Please make a selection from the available options

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the American Psychology Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication.

APA is an in text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The in text citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as author(s) family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page number(s) (if applicable).

For each source identified in the text, you also need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - APA Citing and referencing subject guide

APA Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

When you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote in you writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information (whether print or online).

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use round brackets to add the author(s) family name and the year of publication, or use the author(s) family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

  • Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the APA referencing style.
  • In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

  • When the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the year in subsequent non-parenthetical citations as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Parenthetical citations

  • All parenthetical citations (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within parentheses) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

DIRECT QUOTES

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number(s). Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form – without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new, indented line, and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details such as author(s), year and page number(s) in brackets.

The difference between intrinsic motivation and motivation to learn is closely related to the difference between affective and cognitive engagement experiences. Intrinsic motivation refers primarily to affective experience—enjoyment of the processes involved in engaging in an activity. In contrast, motivation to learn is primarily a cognitive experience involving attempts to make sense of the information that an activity conveys, to relate this information to prior knowledge, and to master the skills that the activity develops (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

Basic treatment for in-text citations

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

BASIC AUTHOR AND YEAR

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

PAGE NUMBER FOR QUOTE

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins 2013, p. 213).

AUTHOR IN SENTENCE

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

  • Enclose the author’s surname and year in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before punctuation mark ending sentence (or part of sentence) where you used source.
  • If author is already in sentence, give year alone in round brackets directly after author’s name.
  • Add initial/s to surname if you have sources by authors with the same surname.

MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

  • Always cite both family names every time the reference occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Three, four or five authors 

(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR  Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST

(Oakes et al., 1994) OR  Oakes et al. (1994) … LATER

  • Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et. al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.

Six or more authors 

(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.

Group author (Government or organisation)

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR  Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) LONG NAME, FIRST (WHO, 2009) LATER

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name plus the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put an extra line in your reference list:
    • WHO – see World Health Organization.
  • Use the full group name for all entries in the reference list. Include initials in round brackets only if you used initials in your sentences.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case.
  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works.
  • Use initial capital letters for all major words.

MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

PAGE NUMBERS

Basic treatment

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55­–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, and ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’.

Quotations

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • For direct quotations, add the page reference after the closing quotation mark.
  • For block quotations, i.e., when the quote is forty words or more, add the page reference after closing punctuation mark.
  • If a block quote text, indent and set as a separate paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).

No page numbers

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number/s if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give closest heading and paragraph number/s (as counted by you).

Multiple references in same parentheses

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citation

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Australia.

  • Only use a secondary citation where you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source. In most cases, where the author has paraphrased the original source, only cite the source you are reading.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

Creating a reference list

Each source that is referred to in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + title+ Publisher Information or DOI or Retrieved from URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

Author

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initial/s of the given name/s.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

2–7 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour …

8 or more authors

Name the first six and last authors. Join last author by three dots (‘…’).

Donat, T. G., Jenkins, M., Baysch, V., Adamson, E., Wilkins, W. L., Lingstrom, A., … Farr, P. B.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full followed immediately by the year of publication.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health …

Legislation/criminal cases (government or organisation)

No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case. Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, p. 13.

Same author, Same year

Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall …

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar …

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’, (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia …

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

No title

If no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets. No italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Brisbane, Australia: Liberty Press.

Publication information

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • If published in the USA, give city, US state (initials) and publisher.
  • If published outside the USA, give city, country and publisher.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the publisher is also the author, use ‘Author’ instead of repeating name.

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Chicago, IL: Bellinger.

Temple, P. (2009). Truth. Melbourne, Australia: Text.

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report. Sydney, Australia: Author.

DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier [DOI]?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material has a DOI but you need to include one whenever it has been assigned.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t need to give the URL or retrieval date.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.Use a DOI when one has been assigned, even for print material. No full stop at the end. Give exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi’ (always use lower case). New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

doi:10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

Uniform Resource Locator [URL] and retrieval date

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it. It is only included if the source has no DOI.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the full URL.
  • Do not include the retrieval date unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com/

How to present a reference list

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Cmmd+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Cmmd+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second (see Hillsdon 2002 entries).

