Book or journal article
Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.
Images not reproduced in your work
In APA, an image refers to things like a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you discuss in your work but do not reproduce. In this case, cite and reference the image according to the source you found it in, such as a website or book. The author will be the creator of the image.
Images reproduced in your work
A figure is something such as a photo, an artwork, a table or a map that you do reproduce in your work. Figures need a caption, citations in the text and a reference. If you are reproducing an image in your work, please see the relevant section for your figure type.
In the work by Wood (1930), we can see...
...in the eyes of the subject (McCurry, 1985).
Reference according to the type of source you saw the image in.
Wood, G. (1930). American gothic [Painting]. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States. Retrieved from https://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/6565
McCurry, S. (1985). Afghan girl [Photograph]. National Geographic. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/national-geographic-magazine-50-years-of-covers/#/ngm-1985-jun-714.jpg
Except: if you saw it in person at a gallery or exhibition. In this case, please see the “Visual Artwork” section of this page.
Figure from a book or journal article
If there is no artist recorded for the figure, use the title in the position the author would normally be in. Please note, in APA the word “figure” is used to refer to all images, graphs, charts and visual material that you reproduce in your work. If you are discussing an image but not reproducing it, please see the above section “Images not reproduced in your work”.
When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
- within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
- below the figure.
Reference the figure in your list according to the source you found it in. So, if you retrieved it from a journal article, just reference the actual article as normal.
Within the written body
- Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
- Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do not refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.
As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).
Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).
The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).
Below the figure
Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Book Title”, by Author, Year, Place of Publication p. xx. City, State/Country: Publisher.
Online journal article
Figure x. Image description by Creator. Adapted/Reprinted from “Journal Article Title”, by Author, Year, Journal name, Volume(Issue), p. xx. Retrieved from URL or DOI
Figure 1. Hunting family by Indigenous artist Hippy Wanganeen. Reprinted from "Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists," by M. Fletcher, 2013, Artlink, 34(2), p. 101. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au
Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or Retreived from URL
Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink, 34(2), 101-102. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au