Abstract (non preferred source)

In-text citations


Patients with Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) are at risk of ... (Gray & Bolitho 2003, p. 58).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Gray and Bolitho (2003, p. 58) report on  'a new treatment for Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) which is now available ...'.

Reference list


Author Year, ‘Article title’, [Abstract], Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Gray, E & Bolitho, AJ 2003, ‘Patients with COAD’, [Abstract], Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, no. 55, p. 58, viewed 26 September 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.