translated by Diana K. Weekes. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

Harrison, Edith M. Pacific Travels. N.p.: Collins, n.d.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

McConville, Chris. “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929.” In The Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013. http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

Moran, Wendy. “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 68–85. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Smith, Jeremy “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 233-248. https://doi.org/10.1080/07256860903003559.

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Changes in Chicago 17th ed.

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

The following is a summary of the main changes. The relevant section of the Chicago Manual of Style is given in brackets. Please check the relevant FedCite page for each source you are citing to ensure accuracy.

Use of ibid.

  • The use of ibid. when repeating a citation listed immediately before is now discouraged in favour of shortened citations (14.29; 14.34).
  • See the “Creating full note and shortened citations” section in FedCite for more detailed information. You will see examples of shortened notes under each source type category in this guide.

The use of permalinks and shortened URLs (14.9; 14.10)

  • Where an online resource has no DOI (Digital Object identifier), a permalink (stable or persistent URL) is preferred.  To help the reader to find the cited source, a URL should include the domain or database name, and should link to a page that identifies the domain or database even when not logged in.

Locations in electronic formats without fixed pages (14.160)

  • Where possible, cite a chapter or paragraph number or a section heading; this will help the reader in finding a specific part of the text.

NEW GUIDELINES ON CITING:

  • Social media content (14.209)
  • Paintings, photographs and sculptures (14.235)
  • Live performances (14.266)
  • Multimedia app content, including video games (14.268)
  • Maps (14.237)
  • Industry standards (14.259)

You can find examples relating to each of the above sources in the relevant FedCite sections.

CHANGES AND EXPANDED CONTENT ON:

Legal and public documents (14.269-305)

  • Updates and additions conforming to the 20th edition of The Bluebook.

Websites and blogs, including social media (14.205–10)

  • The titles of websites with print counterparts (such as newspapers) are italicised; those without print counterparts are not italicised. Blog posts are cited like online newspapers.

Personal communications, including texts and social media posts (14.214)

  • Personal communications can usually be referred to either in the text or in a note, and are rarely included in the bibliography. Include the medium if relevant.

Audiovisual recordings and multimedia (14.261)

  • Elements included will vary depending on the type of source, whether the focus is on a particular contributor (eg composer, performer or other), or on a specific part rather than the whole of the source.

You can find examples relating to each of the above sources in the relevant FedCite sections.

Clarification on avoiding 3-em dashes for authors’ names in bibliographies (14.67)

  • The 3-em dash (———) can present formatting issues; rather than use the 3-em dash when the same author is referred to in multiple works in the bibliography, it is generally better to repeat the author’s name and alphabetise by the title of each book by the same author.

See also: What’s New in the 17th Edition: a partial list of more significant changes, clarifications, updates and additions. (See Part III, Chapter 14 for updates relating to Notes & Bibliography).

Basic

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Travelling through Italy, India and Indonesia provided Elizabeth Gilbert with ... 1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As I travelled through Italy ..."5

Full note

1. Elizabeth Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia (New York: Viking, 2006), 22.

Subsequent notes

5. Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love, 59.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia. New York: Viking, 2006.

  • Give author’s name in normal order (first name surname) in the note, inverted in the bibliography.
  • Give title in full, including any subtitle separated by a colon. Capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose publisher, place and year in parentheses in the note, but not in the bibliography.
  • Add page numbers when referring to a specific page, or page range.

Translation

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Albrecht Dϋmling paints a powerful picture of the Jewish refugee experience in Australia by ...2

Direct quote 

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Jewish refugees in Australia during the ..."6

Full note

2. Albrecht Dϋmling, The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia, trans. Diana K. Weekes (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016), 98.

Subsequent notes

6. Dϋmling, Vanished Musician, 105.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Translated by name of translator. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Dϋmling, Albrecht. The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia. Translated by Diana K. Weekes. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016.

  • Give the author’s name in normal order in the note, inverted in the bibliography.
  • Give title in full, including any subtitle separated by a colon. Capitalise in headline style.
  • Name translator after thew title, preceded by ‘trans.’ in the note, and ‘Translated by’ in the bibliography.
  • Enclose publisher, place and year in parentheses in the note, but not in the bibliography.
  • Add page numbers when referring to a specific page, or page range.

