Without DOI

In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

  • If citing a journal article without a DOI, include the volume, issue number (if available), and page number(s). If the journal article was retrieved online, include the URL of the journal homepage.