CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Smashing Pumpkins recent tour of the United States ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Constructivism can be defined as  ..."1

Full note

PRINT

1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “constructivism,” 12.

ONLINE

2. Grove Music Online, s.v. “Smashing Pumpkins,” accessed July 31, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

AUTHORED ENTRY (ESSAY OR CHAPTER)

3. Chris McConville, “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929,” in The Australian Dictionary of Biography (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013), accessed 22 July 2016, http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

Subsequent notes

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “constructivism.”

5. Grove Music Online, “Smashing Pumpkins."

6. McConville, “Melbourne Crime.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed.

Grove Music Online. Accessed July 31, 2016. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

McConville, Chris. “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929.” In The Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013. Accessed 22 July 2016. http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

**Ask your teacher or lecturer for guidelines on using Wikipedia as a reference source.

Well-known reference works are normally cited in the notes only; ask your teacher or lecturer for advice before including in your bibliography. (Bibliography entries have been given above as examples if needed).

  • Place, publisher and year can be omitted from well-known reference works but edition number (if not the first) should be included.
  • Specialised or less well-known reference works should be included in the bibliography with their full publications details.
  • If the reference work is alphabetically arranged, precede the entry by ‘s.v.’ or ‘s.vv.’ (abbreviation for ‘sub verbo’, which is Latin for under the word/words). If entries are non-alphabetical, give the page number.
  • If an item has a named author and is lengthy and substantial (see McConville example above), treat like a chapter in an edited book and include in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the date of access and URL or DOI. If downloaded to an e-reader add format.