Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfunctional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional drivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

Print (unpublished)


Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. 

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Online from a repository


Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. DOI/URL

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from

Online from a library database


Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Available from Database. (Accession/Order Number).

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of the institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give the URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.