Different edition

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Those new to writing will benefit from the many topics covered in this book including ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Correct grammar is essential because ..."7

Full note

3. William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000), 41–50.

Subsequent notes

7. Strunk and White, Elements of Style, 58.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. # ed. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

  • Add edition description after the title (abbreviate to ‘ed.’).
  • Revised editions (with no edition number) are abbreviated as rev.ed.
  • Edition information is not given for first editions. If no edition statement is shown, assume it is the first.

Volume from a multi-volume work

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Dramatic performance is an art dating from ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent performances by young actors has shown that ..."8

Full note - untitled volume

4. Jennifer Roberts, ed., Dramatic Arts (Sydney: Milton Press, 1987), 1:234.

Full note – volume has a separate title

5. John Smith, ed., The History of Theatre, vol.1, Classical Greece (London: South London Press, 1992), 2-3.

Subsequent notes

8. Roberts, Dramatic Arts, 1:68-73.

9. Smith, History of Theatre, 1:12.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE - untitled volume

Author. Title. Vol. #. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

TEMPLATE - volume has a separate title

Roberts, Jennifer, ed. Dramatic Arts. Vol. 1. Sydney: Milton Press, 1958.

Author. Title of Whole Work. Vol. #, Title of Volume. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Smith, John, ed. The History of Theatre. Vol.1, Classical Greece. London: South London Press, 1992.

  • If the cited volume has its own title, volume number appears after the title of the whole work, followed by a comma, then the title of the volume in italics. This applies to both the full note and the bibliography.
  • The volume number is always written in Arabic numerals.
  • If volumes have been published in different years, include only the date of the volume being cited.

Edited book/ Book chapter

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith discuss the complex topic of taboo ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The silence surrounding infectious disease is often deafening ..."2

Full note

EDITED COLLECTION

1. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, eds., Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

CHAPTER FROM EDITED COLLECTION

2. Janet Brown, “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease,” in Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, ed. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith (New York: Peter Lang, 2001), 86.

  • NB. The word ‘in’ is not capitalised in the note.

Subsequent notes

3. Mills and Smith, Utter Silence, 24.  NB: OMIT ‘ed.’ OR ‘eds.’ IN SUBSEQUENT NOTES
4. Brown, “Silence, Taboo,” 94.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Edited collection

Author/ eds. Title of book. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Mills, Alice, and Jeremy Smith, eds. Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

Book chapter

Author. "Chapter title." In Title of book, edited by authors, Page range. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Brown, Janet. “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease.” In Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, edited by Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, 83–91. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

  • The word ‘In’ is capitalised in the bibliography entry.
  • If citing the collection, give editor/s in author position, followed by ‘ed.’ (or ‘eds.’). Treat remaining elements as for a basic book.
  • If citing a chapter from an edited collection, begin with chapter author and title, followed by title of work, editor/s and page reference to passage being cited; in bibliography give the chapter page range.

Online or e-book

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Great Gatsby is set in the roaring twenties ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Gatsby entered the room with an air of contempt ..."4

Full note

ACCESSED ONLINE

1. Scott Dorkins, Good Times (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.

DOWNLOADED AS E-BOOK

2. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), Kindle.

Subsequent notes

3. Dorkins, Good Times, chap. 10

4. Fitzgerald, Great Gatsby.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Online

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. DOI/URL.

Dorkins, Scott. Good Times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.

Downloaded as an e-book

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. e-reader format.

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Kindle.

  • Treat as for a print book in the relevant category. Additional information relating to online source or ebook format is added at the end of the citation, as detailed below:
  • If a book is consulted online, add DOI or URL.
  • If a DOI or suitable URL is not available for an ebook accessed via a commercial subscription database, add the database name in place of the URL or DOI.
  • If downloaded as a dedicated e-book, add e-reader format. No access date or URL is needed.
  • If pages are not static, give relevant heading or chapter or other numbered division as location reference.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Patient wellbeing is important because ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent studies investigating patient wellbeing have found that ..."6

Full note

1. Chris Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 31.

Subsequent notes

6. Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” 32.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 30–33.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the DOI, URL or database name.

