Basic treatment for in-text citations

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.


(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)


… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).


… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins 2013, p. 213).


… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.


… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

  • Enclose the author’s surname and year in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before punctuation mark ending sentence (or part of sentence) where you used source.
  • If author is already in sentence, give year alone in round brackets directly after author’s name.
  • Add initial/s to surname if you have sources by authors with the same surname.


Two authors

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

  • Always cite both family names every time the reference occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Three, four or five authors 

(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR  Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST

(Oakes et al., 1994) OR  Oakes et al. (1994) … LATER

  • Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et. al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.

Six or more authors 

(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.

Group author (Government or organisation)

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR  Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) LONG NAME, FIRST (WHO, 2009) LATER

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name plus the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put an extra line in your reference list:
    • WHO – see World Health Organization.
  • Use the full group name for all entries in the reference list. Include initials in round brackets only if you used initials in your sentences.


Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case.
  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works.
  • Use initial capital letters for all major words.


… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.


Basic treatment

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55­–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, and ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’.


It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • For direct quotations, add the page reference after the closing quotation mark.
  • For block quotations, i.e., when the quote is forty words or more, add the page reference after closing punctuation mark.
  • If a block quote text, indent and set as a separate paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).

No page numbers

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number/s if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give closest heading and paragraph number/s (as counted by you).