Speech or performance (recorded)

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You should always try and find an authoritative transcript or recording of a speech, then cite and reference the source you use, such as a book, website or online video. If you cannot find a transcript or recording, follow the format below for citing and referencing a speech. For more information, see the APA6th Style Blog.

In-text citations

If you are using a transcript or recording, cite the author or editor of the source and the publication year. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech.

Paraphrasing

Performance

Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

From another source:

In his famous speech, Dr. King described …  (Smith, 2009).

If you can’t find a transcript or recording

Martin Luther King's often quoted catchphrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Follow the same rules as for paraphrasing, but additionally place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote if a recording, or the page number if from a transcript.

"Ich bin ein Berliner” (I am a Berliner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared … (Kennedy, 1963, June 26, 2:41).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Speech

If you are using a transcript or recording, reference the author or editor of the source and the publication year. See the relevant section on FedCite to see how to reference the type of source you use, such as a blog, an online video or a podcast. If you can’t find a transcript or recording, use the speaker’s name for the author and the exact date of the speech. The following example is how to reference a speech if you are unable to locate it in a transcript or recording.

Speaker. (Year/Date). Title of speech [Speech]. Description of speech and location.

Clark, H. (2007, April 25). Prime Minister’s 2007 ANZAC Day message [Speech]. Speech presented on ANZAC Day 2007, New Zealand.

Performance (CD)

TEMPLATE

Performer’s name (Performer) & Director’s name (Director). (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Date of performance recording).

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …"
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add the original recording date if different or more specific than the publication date.