Creating the footnote

Insert the footnote number immediately after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) where you have used the source. The first time you cite a source, the corresponding footnote should contain the full source information.

  1. FirstName LastName, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page reference.
  2. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.

Basic full footnote in Chicago/Turabian note style

  • Use the author’s full name in standard order, i.e. first name followed by surname.
  • Set titles of larger works (e.g. books and journals) in italics, and capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose titles of smaller works (e.g. chapters, articles), parts of works, or unpublished sources in double quotation marks without italics.
  • Enclose publication details in parentheses (round brackets). If the city is likely to be unknown to the reader or confused with another city of the same name, add the state (abbreviated) or country.
  • Add the page number or range (or figure or table number) when quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source. Use of ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ before the page number is not necessary. If the source shows no page numbers, give paragraph number/s or closest heading.
  • Separate the elements with a comma, and end the note with a full stop.
  • Use abbreviations such as ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’ (for editor/edited by), ‘trans’ (translator/translated by), ‘vol.’ (volume), ed. (edition), ‘pt.’ (part) and rev. (revised, revised by, revision and review).

Repeating citations by using ibid. or shortening

Once you have provided a full citation, subsequent citations for the same source can be repeated by either using ‘ibid.’ if the notes are consecutive, or shortening the note if there are notes intervening.


  • If a citation directly follows a citation for the same work, use ‘ibid.’ (abbreviation of Latin ‘ibidem’ meaning ‘in the same place’) to stand for repeated parts. Add page numbers if these are different.
  • Use a capital letter to begin ‘ibid.’ if it begins the note.
  • Do not use ibid. if the immediately preceding note contains more than one citation.


If there are intervening notes between a repeated citation, shorten the note as follows. (The examples section contains examples of shortened notes in all categories.)

  • Give author’s last name only (add first name or initial/s to differentiate if citing authors with the same last name) and omit any abbreviations (e.g., ed. or trans.) used in the full reference. Use the accepted abbreviation for organisation names and include the abbreviation in the first mention.
  • Shorten titles of over four words by omitting ‘A’ or ‘The’, and selecting key words. Preserve the same word order and format (italics or quotations marks) as in the full title.
  1. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.
  3. Tom Edgerson, Drama Therapy (Melbourne: Harrap, 2011), 19.
  4. Gleeson, Medical Experience, 86. SHORTENED REPEATED NOTE (NON-CONSECUTIVE)