Without DOI

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

Online with URL (no DOI)

  • Give URL only if there is no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall and use the journal homepage for the URL. If the journal is freely available online, such as open access, introduce the URL with ‘Retrieved from’.


  • As for online, but without a URL or DOI.