In-text citations


West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

In a recent Twitter, Barack Obama paid tribute to Aretha Franklin who was well known as the Queen of Soul Obama, 2018).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"In her voice, we could feel our history, all of it and in every shade—our power and our pain, our darkness and our light, our quest for redemption and our hard-won respect" (Obama, 2018, para. 1).

Reference list


Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Obama, Barack. (2018, August 17). Aretha helped define the American experience. [Tweet]. Retrieved from

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.