Online with DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The term homophily refers to ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Friends, spouses, romantic partners, co-workers, colleagues, and other professional and recreational associates all tend to be more similar to each other than randomly chosen members of the same ..."9

Full note

4. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology, 115 (2009): 411, https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

Subsequent notes

9. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 406.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. DOI.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115, (2009): 405–50. https://doi.org/10.1086/599247.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the DOI whenever there is one.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Online with URL

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The quality of teaching rounds is often inconsistent due to a range of factors such as ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The method of observation imitates that used by medical students completing medical rounds and ..."8

Full note

3. Wendy Moran, “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 212, http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

Subsequent notes

8. Moran, “Enhancing Understanding,” 72.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. URL.

Moran, Wendy. “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 68–85. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume, and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of the whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the URL if there is no DOI.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Online from database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to recent research ...5

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The quality of treatment is linked to selective contracting due to ..."10

Full note

5. David H. Howard, “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation,” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008): 214, PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

Subsequent notes

10. Howard, “Hospital Quality,” 218.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year):  Database name.

Howard, David H. “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008). PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume, and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of the whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the database name if there is no DOI or suitable URL.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Abstract

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Vitiligo is a condition that ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Many patients receive treatment which increases their quality of life ..."7

Full note

2. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar, “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo,” abstract, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

Subsequent notes

7. Davinder, Dogra, and Kanwar, “Quality of Life,” 22.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Davinder, Parsad, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar. “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo.” Abstract. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume, and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of the whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the DOI, URL or database name.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Kennedy's assassin has been identified as ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The president was shot today as he ..."7

Full note

1. Jim Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy,” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

Subsequent notes

7. Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy.”

Bibliography

Author. “Article title.” Newspaper/Magazine Name, Date.

Hunt, Jim. “Assassin Kills Kennedy.” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.

Separate section

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

There are many restaurants and cafes in Melbourne that serve wonderful African dishes full of exotic spices ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The exotic tastes of Africa have added a new dimension to Melbourne dining"8

Full note

2. Nina Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters,” Age Epicure (Melbourne), June 3, 2008.

Subsequent notes

8. Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters," 5.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name Section Date.

Rousseau, Nina. “Arrival of the Spice Setters.” Age Epicure (Melbourne), June 3, 2008.

  • If the article is in a separate section or supplement, add the name after the title (see Rousseau example above).
  • Supplements and magazines are usually included in a note; it is not normally necessary to include them in the bibliography.
  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets without italicising.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but maybe included when citing special sections or supplements of newspapers.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

No author credited

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent advertisement supporting the Republican candidate ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The race for Governor in the state of ..."3

Full note

3. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor,” New York Times, July 30, 2002, 2.

Subsequent notes

9. “Ad Heats Up Race.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Newspaper name. "Article title." Date.

New York Times. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Letter to the editor

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In a recent letter to the editor ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"I would like to make readers aware that ..."10

Full note

4. Jamila Khan, letter to the editor, Australian, September 7, 2012.

Subsequent notes

10. Khan, letter to editor, 43.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Letter to the editor. Newspaper name, Date.

Khan, Jamila. Letter to the editor. Australian, September 7, 2012.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Online replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Mrs Holt's Sorrow is an excellent example of ...5

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As Mrs Holt entered the room it was apparent that ..."11

Full note

5. Brian Craig, “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow,” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968, 2–3, http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

Subsequent notes

11. Craig, “Mrs Holt's Sorrow,” 2.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author, "Article title," Newspaper name, Date. URL.

Craig, Brian. “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Online edition

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Russia's journey with Scientology has been ...6

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Scientology has been ..."12

Full note

6. Wendy Cole and Janice Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia,” Time, April 13, 1992, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

Subsequent notes

12. Cole and Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse,” 7.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author, "Article title," Newspaper name, Date, URL.

Cole, Wendy, and Janice Castro. “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia.” Time, April 13, 1992. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics), and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in the bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from the beginning of the newspaper name. If the city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.
  • No access date is required unless:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Oliver finds himself in trouble when ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Fagin's boys were always on the lookout for ..."4

Full note: CD

1. Peter FitzSimons, Kokoda, read by Lewis FitzGerald (Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013), audiobook, compact disc.

Full note: ONLINE

2. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, read by Peter Batchelor (New York: Random House Audible, 2013), audiobook, MP3 audio, http://www.audible.com.

Subsequent notes

3. FitzSimons, Kokoda.
4. Dickens, Oliver Twist.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Read by name. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Medium, Format. URL.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Read by Peter Batchelor. New York: Random House Audible, 2013. Audiobook, MP3 audio. http://www.audible.com.

FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Read by Lewis FitzGerald. Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013. Audiobook, compact disc.

  • Treat as for print book and add the reader’s name after the title.
  • If accessed as physical recording, add format at the end. Note Chicago does not abbreviate compact disc to CD.
  • If accessed online, add file format and URL or DOI.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Audio podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A special episode of American Life featured a discussion regarding troubled friendships among teens in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Two best friends now enemies are about to embark on a ..."2

Full note

1. “Frenemies,” September 11, 2009, in This American Life, podcast, 22:00, https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies.

Subsequent notes

3. “Frenemies”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author/performer. "Title of podcast." Date of post/ broadcast. In Program Title. Podcast, medium, duration. URL/ source.

“Frenemies.” September 11, 2009.  In This American Life. Podcast, MP3 audio, 22:00. https://www.thisamericanlife.org/389/frenemies.

  • Give episode (quote marks), podcast title (in italics for Chicago only), description, production entity and date, URL.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Movie, screen or recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Back to the Future is a wonderful adventure story ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Well Marty it's time to get the ..."5

Full note

MOVIE SCREEN

1. Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis (Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985).

DVD

2. Man of Steel, directed by Zach Snyder (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013), DVD.

DVD RE-ISSUE OF EARLIER FILM

3. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1958; Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003), DVD.

ONLINE

4. Argo, directed by Ben Affleck (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012), https://www.apple.com/au/.

Subsequent notes 

5. Back to the Future.

6. Man of Steel.

7. Vertigo.

8. Argo.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

DVD

Title. Directed by name.  City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Back to the Future. Directed by Robert Zemeckis.  Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985. DVD.

Man of Steel. Directed by Zach Snyder. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013. DVD.

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1958. Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.

Online

Title. Directed by name.  City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. URL.

Argo. Directed by Ben Affleck. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012. https://www.apple.com/au/.

  • Give title (italics), roles, and names of primary contributors (e.g., director, writer), studio, and year of release.
  • If focusing on the contribution of the director or writer, begin the entry with him/her followed by the title.
  • If accessing a re-issue of an earlier studio version, include the original release year as well.
  • If accessing online, add URL
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Music recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

A classic song about autumn in New York warms the heart after a long winter.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Autumn in New York, why does it seem so inviting?"5

Full note

ALBUM (CD)

1. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

ALBUM TRACK

2. Frank Sinatra, vocal performance of “Autumn in New York,” by Vernon Duke, recorded October 8, 1957, on Come Fly with Me, Capitol, 1958, LP.

ONLINE MUSIC VIDEO

3. Sheppard, “Geronimo,” YouTube music video, posted August 1, 2014, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw

Subsequent notes

4. Strauss, Don Quixote.

5. Sinatra, “Autumn in New York.”

6. Sheppard, “Geronimo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Songwriter, Composer or Performer. "Title of song." Posted date. Form, running time, URL.

Sheppard. “Geronimo.” Posted August 1, 2014. Video, 4:29. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Sinatra, Frank. Vocal performance of “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Recorded October 8, 1957. On Come Fly with Me. Capitol, 1958, LP.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

  • A music recording can be cited in the notes and bibliography if you are using it as a source. For a general mention, just identify the work in your writing unless extra detail needs to be added in a note.
  • ALBUM: Give principal contributor (performer or composer), album title (italics), any other major contributors, label, year and form. Any useful extra information (e.g., names of other major contributors) is added after the title.
  • TRACK FROM ALBUM: Give performer and title of the song (in quotation marks), songwriter (if different from performer), the recording date (if available), album title (italics), recording label information, year, and form.
  • ONLINE: If accessed online, add URL.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

Private Lives is a great comedy set in the 1930s ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"I think very few people are completely normal really, deep down in their private lives."5

Full note CHICAGO

PLAY

1. Private Lives, by Noel Coward, directed by Sam Strong, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014, DVD.

MUSICAL THEATRE

2. Nice Work If You Can Get It, by Joe DiPietro, music by George and Ira Gershwin, directed by Annette Zol, Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society, Broadford Shire Hall, June 10, 2016, compact disc.

CONCERT

3. Glenda Harris (violin) and Kurt Hegelmann (piano), Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014, compact disc.

RECORDED PERFORMANCE

4. Jerry Seinfeld, I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998 (Los Angeles: Universal, 1998), compact disc.

