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Introduction

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You can use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication. Alternatively, you can check the archived APA6th Blog.

APA is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as the author’s family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page numbers (if applicable).

For each source cited in the text, you need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - APA Citing and referencing subject guide

Archived APA 6th Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author in your own words. When you are paraphrasing you must acknowledge each author or source of information with a citation.

Use round brackets to add the author’s family name and the year of publication, or use the author’s family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader locate the source of the information in a lengthy document. Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional and is not a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

When the name of the author appears outside of brackets as part of a sentence, after the first citation in each paragraph you do not need not to include the year in subsequent citations in the same paragraph as long as the study cannot be confused with others and the author’s name is part of the sentence.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that…. The population studied by Felton and Royal was…..

Parenthetical citations

All citations in brackets (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within brackets) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

General rules for in-text citations when quoting

When you are using a direct quote in your writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information.

Direct quotes are used if you are using the exact words of the author. Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number. Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does not contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the citation.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form: without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new line, and indent and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details in brackets.

Basic treatment for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

  • Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).

BASIC CITATIONS

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

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MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

  • Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

Three, four or five authors 

  • Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.

(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST CITATION

(Oakes et al., 1994) OR Oakes et al. (1994) … ALL FOLLOWING CITATIONS

Six or more authors 

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.

(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS

Group author (Government or organisation)

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put this extra line in your reference list:
  • WHO – see World Health Organization.

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS

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LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
  • Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

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NO AUTHOR

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each major word.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

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MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).


MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR

  • When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).


NO YEAR/DATE

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

(Smith, n.d.)  or Smith (n.d.)


QUOTATIONS

  • Add the page or other location/ label references when quoting from a specific part of the source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add the citation after the closing quotation mark.

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate paragraph, double spaced with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

No page numbers

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give the closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citation

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

  • A secondary citation is when you refer to a source cited in another source. You should always try and find the original source. Use the reference list from the source you read to try and find the original source referred to. You can ask a librarian if you need assistance.
  • You should only use a secondary citation if you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Book

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Australia.

Creating a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Each source that is cited in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + Title+ Publisher Information or DOI or Retrieved from URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initials of their given names.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

2–7 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour

8 or more authors

Name the first six and last authors. Join last author by three dots (‘…’).

Donat, T. G., Jenkins, M., Baysch, V., Adamson, E., Wilkins, W. L., Lingstrom, A., … Farr, P. B.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health

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YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates, such as newspapers. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, p. 13.

Same author, Same year

Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia

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TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the exact words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the exact wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate the title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics are used for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

Edition number

  • Different edition: Add edition number (in round brackets, no italics) to the title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first and no statement is needed.
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

No title

If there is no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets with no italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Brisbane, Australia: Liberty Press.

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PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • If published in the USA, give city, US state (initials) and publisher.
  • If published outside the USA, give city, country and publisher.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the publisher is also the author, use ‘Author’ instead of repeating name.

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Chicago, IL: Bellinger.

Temple, P. (2009). Truth. Melbourne, Australia: Text.

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report. Sydney, Australia: Author.

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DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier [DOI]?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all online material has a DOI but you need to include one if it has, even for print material.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t give the URL or retrieval date.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • There is no full stop at the end. Give it exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi:’ (always use lower case). New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

doi:10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

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UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR [URL] AND RETRIEVAL DATE

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online that do not have a DOI. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there, if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the exact URL.
  • Do not include the retrieval date unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.
  • URLs should not be live in your reference list, so you will need to remove the hyperlink by highlighting the URL, right clicking and selecting “Remove hyperlink” in the pop-up menu.

Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com/

How to present a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Command+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Command+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T.D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. New York: NY: Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002). Statistical analysis primer. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A. & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and place and name of publisher.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Three, four or five authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, Steven J., & Deschenes, Michael R. (2012). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

  • List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Six or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia: Pearson.

  • List all authors, placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Eight or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Edition number

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When citing an entire edited book, use the editor as the author. If you are only using one chapter as your source, refer to the next section, ‘Book chapter from an edited book’.

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Saligari (2017) states …

Victorian law is very clear regarding … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The law relating to divorce and property settlements now covers…" (Saligari, 2017, p. 101).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Editor. (Ed.). (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Saligari, N. (Ed.) (2017). The law handbook 2017: Your practical guide to the law in Victoria. Fitzroy, VIC: Fitzroy Legal Service.

  • Use the editor as the author, followed by (Ed.). If there is more than one editor, list them all as for multiple authors, followed by (Eds.).

Book chapter from an edited collection

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, not the editors of the entire work. If you are using the entire book as a source, refer to the previous section, ‘Edited book’.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use the chapter author’s family name and the year of publication.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Chapter Author. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor (Ed.)., Book title (page numbers). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

  • Give the chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname of editor followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’ if multiple editors. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after the title.
  • The editor’s given name initials are before the family name in this format.

E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

e-book with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an ebook has a DOI, you must use this format.

From a database

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Available from http:xxxxxx

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

  • Use the URL of the ebook platform homepage, not the link you accessed it from through the library.

Accessed on e-reader

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [Platform]. Available from http:xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

  • After the title, add the platform in square brackets. Then add the website you accessed the book from.

e-book without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [File type]. Retrieved from http:xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Some books are available online as a PDF or other file type. After the title, add the file type in square brackets, then the URL the book was retrieved from.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI 

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

Print or online with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Three, four or five authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Name all authors the first time you refer to the source.
  • Separate each author by a comma. Join the last author by ‘&’ or ‘and’ in the sentence.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.
  • Later, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within the same paragraph in a sentence – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology26(4), 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

  • Use all the authors in the reference.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Six or seven authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Aleksankina, K., Heal, M. R., Smith, L., Dore, A. J., Van Oijen, M., & Reis, S. (2018). Global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of an atmospheric chemistry transport model: The FRAME model (version 9.15.0) as a case study. Geoscientific Model Development, 11(4), 1653-1664. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-11-1653-2018

  • Use all the authors in the reference up to seven authors.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
    • However, all of the following formats are currently considered correct APA Style:
      • https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
      • doi:10.1037/arc0000014

Eight or more authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Authors. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014

Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

Online with URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall and use the journal homepage for the URL. If the journal is freely available online, such as open access, introduce the URL with ‘Retrieved from’.

Print

  • As for online, but without a URL or DOI.

