Video or film (studio production)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

In-text citations

Use the names of the primary contributors as the authors.


Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985, 10.06).

Reference list


Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Country: Distributor/Studio.


Zemeckis, R. (Writer/Director), Gale, R. (Writer), & Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1985). Back to the future [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Z. (Director), & Goyer, D. S. (Writer). (2013). Man of steel [Blu-ray]. United States: Warner Bros.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (2003). Vertigo [DVD]. United States: Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958.


Affleck, B. (Director), Terrio, C. (Writer), & Clooney, G. (Producer). (2012). Argo [Video file]. Available from

  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, and/or producer) and their roles. The examples above show various roles to illustrate options.
  • Give the title in italics. Add the form accessed in square brackets (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of the original release.
  • Give the place and name of the studio or, if accessed online, give URL of the site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘Retrieved from’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.