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T.D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. New York: NY: Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002). Statistical analysis primer. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A. & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and place and name of publisher.

Two authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Three, four or five authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, Steven J., & Deschenes, Michael R. (2012). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

  • List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Six or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

  • List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Eight or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Edition number

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation ed. in brackets after the book title. If the book is a first edition, or no edition is stated, do NOT include the edition number.

Chapter from edited collection

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

  • An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.
  • Edited collection: Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(Ed.)’ or ‘(Eds.)’.
  • Chapter from edited collection: Give chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname/s of editor/s followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after title.
  • If the book is an authored (NOT edited) work, then reference it as a whole work, NOT by the book chapter.
  • For examples refer to the following relevant sections:
    • Single author
    • Two authors
    • Three, four or five authors
    • Six or more authors
    • Eight or more authors

E-book (from a database)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

Accessed on e-reader

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

e-book without DOI

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4
Print

Normoyle, C. (2013). Nurses' wellbeing. Australian Nursing Journal, 20(10), 30–33.

Online with URL (no DOI)

Moran, W. (2014). Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Two authors

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Print or online with DOI

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Three, four or five authors

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Name all authors the first time you refer to the source.
  • Separate each author by a comma. Join last author by ‘&’ or ‘and’.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.
  • Later, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology26(4), 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Six or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Without DOI

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

  • If citing a journal article without a DOI, include the volume, issue number (if available), and page number(s). If the journal article was retrieved online, include the URL of the journal homepage.

From a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.

Online

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbuck's … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Online replica of print edition

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, 2–3. Retrieved from https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

Online edition

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Author: Give name of author. (Start with title if no author shown.)
  • Year/date: Give date as shown on source (i.e., year and month, or year, month and day).
  • Title: Give title of article (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., in square brackets (no italics), or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title (Newspapers, Separate section).
  • Page numbers. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (Newspapers, Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (Newspapers, Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post.

Print

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt, 1963).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune,  1, 4–6.

  • Author: Give name of author. (Start with title if no author shown.)
  • Year/date: Give date as shown on source (i.e., year and month, or year, month and day).
  • Title: Give title of article (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., in square brackets (no italics) (Ex 41), or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title (Ex 39).
  • Page numbers. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (Ex 38).

No author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in capital letters with double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.
  • Place the title of the article in the author position, and provide the exact URL if taken from a database.

Act of Parliament

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section numbers (if applicable) in brackets.

  • It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.
  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s. Retrieved from URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

Goods Act 1958 (Vic)

Statutes online

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Statute references

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, for example, the jurisdiction of the legislation appears in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute. If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.
  • If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Legal cases

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.

If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Civil law cases

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimon, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Reader) [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Reader) [CD]. Sydney, Australia: ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (P. Batchelor, Reader) [Audio file]. Available from http://www.audible.com.

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add reader’s name in round brackets. Add recording format in square brackets.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give place and name of record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details; use ‘Available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Episode title. Program title [Form]. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give primary contributor/s and role/s and date produced/uploaded.
  • Give title of episode (no italics) followed by title of whole podcast/program.
  • Give the URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription.

Music recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. (Year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist Name]. On Title of album [Form]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

Single track (LP)

Duke, V. (1934). Autumn in New York [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On Come fly with me [Vinyl recording]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol. (1958).

Single track (online)

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world. On Armageddon [MP3]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

Album (CD)

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol.

  • SINGLE TRACK/SONG: Give name of songwriter and year of copyright. If songwriter is not the recording artist, add recording artist in square brackets after title (no italics). Give album title (italics) preceded by ‘On’. Give place and name of recording label. Add recording date at end if different from copyright year (see Ex 35).
  • WHOLE ALBUM: Give name of album recording artist. Give album title (italics).

Speech or performance (recorded)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliiner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared …" (Kennedy, 1963, June 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

Performance (CD)

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

Speech recording (Online video)

Kennedy, J. F. (1963, June 26). Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

Speech recording (Online audio)

King, M. L. Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/ (Speech recorded August 28, 1963).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …’
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add original recording date if different or more specific than publication date.

