In-text citations


Drought tolerant plants are particularly suitable for the Australian landscape …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Australian gardeners should consider drought tolerant plants when landscaping ..." (Lucas).

Works Cited


Author. “Title.” Description. Date. Website Name (if online). Publisher, Year/Date, URL.

Online document/file

Barrett, Keith. “Cell Structure.”  Barrett College. Barrett Education, 19 June 2010. Microsoft PowerPoint slides.

Online lecture

Levine, Caroline. “Hierarchy.” Blackboard, uploaded by Mary Smith, 10 Oct. 2017,

Print handout

Huang, Lee “The Cost of Retribution.” Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville. 5 March 2012. Lecture material.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including lecture/class material in the Works Cited list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications; e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.