Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable. Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources; Personal communication.

In-text citations


West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

In a recent Twitter, Barack Obama paid tribute to Aretha Franklin who was well known as the Queen of Soul Obama, 2018).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"In her voice, we could feel our history, all of it and in every shade—our power and our pain, our darkness and our light, our quest for redemption and our hard-won respect" (Obama, 2018, para. 1).

Reference list


Author [Screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Obama, Barack. (2018, August 17). Aretha helped define the American experience. [Tweet]. Retrieved from

  • Give the real name of the poster. Add their screen name (if there is one) in square brackets, or just their screen name if their real name is unknown.
  • Give the exact date of the post. Give only the year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give the first 20 words of the tweet as title (no italics) if the post is otherwise untitled.
  • Add the form in square brackets to the title.
  • Give the full URL of the post. If the item is archived, give the archived version URL (click post’s date stamp).
  • A retrieval date is not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because the content will change.