From a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age, p. 4. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do not italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as database homepage URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbucks … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

Online replica of a print edition

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, pp. 2–3. Retrieved from https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

Online edition

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name. DOI or URL

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • If the article is a digitised replica of a print edition, give the publication date of the print edition and include the page numbers. If the article is posted on a media outlet’s website, give the date of the post.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as database homepage URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

According to Hunt (1963) the assassination of President Kennedy has rocked …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title [Type of article if required]. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. 

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune, 1, pp. 4–6.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

No author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in Headline Case enclosed by double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

If no page numbers are provided, such as from an online source, then include the paragraph number (you will need to count these yourself). A paragraph number will be abbreviated para. (eg para. 3).

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Article title. (Year/Date). Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian, p. 23. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Place the title of the article in the author position
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year

Act of Parliament

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section numbers (if applicable) in brackets.

  • It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.
  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s. Retrieved from URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

Goods Act 1958 (Vic)

Statutes online

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Statute references

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, for example, the jurisdiction of the legislation appears in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute. If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.
  • If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Legal cases

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

  • For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.
  • If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Civil law cases

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimons, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Reader) [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Reader) [CD]. Sydney, Australia: ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (P. Batchelor, Reader) [Audio file]. Available from http://www.audible.com.

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add the reader’s name in round brackets with given name initial first, then family name. Add recording format in square brackets.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give place and name of the record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details; use ‘Available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Give the full date the podcast was produced or uploaded, not just the year.

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29, 3:29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Episode title. Program title [Form]. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give primary contributor, role and date produced or uploaded.
  • Give the title of the episode (no italics) followed by the title of whole podcast/program in italics.
  • Give the URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription.

Music recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. (Year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist Name]. On Title of album [Form]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

Single track (LP)

Duke, V. (1934). Autumn in New York [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On Come fly with me [Vinyl recording]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol. (1958).

Single track (online)

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world. On Armageddon [MP3]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

Album (CD)

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol.

  • SINGLE TRACK/SONG: Give the name of songwriter and year of copyright. If the songwriter is not the recording artist, add recording artist in square brackets after the song title (no italics). Give the album title (italics) preceded by ‘On’. Give place and name of recording label. Add recording date at end if different from copyright year.
  • WHOLE ALBUM: Give name of album recording artist. Give album title (italics).

Speech or performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You should always try and find an authoritative transcript or recording of a speech, then cite and reference the source you use, such as a book, website or online video. If you cannot find a transcript or recording, follow the format below for citing and referencing a speech. For more information, see the APA6th Style Blog.

In-text citations

If you are using a transcript or recording, cite the author or editor of the source and the publication year. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

Paraphrasing

Performance

Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

From another source:

In his famous speech, Dr. King described …  (Smith, 2009).

If you can’t find a transcript or recording

Martin Luther King's often quoted catchphrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Follow the same rules as for paraphrasing, but additionally place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote if a recording, or the page number if from a transcript.

"Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared … (Kennedy, 1963, June 26, 2:41).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Speech

If you are using a transcript or recording, reference the author or editor of the source and the publication year. See the relevant section on FedCite to see how to reference the type of source you use, such as a blog, an online video or a podcast. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech. The following example is how to reference a speech if you are unable to locate it in a transcript or recording.

Speaker. (Year/Date). Title of speech [Speech]. Description of speech and location.

Clark, H. (2007, April 25). Prime Minister’s 2007 ANZAC Day message [Speech]. Speech presented on ANZAC Day 2007, New Zealand.

Performance (CD)

TEMPLATE

Performer’s name (Performer) & Director’s name (Director). (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Date of performance recording).

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …"
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add the original recording date if different or more specific than the publication date.

Streaming video from a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

InformitTV (2016) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Database name. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

  • Include the database name in the author position.
  • Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Television series episode

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the names of the primary contributors as the authors.

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title of episode [Form]. In Principal Contributor (Role), Title of series. City, State/Country: Production/Distribution Company. OR DOI/URL, Date of the broadcast.

Television episode broadcast

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002). Application anxiety [Television series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Producers), Gilmore girls. Melbourne, Australia: Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles, and episode title (no italics).
  • Give the city, station, and broadcast date.

Online video

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2014). The eternity ring [Television series episode; Video file]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

  • Give the URL of the site where you accessed the item.

DVD (whole series)

Gilligan, V. (Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [Television series; DVD]. Los Angeles, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).
  • Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets preceded by the principal contributors and roles.

Video or film (studio production)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the names of the primary contributors as the authors.

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985, 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Country: Distributor/Studio.

Film

Zemeckis, R. (Writer/Director), Gale, R. (Writer), & Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1985). Back to the future [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Z. (Director), & Goyer, D. S. (Writer). (2013). Man of steel [Blu-ray]. United States: Warner Bros.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (2003). Vertigo [DVD]. United States: Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958.

Online

Affleck, B. (Director), Terrio, C. (Writer), & Clooney, G. (Producer). (2012). Argo [Video file]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, and/or producer) and their roles. The examples above show various roles to illustrate options.
  • Give the title in italics. Add the form accessed in square brackets (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of the original release.
  • Give the place and name of the studio or, if accessed online, give URL of the site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘Retrieved from’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.

Video game

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the game title as the author.

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Fallout: New Vegas, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title [Form; Video game]. (Year). Place: Publisher.

Fallout: New Vegas [CD-ROM; Video game]. (2010). Rockville, Maryland: Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title (italics), then form and description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give the year of production. Give the place and name of producer, or URL if accessed online.
  • Game developer can be given in the author position.

Video podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use either the producer’s, presenter's or interviewee's family name as the author.

Paraphrasing

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops ... and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year/Date). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

  • Include details of the producer, presenter or interviewee etc. in the author position.
  • Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • Retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Web document (pdf)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document. If the document does not contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number, abbreviated as para.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Document type if required]. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a web page document, include the authors (which may be different from the site hosting it). If no authors are stated then use the company or organisation name.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • Add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.
  • A retrieval date is not needed because the content is fixed.

Website post or page (general treatment)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the World Health Organization (2018, March) ...

The My Aged Care website offers many support services for aged care including ... (Department of Health, 2018).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers unless they are in PDF format. In this case, use the paragraph number (you will have to count them yourself).
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is not a PDF document.
According to the Department of Health (2018) the services offered by My Aged Care "involve a wide range of people to make sure it meets users’ needs" (para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Retrieved from URL

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of the post/page (no italics). If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If the material is non-routine, add a description of form in square brackets.
  • Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of the home page, whichever is more direct/reliable.

