In-text citations


Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL


Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In Science Encyclopedia (5th ed., pp. 501–508). New York, NY: Academic Resources.


McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century [Kindle version]. Available from


Watergate scandal. (2009). In Encyclopaedia Britannica online. Retrieved from

Panadol (children) 3+ years chewable tablets. (2017). In Mims Online. Retrieved from

No author

The World Book encyclopedia. (2007). Chicago: World Book.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Give author of entry if one is named, otherwise begin with title.
  • Give title of entry (no italics) and title of whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give page and any edition and volume numbers after title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide URL of item (use the permanent link).
  • Include retrieval date if content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).