Streaming video from a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

InformitTV (2016) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Database name. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

  • Include the database name in the author position.
  • Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Television series episode

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title of episode [Form]. In Principal Contributor, Title of series. City, State/Country: Production/Distribution Company. OR DOI/URL

Television broadcast

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002). Application anxiety [Television series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Producers), Gilmore girls. Melbourne, Australia: Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

Online video

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2014). The eternity ring [Television series episode; Video file]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

DVD (whole series)

Gilligan, V. (Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [Television series; DVD]. Los Angeles, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles, and episode title (no italics). Examples above show various roles to illustrate options. Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets preceded by the principal contributors and roles.
  • BROADCAST: Give city, station and broadcast date.
  • ONLINE: Give URL of site where you accessed item.
  • DVD: Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).

Video or film (studio production)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985, 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Country: Distributor/Studio.

Film

Zemeckis, R. (Writer/Director), Gale, R. (Writer), & Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1985). Back to the future [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Z. (Director), & Goyer, D. S. (Writer). (2013). Man of steel [Blu-ray]. United States: Warner Bros.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (2003). Vertigo [DVD]. United States: Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958.

Online

Affleck, B. (Director), Terrio, C. (Writer), & Clooney, G. (Producer). (2012). Argo [Video file]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, and/or producer) and their roles. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options.
  • Give title in italics. Add form of version accessed in square brackets (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of original release.
  • Give place and name of studio or, if accessed online, give URL of site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘Retrieved from’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.

Video game

In-text citations

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Fallout: New Vegas, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title [Form; Video game]. (Year). Place: Publisher.

Fallout: New Vegas [CD-ROM; Video game]. (2010). Rockville, Maryland: Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title (italics), then form and description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give year of production. Give place and name of producer, or URL if accessed online.
  • Game developer can be given in author position.

Video podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops. . .and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

  • Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.
  • Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Web document (pdf)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a webpage document include author(s) (which may be different from the site hosting it).
    • If no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name
    • Follow author or company/organisation name by the year in brackets.
  • Use author and date as found on the document.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the webpage document, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.
  • Retrieval date is not needed because content is fixed.

Website post or page (general treatment)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Fry (2013, August 7) David Cameron's views …

David Cameron has recently announced … (Fry, 2013, August 7).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is NOT a PDF document.

"David Cameron has recently started campaigning …" (Fry, 2013, August 7, para. 3).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Retrieved from URL

With retrieval date:

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved July 11, 2018, from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

Without retrieval date:

Department of Health. (2017). My Aged Care: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care

Fry, S. (2013, August 7). An open letter to David Cameron and the IOC. [Blog post]. Retrieved from The new adventures of Mr Stephen Fry website: http://www.stephenfry.com/2013/08/an-open-letter-to-david-cameron-and-the-ioc/

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of post/page (no italics). If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If material is non-routine, add description of form in square brackets.
  • Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of home page, whichever is more direct/reliable. If website name is different from URL, add this to the entry (see 'Fry' example above).
  • Provide a retrieval date for references where the content changes over time, such as for non-archived social media pages.

Website

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Figure layout

A figure from a book/journal article will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 1.) followed by a brief but descriptive phrase
  • book title in italics with proper nouns capitalised, or article title in double quotation marks " " and preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, preceded with the word by
  • year of publication
  • journal title in italics (if applicable)
  • volume number in italics (if applicable)
  • issue number (if applicable)
  • page number(s)

Figure 1. Hunting family by Indigenous artist Hippy Wanganee. Reprinted from "Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists," by M. Fletcher, 2013, Artlink, 34(2), p. 101. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink, 34(2), 101-102. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Webpage

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

The diagram shows . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016, Figure 2).

Figure layout

A figure from a web page will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 2.)
  • title of image (or brief description)
  • title of webpage preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • year of webpage
  • retrieval statement in the form of a URL

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Reprinted from Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version, by National Cancer Institute, 2016, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Fidelity. (2016) The world’s largest economies are all in expansion, though at various phases of the business cycle. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/business-cycle-update-December-2016

Library database

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (The eye, n.d.).

The diagram shows . . . (The eye, n.d., Figure 3).

Figure layout

A figure from a library database will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 3.)
  • title of image (and/or brief description)
  • title of library database preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • retrieval statement in the form of the library database homepage URL

Figure 3. The eye. Reprinted from Human anatomy and physiology – special senses, by Anatomy TV, (n.d.), Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1Anatomy TV

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

(n.d.). The eye. [Database image]. Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Creative commons

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

The diagram shows . . . (West, 2012, Figure 4).

Figure layout

  • A figure from a creative commons source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:
  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 4.)
  • title of image (or brief description)
  • title of the creative commons source preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • year of image
  • retrieval statement in the form of a URL

Figure 4. Classroom tour 3. Reprinted from Flicker, by Kathy Cassidy, 2006, Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Cassidy, K. (2006). Classroom tour 3. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The city of Casey as shown on … (Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012).

The Victorian Electoral Commission (2012) published a very useful map of …

Figure layout

A figure from a web page will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 3.)
  • title of image (and/or brief description)
  • title of library database preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • retrieval statement in the form of the library database homepage URL

Figure 1: City of Casey: Local council boundaries. Reprinted from by Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form]. DOI/URL

Online

Victorian Electoral Commission. (2012). City of Casey: Local council boundaries [Map]. Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

Print

Timms, P. E. (2006). Colonial settlement in Tasmania. Hobart, Australia: Tiger Press.

  • ONLINE: Give author/poster and the title of the item (no italics). Give year of publication (or date of post). Add form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Photograph’) in square brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description in same square brackets as form.
  • PRINT: Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Title should be in italics. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: ‘… (Timms, 2006, Figure 2)’.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g., the VEC for the Victorian Electoral Commission, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Visual artwork

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium]. City, State/Country: Gallery. OR DOI/URL

Original artwork

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Online production

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Retrieved from http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

Print reproduction

Bryant, H. (Ed.). (1993). Australian artists. Melbourne, Australia: Larwitt.

  • ORIGINAL: Give name of artist, year artwork was created, title of artwork (italics), medium (square brackets, no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery.
  • ONLINE REPRODUCTION: Give artist, year, title, medium, and DOI/URL.
  • PRINT REPRODUCTION: Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant, 1993, p. 46)’.

Blog post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvannian student buys WMD ingredients …

A Pennsylvanian student has been buying WMD ingredients … (Daly, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … " (Daly, 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Daly, Michael. (2014, January 29). Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Facebook post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) are pleased to announce ...

A recent announcement by Coles states that … (Coles Supermarket, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that "Our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …" (Coles Supermarket, 2014, para 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Coles Supermarkets. (2014, January 2). Good News: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Forum comment

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that …

Recent criticism leveled at Twitter search functions have … (GeekBoy, 2008, October 9).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …" (GeekBoy, 2009, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

GeekBoy. (2008, October 9). Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search? [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Tweet

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

A recent Twitter tribute by Kanye West to Mandela's life work evoked …(West, 2013).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ..." (West, 2013, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

YouTube video

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 17, 2014). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give name of poster (real name plus screen name, or just screen name if real name is unknown).
  • Give date of posting. Give title (italics) followed by form (no italics) in square brackets.
  • Give URL of individual post (archived URL if available—click date stamp to access).
  • Retrieval date is not needed if post has a specific associated date.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Taylor's (2013) exhibition catalogue presents Australian impressionists who have recently exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ..." (Taylor, 2013 p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Brochure]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, E. (2013). Australian impressionists in France [Exhibition catalogue]. Melbourne, Australia: National Gallery of Victoria.

Brochure (online)

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • Give author and publication year or date as shown on document. Give title in italics.
  • Add description in square brackets (no italics) to title.

Conference paper presented

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Wenzel (1998, June) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Films of Fellini have been very popular … (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Fellini's films always drew much attention from …" (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Presenter. (Year, Month). Title. Paper presented at Meeting Name, place.

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

Wenzel, B. Q. (1998, June). Films of Fellini. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, Australia.

  • Give year and month of conference, title of paper (italics), followed by name of location of meeting.

Conference paper published in proceedings

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour may benefit from … (Carbone et al., 2002).

