Basic treatment for in-text citations
Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.
(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)
- Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
- Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
- If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
- If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).
… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).
… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).
… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.
AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL
- Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.
… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).
MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR
- Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
- Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.
(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …
Three, four or five authors
- Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.
(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST CITATION
(Oakes et al., 1994) OR Oakes et al. (1994) … ALL FOLLOWING CITATIONS
Six or more authors
- Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.
(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS
Group author (Government or organisation)
- Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
- However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.
- If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put this extra line in your reference list:
- WHO – see World Health Organization.
(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS
(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS
LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)
- No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
- Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.
Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd  NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW
Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES
- If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
- Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
- Capitalise the first letter of each major word.
(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK
(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK
MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION
- List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
- List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.
… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).
MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR
- When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).
In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .
It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).
- Add the page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of the source.
- Add after the year, separated by a comma.
- Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.
(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)
- For direct quotations add the citation after the closing quotation mark.
It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).
Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).
- If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate paragraph, double spaced with no quotation marks, as below.
Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:
In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).
No page numbers
- If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
- If no paragraph numbers, give closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).
(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).