Creating a bibliography

Looking at the elements

Each source cited in a footnote needs a corresponding entry in the bibliography. This entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else.

In Chicago/Turabian style, the bibliography entry and the full footnote contain the same information, with minor formatting differences.

A basic Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry is made up of the following elements:



Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.


What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work   (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include both titles.


Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher of the version you used and their location (city). You need to include this for print books and physical media. You don’t need it for journals and newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.


When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.
  • For online sources, this is the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document) or the date of posting   (for a post).


If I accessed this source online, when did I do this?

  • This tells your reader the date you accessed an online source.
  • Include an access date for all sources accessed online unless you are instructed otherwise by your teacher or lecturer.


If I accessed this source online, what is its Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

If there is no DOI, what is the address of the source one?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material will have a DOI, but you need to include it if one has been assigned.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • If there is no DOI, include a URL.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise, give the full URL.

Creating the bibliography entry

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of a Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry. Note that every part ends with a full stop, and there is a space after each punctuation mark.



Hall, Jane. L., and Brian. T. Ashton. A Spoonful of Valour

Smith, Gina, Terry L. Ferris, and Erin Henderson. Rainfall

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. …

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.
  • Name all authors if there are more than one. Invert the first author’s name only.
  • For more detail on author treatment, see the example section.


Harris, Miles. The Mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. …

Irwell, Maria. “Reimagining Dadaism.” Journal of Abstract Art …

Jensen, Paul. R. Wartime Navy Reminiscences

  • Give the title in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work.
  • Enclose parts of works in quotation marks and set larger work in italics.
  • Give initial capitals to the first, last and principal words of the title and the subtitle.
  • Separate title and any subtitle by a colon.
  • If no title is shown, give a brief descriptive title, using no italics or quotation marks.

Publisher information

Gourley, Dianne. Action Man. Chicago: Bellinger, 2002.

  • Give the city and name of the publisher. Add state (initials) or country if extra identification is needed.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘N.p.’ (for ‘No place’) in the bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.


Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Gardiner, Ian T. Life in Rural Australia. Adelaide: Phoenix, n.d.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

  • Add year after publisher details for books, or in parentheses after issue number for journals.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates (newspapers, magazines).
  • Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Access date

  • Turabian style requires an access date for all sources accessed online, whereas Chicago suggests inclusion only if the content is likely to change. Because it may be difficult to judge if the content is static, and because your teacher or lecturer may require you to provide access dates for all such sources, the examples in this guide include access dates for both styles.
  • Give the date of access before URL or DOI.
  • Note that access dates are not necessary for sources that are electronically published and downloaded in a dedicated e-book format (e.g., Kindle).
  • If you are unsure whether or not to include access dates for particular online sources, seek advice from your teacher or lecturer for their preference.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010.


Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed June 12, 2014.

  • Give the DOI, when one has been assigned, exactly as found on the source.
  • If DOI is in the old format (beginning with ‘10’), introduce it by ‘doi:’.
  • New format DOIs beginning with ‘http’ don’t need ‘doi:’ added in front.
  • If no DOI, give the URL. Break the URL/DOI (if needed) before a single slash or punctuation mark.