Carbone et al. (2002) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour … (Carbone, et al., 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country, Publisher. DOI/URL

Carbone, A., Mitchell, I., Gunstone, D., & Hurst, J. (2002). Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour. In B. Werner (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 533-534). doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

Whole proceedings

Murphy, C. (2004). Job design and leadership. In G. Stewart, & P. Hyland (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association (pp. 1-13). Rockhampton, Australia: CQU.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, and title of paper (no italics).
  • Give editor, title of proceedings, and page range. (Use initial capitals for conference name in title.)
  • Add publication information or DOI. Give URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Course materials

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Other identifying detail. OR DOI/URL

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. 2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fl1D5Gg76dA

Print handout

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture handout]. Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, Australia.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material in the reference list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.

Encyclopedia entry

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Print

Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In Science Encyclopedia (5th ed., pp. 501–508). New York, NY: Academic Resources.

e-Book

McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com/

Online

Watergate scandal. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/

Panadol (children) 3+ years chewable tablets. (2017). In Mims Online. Retrieved from https://www.mimsonline.com.au

No author

The World Book encyclopedia. (2007). Chicago: World Book.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Give author of entry if one is named, otherwise begin with title.
  • Give title of entry (no italics) and title of whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give page and any edition and volume numbers after title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide URL of item (use the permanent link).
  • Include retrieval date if content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Interview transcript

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. (Date). Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer). Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Online (Transcript)

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong (S. E. Ambrose, Interviewer) [Transcript]. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications (see Ex 46).
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Media release

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Quantas, 2011).

Quantas (2011) announced …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and the paragraph number(s).

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … " (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Date). Title [Description]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Qantas. (2011, October 29). Response to industrial action [Media release]. Retrieved from http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

Personal communication

No reference entry required

E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008 IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Class or lecture notes taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

Report, government or corporate

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the 2016 Defence White Paper there are … (Department of Defence, 2016).

Outback Windmills are now subject to … (Department of Primary Industries, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …" (Department of Health, 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Series number). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

PDF document

Australia. Department of Defence. (2016). 2016 Defence white paper. Retrieved from http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

Review

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences … (Schembri, 2008).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Croggon (2014) commented that "Private Lives is a play that resonates with many audiences because ..".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. (Year/Date). Title of review [Review of Work reviewed, role and name of principal contributor, Year of production/release]. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

Film review (print newspaper)

Schembri, J. (2008, November 10). [Review of the motion picture Australia, directed by B. Luhrmann, 2008]. The Age, p. 8.

Theatre review (online)

Croggon, A. (2014, January 31). [Review of the play Private lives, by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014.] The Guardian Australia. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog?page=46

  • Give author and date of review.
  • Give title of review (italics) followed by description (no italics except for title of work being reviewed), in square brackets. If review has no title, give description alone.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or app

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow, Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word, Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title (Version number) [Form]. (Year). City, State/Country: Company. OR DOI/URL

Mobile phone (app)

Weather Flow (Version 1.5.0) [Mobile phone application]. Available from http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

Computer software

Microsoft Word (Version 16.0.4639.1000) [Computer software]. Available from https://www.microsoft.com

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give title of software (no italics) followed by version number in round brackets. Add description in square brackets after version number. Give place and name of company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Standards, Australian

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Residential timber framed construction techniques are … (Standards Australia, 2010).

Standards Australia (2010) claim that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames "have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …" (Standards Australia, 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Standards Australia. (2010). Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). Sydney: Standards Australia.

Thesis

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfuntional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional rivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. OR DOI/URL

Print (unpublished)

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Online

For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work in brackets and also include a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in brackets, and a retrieval statement that includes the name of the database and the accession or order number in brackets.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.

FedCite

Presently the FedUni Library's referencing tool has in-text citation, and full citation examples for APA 6th Edition. Chicago/Turabian, MLA, and Australian Harvard are currently under development. Please use the feedback form to send the Library questions or to report errors.

Copyright Federation University of Australia
Based on a work Copyright RMIT University
In turn based on a work Copyright © Swinburne
In turn based on a work Copyright © Griffith University
Some examples drawn from Monash University
Content licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0

Feedback