Website

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Images not reproduced in your work

In APA, an image refers to things like a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you discuss in your work but do not reproduce. In this case, cite and reference the image according to the source you found it in, such as a website or book. The author will be the creator of the image.

Images reproduced in your work

figure is something such as a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you do reproduce in your work. Figures need a caption, citations in the text and a reference. If you are reproducing an image in your work, please see the relevant section for your figure type.

In-text citations

In the work by Wood (1930), we can see...

...in the eyes of the subject (McCurry, 1985).

References

Reference according to the type of source you saw the image in.

Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Retrieved from https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565

McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg

Except: if you saw it in person at a gallery or exhibition. In this case, please see the “Visual Artwork” section of this page.

Figure from a book or journal article

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So, if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Below the figure

Print book 

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Book Title”, by Author, Year, Place of Publication p. xx. City, State/Country: Publisher.

Online journal article

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Journal Article Title”, by Author, Year, Journal name, Volume(Issue), p. xx. Retrieved from URL or DOI

  •  

Figure 1. Hunting family by Indigenous artist Hippy Wanganeen. Reprinted from "Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists," by M. Fletcher, 2013, Artlink, 34(2), p. 101. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink, 34(2), 101-102. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Web page

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

The diagram shows . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016, Figure 2).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Webpage title, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Reprinted from Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version, by National Cancer Institute, 2016, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Fidelity. (2016). The world’s largest economies are all in expansion, though at various phases of the business cycle. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/business-cycle-update-December-2016

  • The image title is NOT italicised.
  • Also, include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (The eye, n.d.).

The diagram shows . . . (The eye, n.d., Figure 3).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Database, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 3. The eye. Reprinted from Human anatomy and physiology – special senses, by Anatomy TV, (n.d.), Retrieved from https://www.anatomy.tv/

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

The eye [Database image]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Creative commons

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

In-text citations

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

The diagram shows . . . (West, 2012, Figure 4).

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Creative Commons source, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 4. Classroom tour 3. Reprinted from Flicker, by Kathy Cassidy, 2006, Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • Include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Cassidy, K. (2006). Classroom tour 3. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no creator recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

The city of Casey as shown in Figure 4 … (Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012).

The Victorian Electoral Commission (2012) published a very useful map, shown in Figure 4 …

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Source Name, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 1: City of Casey: Local council boundaries. Reprinted from by Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form]. DOI/URL or Place of publication: Publisher

Online

Victorian Electoral Commission. (2012). City of Casey: Local council boundaries [Map]. Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

  • Give the author and the year of publication (or date of post). Then the title of the item (no italics) and add form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Photograph’) in square brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description in the same square brackets as form.

Print

Timms, P. E. (2006). Colonial settlement in Tasmania. Hobart, Australia: Tiger Press.

  • Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Title should be in italics. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: … (Timms, 2006, Figure 2).

Visual artwork

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.

In-text citations

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

If you view artwork in person, such as at a gallery or museum visit, you refer to it in the text through a citation and include a reference. No caption is required as you cannot insert the original artwork into your document!

If you do want to include a picture of the artwork in your document, you will need to caption and reference it according to the source you retrieved the reproduction from, such as a book or a website, but include the medium in the reference as well.

Within the written body 

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.
  • Use the artist’s name as the author

Figure 3 depicts ….. (Rackham, 1904).

The artwork by Rackham (1904)….

Below the figure

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Title or description of image. Adapted/Reprinted from Webpage title, by Author, Year, Retrieved from URL

Figure 3. Windfalls [Drawing]. Reprinted from National Gallery of Victoria, by A. Rackham, 1904, Retrieved from https://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/explore/collection/work/42676/

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium]. City, State/Country: Gallery. OR DOI/URL

Original artwork is seen in person

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

  • Give the name of the artist, year artwork was created, the title of artwork (italics), medium (square brackets, no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery you saw the artwork at.

Online reproduction

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Retrieved from http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

  • Give the artist, year, title, medium, and URL.

Print reproduction

Bryant, H. (Ed.). (1993). Australian artists. Melbourne, Australia: Larwitt.

Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant, 1993, p. 46)’.

Blog post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvanian student bought WMD ingredients …

A Pennsylvanian student has been buying WMD ingredients … (Daly, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … " (Daly, 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Daly, Michael. (2014, January 29). Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the post as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Facebook post

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) is pleased to announce ...

A recent announcement by Coles states that … (Coles Supermarket, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that "Our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …" (Coles Supermarket, 2014, para 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Coles Supermarkets. (2014, January 2). Good news: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the post as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Forum comment

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that …

Recent criticism leveled at Twitter search functions have … (GeekBoy, 2008, October 9).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …" (GeekBoy, 2009, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

GeekBoy. (2008, October 9). Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search? [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the comment as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Tweet

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

In a recent Twitter, Barack Obama paid tribute to Aretha Franklin who was well known as the Queen of Soul Obama, 2018).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"In her voice, we could feel our history, all of it and in every shade—our power and our pain, our darkness and our light, our quest for redemption and our hard-won respect" (Obama, 2018, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Obama, Barack. (2018, August 17). Aretha helped define the American experience. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/1030129887623958538

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the tweet as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • Retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian Impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Taylor's (2013) exhibition catalogue presents Australian impressionists who have recently exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ..." (Taylor, 2013, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. City, State/Country: Publisher.  DOI/URL

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, E. (2013). Australian impressionists in France [Exhibition catalogue]. Melbourne, Australia: National Gallery of Victoria.

Brochure (online)

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. DOI or Retrieved from URL

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • Give author and publication year or date as shown on the document. Give title in italics.
  • Add a description in square brackets (no italics) to the title.

Conference paper presented

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian Impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Wenzel (1998, June) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Films of Fellini have been very popular … (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Fellini's films always drew much attention from …" (Wenzel, 1998, June, p. 6).

Reference list

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

TEMPLATE

Presenter. (Year, Month). Title. Paper presented at Meeting Name, Place.

Wenzel, B. Q. (1998, June). Films of Fellini. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, Australia.

  • Give year and month of the conference, the title of paper (italics), followed by name and location of the meeting.

Conference paper published in proceedings

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour may benefit from … (Carbone et al., 2002).

