Personal communication

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in the surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • If class or lecture notes were taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

No reference entry required

(E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION