Personal communication


In-text citations


Regional art has been great for the community because ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a paragraph number(s) in the note.

"Local artists have renewed this town's appeal to visitors as evidenced by a recent exhibition during the holiday period."4

Full note

1. Elizabeth Jensen, email message to author, June 7, 2008.

2. Interview with a regional arts administrator, July 1, 2016 (interviewee’s name withheld by mutual agreement).

Subsequent notes

3. Jensen, email to author.

4. Interview with regional arts administrator, para 2.


No bibliography entry is required for personal communications.

Personal communications such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on sites protected by privacy settings may be cited in the notes but are not included in the bibliography.

  • Identify the communicator (seek their approval) and give the date of the communication.
  • If the communicator wishes to be anonymous, use a generic description and add a phrase that explains the absence of a name (see note 2 above). If your paper has multiple instances of anonymous interviewees, add a general explanation to the first interview note; e.g., ‘All interviews cited in this paper were confidential and names have been withheld by mutual agreement.’