Carbone et al. (2002) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour … (Carbone, et al., 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country, Publisher. DOI/URL

Carbone, A., Mitchell, I., Gunstone, D., & Hurst, J. (2002). Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour. In B. Werner (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 533-534). doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

Whole proceedings

Murphy, C. (2004). Job design and leadership. In G. Stewart, & P. Hyland (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association. Rockhampton, Australia: CQU.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, and title of the paper (no italics).
  • Give editor and title of proceedings. (Use initial capitals for conference name in the title.)
  • Add publication information or DOI. Give URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Course materials

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material in the reference list**

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES, AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, use the following format.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought-tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title[Format]. Other identifying detail or Retrieved from URL or DOI

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. 2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fl1D5Gg76dA

Print handout

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture handout]. Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, Australia.

  • The title for these sources is not in italics.

Encyclopaedia entry

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source**

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page or paragraph number(s) (if online).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Print

Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In Science Encyclopedia (5th ed., pp. 501–508). New York, NY: Academic Resources.

e-Book

McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com/

Online

Watergate scandal. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/

No author

The World Book encyclopedia. (2007). Chicago: World Book.

  • Give the author of entry if one is named, otherwise use the entry title.
  • Give the title of the entry (no italics) and the title of the whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give the page and any edition and volume numbers after the title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide the URL of the source (use the permanent link).
  • Include a retrieval date if the content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Interview transcript

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal interviews are those you conduct yourself to obtain more information to support a point you are making, such as emailing a professor. In this case, treat it as personal communications. 

Research participant interviews are if you interviewed people as part of your own research methodology. These do not need to be cited or referenced.

In-text citations

Use the name of the person being interviewed in the citation.

Paraphrasing

During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. (Year, Date). Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer) [Format]. Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong (S. E. Ambrose, Interviewer) [Transcript]. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications.
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give a description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Media release

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Qantas, 2011).

Qantas (2011) announced …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and the paragraph number(s).

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … " (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Date). Title [Description]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Qantas. (2011, October 29). Response to industrial action [Media release]. Retrieved from http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

MIMS Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Single reference:

... to ameliorate pain (MIMS Australia, n.d.).

Multiple references:

If you have multiple drug references from MIMS Online, reference them using a hyphen and lower-case letter after the n.d. (-a, -b, -c, etc), and in alphabetical order in the reference list:

... might use Advil (MIMS Australia, n.d.-a). Panadol might be used for older children (MIMS Australia, n.d.-b) ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number (count manually) as part of the in-text reference.

Using section name:

Coumadin is “completely absorbed after oral administration with peak concentration generally attained within the first 4 hours” (MIMS Australia, n.d., 5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties).

Using paragraph number:

Advil in small children is used for the “temporary relief of pain, discomfort …” (MIMS Australia, n.d., para. 7).

Reference list

Single reference:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Coumadin. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/FullPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=warfarin&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=3050001_2

Multiple references:

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-a). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

MIMS Australia. (n.d.-b). Panadol (children) 7+ years soluble tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=panadol&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.

  • Put the title (in this case the drug) in sentence case (the first word of the sentence and proper nouns start with a capital letter).
  • Follow the specific entry with In [encyclopaedia title], with the encyclopaedia title in italics. (In this case, In MIMS Online.)
  • n.d. (no date) is used for online encyclopaedias where the content is continuously updated
  • Use the URL of the specific page (note: URL shorteners are acceptable, if stable)
  • Include the date you looked at the MIMS entry (MIMS Online is being constantly updated, so information might change with time)

Personal communication

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in the surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • If class or lecture notes were taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

No reference entry required

(E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Report, government or corporate

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the 2016 Defence White Paper there are … (Department of Defence, 2016).

Outback Windmills are now subject to … (Department of Primary Industries, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …" (Department of Health, 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Series number). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

PDF 

Department of Defence. (2016). 2016 Defence white paper. Retrieved from http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

Print

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health 2004 (AIHW Cat. No. AUS 44). Canberra, Australia: Author.

  • If published by the author, use the word 'Author' for the publisher name.

Review

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences … (Schembri, 2008).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Croggon (2014) commented that "Private Lives is a play that resonates with many audiences because ..." p. 8.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. (Year/Date). Title of review [Review of Work reviewed, role and name of principal contributor, Year of production/release]. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

Film review (print newspaper)

Schembri, J. (2008, November 10). [Review of the motion picture Australia, directed by B. Luhrmann, 2008]. The Age, p. 8.

Theatre review (online)

Croggon, A. (2014, January 31). [Review of the play Private lives, by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014.] The Guardian Australia. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog?page=46

  • Give the author and date of review.
  • Give the title of the review followed by a description (no italics except for title of work being reviewed) in square brackets. If the review has no title, give a description alone.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or app

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Use the software title in place of the author
  • Use the version in place of the year.

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via Bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow, Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word, Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title (Version number) [Form]. (Year). City, State/Country: Company. OR DOI/URL

Mobile phone (app)

Weather Flow (Version 1.5.0) [Mobile phone application]. Available from http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

Computer software

Microsoft Word (Version 16.0.4639.1000) [Computer software]. Available from https://www.microsoft.com

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give the title of software (no italics) followed by the version number in round brackets. Add a description in square brackets after the version number. Give place and name of the company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Standards, Australian

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Residential timber framed construction techniques are … (Standards Australia, 2010).

Standards Australia (2010) claim that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames "have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …" (Standards Australia, 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number). City, State/Country: Publisher. Or URL

Standards Australia. (2010). Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). Sydney: Standards Australia.

Standards Australia. (2013). Scaffold decking components (AS/NZS 1577:2013). Retrieved from http://www.saiglobal.com

Thesis

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfunctional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional drivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

Print (unpublished)

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. 

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Online from a repository

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. DOI/URL

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

Online from a library database

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Available from Database. (Accession/Order Number).

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of the institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give the URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.

Introduction

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You can use the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association 7th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication. Alternatively, you can check the APA 7th Style Blog.

APA is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as the author’s family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page numbers (if applicable).

For each source cited in the text, you need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Text Box

Additional resources

APA Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

When you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote in your writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information (whether print or online).

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author in your own words. When you are paraphrasing you must acknowledge each author or source of information with a citation.

Use round brackets to add the author’s family name and the year of publication, or use the author’s family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader locate the source of the information in a lengthy document. Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional and is not a requirement of the APA referencing style.

In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

When the name of the author appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the year in subsequent non-parenthetical citations in the same paragraph as long as the study cannot be confused with others.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that…. The population studied by Felton and Royal was…..

