In-text citations


West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

A recent Twitter tribute by Kanye West to Mandela's life work evoked …(West, 2013).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ..." (West, 2013, para. 1).

Reference list


Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.