E-book (from a database)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

e-book with DOI


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx

Ross, R. T. (2016). How to examine the nervous system. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-59745-081-2

  • If an ebook has a DOI, you must use this format.

From a database


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). Available from http:xxxxxx

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

  • Use the URL of the ebook platform homepage, not the link you accessed it from through the library.

Accessed on e-reader


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [Platform]. Available from http:xxxxxx

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

  • After the title, add the platform in square brackets. Then add the website you accessed the book from.

e-book without DOI


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). [File type]. Retrieved from http:xxxxxx

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

  • Some books are available online as a PDF or other file type. After the title, add the file type in square brackets, then the URL the book was retrieved from.