Parenthetical citations

All parenthetical citations (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within parentheses) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

General rules for in-text citations when quoting

When you are using a direct quote in your writing, you must acknowledge each author or source of information.

Direct quotes are used if you are using the exact words of the author. Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number. Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does not contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings, and paragraph numbers as part of the citation.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotations more than 40 words in length need to be in block form: without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new line, and indent and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details in brackets.

Basic treatment for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing, whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

  • Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).

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BASIC CITATIONS

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

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AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

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MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

  • Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

Three or more authors 

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication.

(Donat et al., 2002)

Group author (Government or organisation)

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS

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LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
  • Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

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NO AUTHOR

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each major word.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

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MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).


MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR

  • When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

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NO YEAR/DATE

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

(Smith, n.d.)  or Smith (n.d.)


QUOTATIONS

  • Add the page or other location/ label references when quoting from a specific part of the source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add the citation after the closing quotation mark.

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate doubled-spaced paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter et al. (2000) note that:

No page numbers

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give the closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • A secondary citation is when you refer to a source cited in another source. You should always try to find and cite the original source. Use the reference list from the source you read, and try and find the original source referred to. You can ask a librarian if you need assistance.
  • You should only use a secondary citation if you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Pearson Australia.

Creating a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Each source that is cited in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + Title+ Publisher Information or DOI or URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initials of their given names.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Picador.

2–20 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join the last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour

21 or more authors

Name the first nineteen authors and the last author. Join the last author by three dots (‘…’).

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full, even if you have abbreviated it within the text.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health

YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates, such as newspapers. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, 13.

Same author, Same year

Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the exact words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the exact wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate the title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics are used for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

Edition number

  • Different edition: Add edition number (in round brackets, no italics) to the title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first and no statement is needed.
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

No title

If there is no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets with no italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Liberty Press.

PUBLICATION INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media.
  • For online sources, you will usually use a DOI or URL.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • The publisher of a print source or broadcast media.
  • If the publisher is also the author, omit the publisher from the reference instead of repeating the name.
  • The location is only needed if the material is associated with a particular location, such as a conference.
  • A DOI if the source has one
  • The URL for online sources if there is no DOI

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Bellinger.

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report.

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DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all online material has a DOI but you need to include one if it has, even for print material.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t give the URL.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • There is no full stop at the end. It needs to be prefixed with http:// or https://

http://doi.org/10.1086/529076

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UNIFORM RESOURCE LOCATOR [URL] AND RETRIEVAL DATE

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online that do not have a DOI. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet.
  • Provide the URL that links directly to the source.
  • When a website is the source for a webpage, give the website name before the URL.
  • The retrieval date is only included for content that is designed to change over time, such as social media posts. In this case, preface the URL with Retrieved Year, Month Day, from http://xxxxx

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

How to present a reference list

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Command+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Command+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • Do not add line breaks manually to the hyperlink; it is acceptable if your word-processing program automatically adds a break or moves the hyperlink to its own line.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T.D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. https://doi.org/10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002). Statistical analysis primer. Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A. & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

MIMS Australia. (n.d.). Advil childrens 2-7 years chewable tablets. In MIMS Online. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www-mimsonline-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/Search/AbbrPI.aspx?ModuleName=Product%20Info&searchKeyword=advil&PreviousPage=~/Search/QuickSearch.aspx&SearchType=&ID=98170001_2

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Changes in APA 7th ed.

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

There are a number of changes that have been made to APA style referencing from the 6th edition to the 7th edition. Please check with your lecturer which edition you need to use for your referencing. The following is a summary of the major changes that have been made. Please check the relevant FedCite page for each source you are citing to ensure accuracy.

URLS

  • URLS no longer need to be preceded with ‘Retrieved from’ if the content is unlikely to change. If the content is likely to change, it is more appropriate to use n.d. (no date) for the page date and include the date of access.
  • Use the most specific date available.
  • Website names are now included if it is different to the author of the page.
  • Web page titles are italicised in the same way that other titles are.
  • The URL is able to be live, so the hyperlink does not need to be broken.

Old

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. Retrieved 2019, November 16, from https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

New

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

DOI

  • Any resource with a DOI needs to have it included in the reference, even if you accessed a print version.
  • The DOI needs to be in URL form (https://doi.org/); other forms of a DOI are not acceptable.
  • If an electronic resource is accessed from a database but does not have a DOI, reference it as for print, with the publisher details.

Old

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

New

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.

E-BOOKS

  • E-books no longer need the form listed (such as Kindle) as long as the content is the same.
  • The publisher now needs to be included in the reference in the same way as print books.
  • If the e-book has a DOI, this must be included as well. If not, reference e-books accessed from databases in the same way as a print book. E-books accessed from other online sources or from e-readers should include the URL.

Old

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

New

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby. Text Publishing. http://www.amazon.com

Bruck, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https://doi.org/10.1007978-90-481-2473-2

PUBLISHER LOCATION

  • The location is no longer required in publication details.

Old

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

New

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

SIX OR MORE AUTHORS

  • Up to twenty authors are now listed in a reference before ellipsis are used.
  • If there are more than 20 authors, include an ellipsis after the 19th author, and then the last listed author.

Old 

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., …, Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

New

Marinovich, M. L., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E. P., Von Minckwitz, G., Brennan, M. E., & Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djs528

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics, 27(1), 1935–1968. https://doi.org/10.0000/3mp7y-537

IN-TEXT CITATION

  • Any source with three or more authors is immediately shortened by et al.

Old

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

New

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

CONTRIBUTOR

  • There are clear guidelines when including contributors other than authors or editors, for example when citing a podcast, the episode needs to be included; for a TV series episode, the writer and director are cited. See each source for more details.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Pearson.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and name of publisher
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.
  • When the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx 

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with ‘&’.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Three to twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and year of publication.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer et al., 2016).

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer et al., 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Kraemer, W., Fleck, S. J., & Deschenes, M. R. (2012).  Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Pearson.

  • List all authors, placing ‘& before the last name.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version

More than twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

  • List the first nineteen authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • If the book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Edition number

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing an entire edited book, use the editor as the author. If you are only using one chapter as your source, refer to the next section, ‘Book chapter from an edited book’.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Editor. (Ed.). (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Mills, A. & Smith, J. (Eds.). (2001). Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable. Peter Lang.

