Course materials

Important: Confirm with your lecturer whether you are using APA 6th or APA 7th as they are slightly different.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material as a reference source**

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, use the following format.

In-text citations


Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list


Author. (Year, Month Day). Title [Format]. Platform. DOI/URL

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. (2011, February 17). Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. SlideShare.

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Moodle.

Print handout (lecture notes)

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture notes]. School of Arts, Central University.

  • Use the platform as the publisher (eg Moodle). If you retrieve content from a classroom website or learning management system (such as Moodle) that you need to log in to access, use the login page for the URL.
  • For paper handouts, use the School or Faculty as the publisher and include the institution name.