Basic treatment for in-text citations

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing, whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

  • Enclose the author’s family name and the year of publication in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before the punctuation mark ending the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in the sentence, give the year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • If you are adding a page number, insert a comma after the year, the abbreviation p. (for a single page) or pp. (for multiple pages) followed by the page number(s).

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BASIC CITATIONS

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins, 2013, p. 213).

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

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AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Add the initials of the author’s given name to the family name if you have sources by authors with the same family name.

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

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MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

  • Always cite both family names every time the citation occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ if the full citation is in round brackets, or ‘and’ if the author’s name is part of the sentence.

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

Three or more authors 

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication.

(Donat et al., 2002)

Group author (Government or organisation)

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name then the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only. Only do this if you use the abbreviated name in your sentences.

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) FULL NAME IN FIRST CITATION FOLLOWED BY ABBREVIATION IN SQUARE BRACKETS (WHO, 2009) ABBREVIATED NAME IN FOLLOWING CITATIONS

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LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal cases.
  • Formatting of civil law cases is the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

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NO AUTHOR

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works, such as book chapters.
  • Capitalise the first letter of each major word.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

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MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

MULTIPLE WORKS BY SAME AUTHOR IN SAME YEAR

  • When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

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PAGE NUMBERS

Basic treatment

  • Add the page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of the source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, or ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ if there are no page numbers in the source.

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

Quotations

  • For direct quotations add the citation after the closing quotation mark.

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • If the quote is more than forty words, indent and set as a separate doubled-spaced paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter et al. (2000) note that:

No page numbers

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give the closest heading and paragraph number (as counted by you).

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).