  • Use the editor as the author, followed by (Ed.). If there is more than one editor, list them all as for multiple authors, followed by (Eds.).
  • If the edited book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

Chapter from edited collection

An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, not the editors of the entire work. If you are using the entire book as a source, refer to the previous section, ‘Edited book’.

IN TEXT CITATIONS

  • Use the chapter author’s family name and the year of publication.

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Chapter Author. (Year). Chapter title. In Editor (Ed.)., Book title (page numbers). Publisher. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). Peter Lang.

  • An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.
  • Give the chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname of editor followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’ if multiple editors. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after title.
  • The editor’s given name initials are before the family name in this format. If the edited book has a DOI, include this even if you consulted the print version.

E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

e-book with DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an e-book has a DOI, you must use this format.

e-book from a database, without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. John Wiley.

  • If an e-book from a database does not have a DOI, cite it as you would a print book, including the name of the publisher.

e-book accessed on e-reader, without DOI

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby. http://www.amazon.com

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.

e-book without DOI, with non-database URL

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Include the URL the book was retrieved from.

Single author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Online with DOI

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0720-048X(12)70007-4

Print

Normoyle, C. (2013). Nurses' wellbeing. Australian Nursing Journal, 20(10), 30–33.

Online with URL (no DOI)

Moran, W. (2014). Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3). http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI or URL.

Two authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Print or online with DOI

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI.

Three to twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Use only the first listed author’s family name followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva et al., 2012).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva et al., 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol (issue), xx–xx. DOI

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(4), 541-549. https://doi.org/10.1002/acp.2825

  • List all authors, separated by commas, and place ‘& before the last name.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI.

More than twenty authors

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Human colonization of Australia … (Tobler et al., 2017).

Tobler et al. (2017) state that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Reconstructing the genetic history of Aboriginal Australia is greatly complicated by past government policies of enforced population relocation and child removal that have eroded much of the physical connection between groups and geography in modern Australia" (Tobler et al., 2017, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Tobler, R., Rohrlach, A., Soubrier, J., Bover, P., Llamas, B., Tuke, J., Bean, N., Abdullah-Highfold, A., Agius, S., O'Donoghue, A., O'Loughlin, I., Sutton, P., Zilio, F., Walshe, K., Williams, A. N., Turney, C. S. M., Williams, M., Richards, S. M., Mitchell, ... Cooper, A. (2017). Aboriginal mitogenomes reveal 50,000 years of regionalism in Australia. Nature, 544(7649), 180-184. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature21416

  • List the first nineteen authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).
  • DOI format: DOIs should be presented as hyperlinks beginning with https:// or http://.
  • It is not necessary to include the words “Retrieved from” or “Accessed from” before a DOI

Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589.  http://www.jmptonline.org

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.

Online with non-database URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI.

Online from database (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database

Print (no DOI)

  • Do not include URL or name of database.

From a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age, p. 11.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year.
  • Include the DOI, if there is one.
  • If there is no DOI, omit the URL for newspaper articles accessed from a database.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbucks … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Online replica of print edition

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, 2–3. https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

  • If the article is a digitised replica of a print edition, give the publication date of the print edition and include the page numbers.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online edition

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day, as well as the URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Online article on a news website

Avramove, N. (2019, January 3). The secret to a long, happy, healthy life? Think age-positive. CNN. https://edition.cnn.com/2019/01/03/health/respect-toward-elderly-leads-to-long-life-intl/index.html

  • If the article is accessed from a news website, the title of the article is italicised, whereas the name of the website or media outlet is not.
  • Include the year, month and day, as well as the URL. If there is a DOI, use this instead of the URL.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

Print

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt, 1963).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune,  1, 4–6.

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day.
  • If the newspaper article has no author see instructions in the no author tab in this section.

No author

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in Headline Case enclosed by double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 23).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Article title. (Year/Date). Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian, p. 23.

  • Place the title of the article in the author position
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the year, month and day.

Act of Parliament/Statutes

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources. In Australia, the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for legal citation to which we will refer here.  AGLC (4th ed.) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Start with the short title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text.
  • The long title of an Act should only be used if the Act does not have a short title.
  • The year in which the Act was originally passed is considered to be part of the title of the Act and therefore should be included in italics following the title, whether or not the Act includes it in the official short title.
  • Following the title and year, include the abbreviated form of the jurisdiction of the legislation enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth and (Vic) for Victoria.
  • To pinpoint a section or paragraph of an Act, use the abbreviation s or para followed by a space and the number. Other abbreviations are detailed in AGLC 4 section 3.1.4.

By virtue of s 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

According to the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 29 . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title and year of the Act in italics, jurisdiction in brackets and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 110).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s xxx. URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 110

  • The formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally, the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute.
  • Include the URL from which you retrieved the material. (optional; this is not strictly required for legal citations but may aid readers in retrieval)

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

OR

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s 115.1. http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/Domino/Web_Notes/LDMS/PubStatbook.nsf/edfb620cf7503d1aca256da4001b08af/0001F48EE2422A10CA257CB4001D32FB/$FILE/14-026aa%20authorised.pd

Bills

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources.

In Australia the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for legal citation.  AGLC (4th ed) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • The title and year of a Bill should not be italicised (unlike Acts).
  • The year of the Bill is considered to be part of the title and therefore should be included following the title. Following the title and year, include the abbreviated form of the jurisdiction of the legislation enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, and (Vic) for Victoria.
  • To pinpoint a clause or sub-clause of a Bill, use the abbreviation cl or sub-cl followed by a space and the number. Other abbreviations are detailed in AGLC 4 section 3.1.4.

…as detailed in the Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 83 . . .

According to the Transport Accident Further Amendment Bill 2013 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Bill, year, jurisdiction and clause number(s) (if applicable) enclosed in brackets.

" If a person (the supplier) supplies an amount of eligible 20 upstream fuel to another person (the recipient) who quotes the 21 recipient’s Obligation Transfer Number (OTN) in relation to 22 the supply, the supply will not count towards the supplier’s 23 liability for the financial year" (Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme Bill 2009 (Cth) cl 16).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Title of Bill Year (jurisdiction) cl xxx. URL.

Bills

Corporations Amendment Bill (No 1) 2005 (Cth)

  • Formatting of Bills appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the Bill, followed by the year. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction, e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally, the clause number and sub-clause number if referring to a particular section of the Bill.
  • Include the URL from which you retrieved the material. (optional; this is not strictly required for legal citations but may aid readers in retrieval)

For example:

Environment Legislation Amendment Bill 2013 (Cth). http://www.aph.gov.au

  • It is prudent to note that bills are not law and are rather proposals for law or to change a law. It is usually better to cite the relevant section of legislation in the place of a bill if it is available.