Subsequent notes

5. Private Lives.

6. Nice Work.

7. Harris and Hegelmann.

8. Seinfeld, I’m Telling You.

Bibliography

Harris, Glenda (violin), and Kurt Hegelmann (piano). Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014, compact disc.

Nice Work If You Can Get It. By Joe DiPietro. Music by George and Ira Gershwin. Directed by Annette Zol. Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society. Shire Hall, Broadford, June 10, 2016, compact disc.

Private Lives. By Noel Coward. Directed by Sam Strong. Melbourne Theatre Company. Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014, DVD.

Seinfeld, Jerry. I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded, Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998. Los Angeles: Universal, 1998, compact disc.

  • Begin with the title (italics), or if the performance is untitled or is focused on individual performance, give the performer/s name at the beginning.
  • Add names of major contributors (writers, composers, directors, etc.), and performance group.
  • Give the venue and date of the performance, if these details are known.
  • If accessing a recording, treat according to the relevant category above and add the form of recording.
  • If accessed as physical recording, add format at the end. Note Chicago does not abbreviate compact disc to CD but Turabian does.
  • If accessing online add URL.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Live performances

Live performances are not normally included in the bibliography, as the reader cannot access them.  You can either use a note or weave the identifying details into the text of your work. However, different units will have different requirements, so seek your teacher’s or lecturer’s advice on their preference for citing such sources.

Specify the name and location of the venue, and the date of the performance; include also as much additional information required to identify the performance.

Speech (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During his speech, Dr Martin Luther King stated with great passion ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"I have a dream!"4

Full note

PRINT TRANSCRIPT

1. Patrick Henry, “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death” (speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775), in The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, ed. Brian MacArthur (London: Penguin, 1995), 88–90.

ONLINE TRANSCRIPT

2. Paul Keating, “The Redfern Address” (speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992), transcript, http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/.

ONLINE VIDEO

3. John F. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner),” speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963, video, https://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

ONLINE AUDIO

4. Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream,” speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963, MP3, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/, 00:01:03.

Subsequent notes

5. Henry, “Give Me Liberty.”

6. Keating, “Redfern Address.”

7. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner.”

8. King, “I Have a Dream.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Speaker's name. "Title of speech." Speech, City, State/Country, Date. Format, duration, URL (if accessed online).

Henry, Patrick. “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death.” Speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775. In The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, edited by Brian MacArthur, 88–90. London: Penguin, 1995.

Keating, Paul. “The Redfern Address.” Speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992. Transcript. http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/extras/.

Kennedy, John F. “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner).” Speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963. Video, 8:28. https://americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

King, Martin Luther, Jr. “I Have a Dream.” Speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963. MP3 audio. http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/.

  • Begin the entry with the speaker. Give the title of the speech in quotation marks, and place and date of the speech.
  • If accessed in a print source, treat like a chapter in a book.
  • If accessed online, add file type, and URL.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Streaming video from a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The central character in Ang Lee's film, Master Chef Chu is struggling to ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Tonight's fabulous menu will really please our diners!" 2

Full note

1. Eat Drink Man Woman, directed by Ang Lee (Kew, Victoria: Umbrella Entertainment, 1994), https://www.kanopy.com/product/eat-drink-man-woman.

Subsequent notes

2. Eat Drink Man Woman.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Name, director. Title. Year. Database name. Publisher, Year. URL.

Lee, Ang, director. Eat Drink Man Woman. 1994. Kanopy. Umbrella Entertainment, 2016. www.kanopystreaming.com/product/eat-drink-man-woman.

  • Include year film was made after the title.
  • Include year published in database after publisher name.
  • Only include an access date when:
    • There is no publication, posting, updated, or modified date; or
    • The resource is continually updated, for example, online encyclopaedias, and dictionaries such as Grove Music Online, Meriam-Webster Dictionary, Encyclopaedia Britannica, etc.
    • See Chicago Manual of Style 17th ed.: rule 14.12, p. 748, 14.207 pp. 845-846, and 14.233 pp. 858-859.

Television series episode

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using Chicago Note 16th or Chicago Note 17th as there a number of changes in the 17th edition.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " "

"Lorelai, how is your anxiety today?"4

Full note

BROADCAST

1. Gilmore Girls, season