Legal cases

Note: The APA style guide focuses on legal sources from the United States and United Nations, and refers readers to The Bluebook: A uniform system of citation (Bluebook, 2015), which does not cover Australian legal sources.

In Australia the Australian Guide to Legal Citation (AGLC) is widely used by the legal community as a standard for re legal citation.  AGLC (4th ed) 2018 is published by the Melbourne University Law Review Association Inc in collaboration with the Melbourne Journal of International Law Inc.

Some of the following examples are taken from the AGLC. Please check with your school or course description for any specific requirements regarding referencing.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para 5).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227.  http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

  • For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.
  • If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add the URL.

Civil law cases

  • If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

  • If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets.
  • Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. See above examples for guidance on using square or round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number. Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Treaties

Referencing of international treaties and conventions is detailed in Section 11 (Legal References) of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th edition). The Australian Guide to Legal Citation also deals with international treaties and conventions in AGLC – Part IV

The following examples are based on the information taken from the APA Manual.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

  • Start with the title of the Treaty or Convention, and enclose the Year in brackets. If using the Treaty or Convention name in the sentence, including the Year in brackets.

Children have the right to privacy (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990).

According to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees(1954) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Treaty in italics, the year it entered into force and the article number(s) (if applicable).

" No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation” (Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1990, art 16.1).

REFERENCE LIST

Template

Treaty name, full date opened for signature or signed or approval date, and a URL if available.

Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, opened for signature 28 July 1951, https://www.unhcr.org/5d9ed32b4

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimons, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Narrator) [Audiobook]. Publisher. DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Narr.) [Audiobook]. ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (S. Vance, Narr.) [Audiobook]. Tantor.  http://www.audible.com (Original work published 1837-1839)

  • Treat author, year and title as for the basic book.
  • Add narrator’s name in round brackets with given name initial first, then family name. Add audiobook in square brackets.
  • Give the name of the publisher.
  • If accessed online, give the DOI, if there is one, or the URL.
  • If the audiobook was released in a different year to the original publication date, add in round brackets the year the original work was published.

Podcast

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Give the full date the podcast was produced or uploaded, not just the year.

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29, 3:29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Podcast

Host’s name. (Host). (Date range). Title: Subtitle [Audio/Video podcast]. Publisher (if available). URL

Vedantam, S. (Host). (2015–present).  Hidden brain [Audio Podcast]. NPR. https://www.npr.org/series/423302056/hidden-brain

  • Give the host’s name, role and dates the podcast has aired
  • Specify the type of podcast (audio or video) in square brackets.
  • If the URL is unknown as the podcast was accessed through an app, omit the URL.

TEMPLATE

Podcast episode

Host’s name. (Host). (Year, Month Day). Episode title (Episode number) [Audio/Video podcast episode]. In Program title. Production company. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Host). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war (No. 442) [Audio podcast episode]. In Background briefing. ABC Radio National.  http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give the host’s name, role and exact date produced/uploaded.
  • Give title of episode (no italics) followed by the episode number (if there is one) and the form in square brackets, followed by the title of whole podcast/program in italics.
  • Give the production company and the URL of the item.
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or paid subscription.

Music recording

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

Singletrack: Modern music

TEMPLATE

Recording artist. (Year). Title of song [Song]. On Title of album. Label.

Sinatra, F. (1958). Autumn in New York [Song]. On Come fly with me. Capitol.

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world [Song]. On Armageddon.

Singletrack: Classical music

TEMPLATE

Composer. (Year of Recording). Title of song [Song recorded by Artist]. On Title of album. Label. (Original work published Year)

Beethoven, L. van. (2012). Symphony No. 3 in E-flat major [Song recorded by Staats-kapelle Dresden]. On Beethoven: Complete symphonies. Brilliant Classics. (Original work published 1804)

  • Give the name of the recording artist or composer and the year of recording.
  • Give the title of the song followed by Song in square brackets.
  • If it is classical music, after the song title, in square brackets add ‘Song recorded by’ then the recording artist’s name.
  • Give the album title in italics preceded by ‘On’.
  • Give the name of the recording label.
  • For classical music, add original publication year in brackets.

Album: Modern music

TEMPLATE

Recording artist. (Year). Title of album [Album]. Label.

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [Album]. Capitol.

Album: Classical music

TEMPLATE

Composer. (Year of Recording). Title of album [Album recorded by Artist]. Label. (Original work published Year)

Bach, J. S. (2010). The Brandenburg concertos: Concertos BWV 1043 & 1060 [Album recorded by Academy of St Martin in the Fields]. Decca. (Original work published 1721)

  • Give the name of the recording artist or composer and the year of recording.
  • Give the title of the album in italics, followed by ‘Album’ in square brackets. For classical music, add ‘recorded by’ and the artist’s name after the word album.
  • Give the name of the recording label.
  • For classical music, add original publication year in brackets.

Speech or performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

Paraphrasing

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase … (King,1963).

Direct quote

Follow the same rules as for paraphrasing, but additionally place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared … (Kennedy, 1963, 2:41).

Reference list

Speech

Use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

TEMPLATE

Speaker. (Year, Month Day). Title of speech [Speech audio recording]. Publisher. URL

King, M. L., Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Speech audio recording]. American Rhetoric. https://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/mlkihaveadream.htm

Streaming video from a library database

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the latest research . . . (Cutts, 2017).

Cutts (2017) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"To be truly happy…" (Cutts, 2017, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. [Username]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Format]. Website. URL

Cutts, S. (2017, November 24). Happiness [Video]. Vimeo. https://vimeo.com/244405542

BBC World News. (2019, December 21). Meet the maestro: Leo Nucci [Video]. Informit EduTV. https://edutv-informit-com-au /watch-screen.php?videoID=4493898

Catalyst. (2019, October 22). Investigating body dsymorphia [Video]. ABC. https://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/s20-e10-investigating-body-dysmorphia/11564912

  • The person or organisation who uploaded the video is in the place of the author. Include the screen username in square brackets if different from the author’s real name.
  • Give the full date the video was uploaded.
  • Add the title in italics and the format in square brackets.
  • Give the website name you accessed the video from and the full URL.

Television series episode

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TV series 

TEMPLATE

Executive producer’s name/s (Executive Producer). (Year range). Series Title [Form].  Production/Distribution Company.

Gilligan, V. (Executive Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [TV series]. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Use the executive producer as the author.
  • Give the year range the series was broadcast for the date. If the series is still airing, use ‘present’ for the second year.
  • Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets.
  • Give the production company name.

TV series episode or webisode 

TEMPLATE

Writer’s name (Role), & Director’s name (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season and Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producers’ Names (Executive Producers), Title of series. Production/Distribution Company. 

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002, April 21). Application anxiety (Season 3, Episode 12) [TV series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Executive Producers), Gilmore girls. Warner Bros. Television.

  • Give names of episode’s director and writer and their roles, and the exact date the episode was the first broadcast.
  • Give the episode title (no italics) including the episode and series number in brackets.
  • Give the executive producers names and roles, then the series title in italics
  • Give the production company.

Online video

TEMPLATE

Writer’s name (Role), & Director’s name (Role). (Year, Month Day). Title of episode (Season and Episode number) [TV series episode]. In Executive Producers’ Names (Executive Producers), Title of series. Production/Distribution Company. URL.

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2013, March 24). The eternity ring (Series 7, Episode 1) [TV series episode]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. ITV. http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

  • Follow the same format as for a TV episode but add the URL of the site where you accessed the item.

Video or film (studio production)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the name of the director as the author.

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, 1985, 10:06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Director. (Role). (Year). Title [Film]. Studio.

Zemeckis, R. (Director). (1985). Back to the future [Film]. Universal Pictures.

  • Give the director and the roles.
  • Give the title in italics. Add film in square brackets (no italics). If needed, add more details to the word film after a semi-colon e.g. [Film; educational DVD].
  • Give the name of the studio.
  • However, you accessed the film, reference it as above. There is no need to include a URL even if you watched the film online.

Video games

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the game developer as the author.

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (Obsidian Entertainment, 2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Obsidian Entertainment, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Developer. (Year). Title [Video game]. Publisher. URL

Obsidian Entertainment(2010). Fallout: New Vegas [Video game]. Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give the game developer as the author.
  • Give title (italics), then the description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give the name of publisher, and URL if accessed online.

YouTube video

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robonaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a time stamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Video]. Website name. URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video]. Youtube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. [NASA] (2014, January 17). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video]. Youtube. http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • The person or group who uploaded the video is used as the author, even if they did not create the work. Give their real name if available. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).

TED Talk

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Watched on TED website:

Amanda Palmer (2013) used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy.

Watched on YouTube:

Amanda Palmer used examples from her career as a busker and a musician to discuss the sharing economy (TED, 2013).

  • Use the speaker's name in the context of your sentence if necessary.

Direct quote

Watched on TED website:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (Palmer, 2013).

Watched on YouTube:

"So I had the most profound encounters ..." (TED, 2013).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Watched on TED website:

Speaker. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month). Title [Form]. TED Conferences. URL

Palmer, A. (2013, February). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. TED Conferences. https://www.ted.com/talks/amanda_palmer_the_art_of_asking

Watched on YouTube:

TEMPLATE

TED. (Year, Month Day). Speaker: Title [Form]. YouTube. URL

TED. (2013, March 1). Amanda Palmer: The art of asking [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xMj_P_6H69g

  • The author's name is 'TED' in this case because the TED organisation posted the video to YouTube.
  • YouTube shows the date that the video was posted as March 1, 2013, so that's the date to use in this reference.

Web document (pdf)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • If the name of an organisation or government body is long and is well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first in-text citation e.g. (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)
  • In all subsequent in-text citations, give abbreviation only. e.g.  (DET, 2020). Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

The outcomes for early years learning and development ... (Department of Education and Training [DET] & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority [VCAA], 2016).

The Department of Education and Training & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority (DET & VCAA, 2016) state that ….

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote from the PDF document.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Document type if required]. Site name. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Department of Education and Training, & Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2016). Victorian early years learning and development framework: For all children from birth to eight years. https://www.education.vic.gov.au/documents/childhood/providers/edcare/veyldframework.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. City of Brambuk. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a web page document, include the authors (which may be different from the site hosting it). If no authors are stated then use the company or organisation name.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • When the site name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • Give the name of the corporate author in full (not as an abbreviation or acronym) in the reference list. Include only the specific agency responsible for the publication - do not include the name of parent organisations (e.g. State Government of Victoria) unless you need to avoid ambiguity

Online curriculum resources

Website post or page (general treatment)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • If the name of an organisation or government body is long and is well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first in-text citation e.g. (Department of Education and Training [DET], 2020)
  • In all subsequent in-text citations, give abbreviation only. e.g.  (DET, 2020). Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

Paraphrasing

According to the World Health Organization (2018) ...

The My Aged Care website offers many support services for aged care including ... (Department of Health, 2018).

The design of the curriculum ... (Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], n.d.)

According to the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority (ACARA, n.d.) curriculum design should ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers unless they are in PDF format. In this case, use the paragraph number (you will have to count them yourself).
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section or the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is not a PDF document.

According to the Department of Health (2018) the services offered by My Aged Care "involve a wide range of people to make sure it meets users’ needs" (para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Site name. URL

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.). English as an additional language (EAL). https://victoriancurriculum.vcaa.vic.edu.au/english/english-as-an-additional-language-eal/

World Health Organization. (2018, March). Questions and answers on immunization and vaccine safety. https://www.who.int/features/qa/84/en

  • You must include an in-text citation and reference list entry for a website/webpage if you mention specific information from it, whether you are paraphrasing or quoting directly.
  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the page (as displayed on the individual page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of the page. If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If the material is non-routine, add a description of form in square brackets.
  • When the site name is the same as the author, omit the site name to avoid repetition.
  • Give URL of the page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of the home page, whichever is more direct/reliable.
  • Provide a retrieval date for references where the content changes over time, such as for non-archived social media pages.

Corporate authors (e.g. organisations or government body)

  • Give the name of the corporate author in full (not as an abbreviation or acronym) in the reference list. Include only the specific agency responsible for the publication - do not include the name of parent organisations (e.g. State Government of Victoria) unless you need to avoid ambiguity.

Online curriculum resources

REFERRING TO A WEBSITE IN TEXT

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

No reference entry required

  • When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Website

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

If there is no artist recorded for the image, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material.

When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:

  • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
  • below the figure.

Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.

In-text citations

Within the written body

  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference, using the author of the article or book you found the image in.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Below the figure

Print book

TEMPLATE

Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Book