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Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the American Psychology Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication.

APA is an in text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The in text citation should appear within the body of the document and includes details such as author(s) family name, year of publication (in round brackets), and page number(s) (if applicable).

For each source identified in the text, you also need to create a corresponding entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - APA Citing and referencing subject guide

APA Style Blog

General rules for in-text citations

When you are paraphrasing or using a direct quote in you writing you must acknowledge each author or source of information (whether print or online).

PARAPHRASING

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use round brackets to add the author(s) family name and the year of publication, or use the author(s) family name as part of your sentence, followed by the year of publication in round brackets.

When paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Brophy (2010) states that student motivation . . .

Citation in the middle

. . . motivation is evident (Brophy, 2010), and as a result, can contribute significantly to achieving learning goals.

Citation at the end

. . . where a number of subjective experiences can inform motivational outcomes (Brophy, 2010).

Citations can also be structured according to whether they give prominence to the author, or to the information being conveyed.

Author-prominent citations

In his research, Brophy (2010) argues that . . .

Information-prominent citations

. . . findings are based on the qualitative study of behavioural learning (Brophy, 2010).

Including page numbers in a paraphrase citation

When paraphrasing, page numbers may also be included as part of the citation, especially if it helps the reader to locate the source of the information in a lengthy document.

  • Including page numbers when paraphrasing is optional, and is NOT a requirement of the APA referencing style.
  • In order to establish a learning community in the classroom, it is important to motivate students by addressing both individual and collaborative learning goals (Brophy, 2010, pp. 23-24).

Narrative citations

  • When the name of the author is part of the narrative and appears outside of parentheses, after the first citation in each paragraph you need not include the year in subsequent non-parenthetical citations as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies.

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Parenthetical citations

  • All parenthetical citations (i.e., citations in which both the author name and publication date are enclosed within parentheses) should include the year, regardless of how often they appear in a paragraph.

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

DIRECT QUOTES

Direct quotes are used when you are using the exact words of the author(s). Put direct quotes between double quotation marks “ ” and add a page number(s). Do not overuse direct quotes.

“Student motivation to learn can be viewed as either a general disposition or a situation-specific state” (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

If the work you are referencing does NOT contain page numbers, then use chapter numbers, section headings and paragraph numbers as part of the in-text reference.

"As the national peak body for early childhood, ECA is a regular, and trusted, contributor to the public policy debate on all matters affecting young children (birth to eight years) and their families" (Early Childhood Australia, 2016, Advocacy section, para. 1).

If you omit words from a direct quote, you will need to add a space followed by three ellipsis dots ( . . . ) and another space.

Cannon (2012) argues that "changes in corporate approaches to such sensitive areas . . . will require coherent change strategies" (p. 165).

Quotes more than 40 words in length need to be in block form – without using quotation marks, begin the quote on a new, indented line, and double-space the entire quote. At the end of the quote, include citation details such as author(s), year and page number(s) in brackets.

The difference between intrinsic motivation and motivation to learn is closely related to the difference between affective and cognitive engagement experiences. Intrinsic motivation refers primarily to affective experience—enjoyment of the processes involved in engaging in an activity. In contrast, motivation to learn is primarily a cognitive experience involving attempts to make sense of the information that an activity conveys, to relate this information to prior knowledge, and to master the skills that the activity develops (Brophy, 2010, p. 12).

Basic treatment for in-text citations

You need to insert a brief reference into your writing whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Page numbers are added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

TEMPLATE

(Author, Year) or (Author, Year, Page)

BASIC AUTHOR AND YEAR

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins, 2013).

PAGE NUMBER FOR QUOTE

… was “fully confirmed by these results” (Jenkins 2013, p. 213).

AUTHOR IN SENTENCE

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.

AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech, 1994).

  • Enclose the author’s surname and year in round brackets, separated by a comma.
  • Insert before punctuation mark ending sentence (or part of sentence) where you used source.
  • If author is already in sentence, give year alone in round brackets directly after author’s name.
  • Add initial/s to surname if you have sources by authors with the same surname.

MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR 

Two authors

(Hendricks & Angwin, 1975) OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

  • Always cite both family names every time the reference occurs in the text.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Three, four or five authors 

(Oakes, Grocz, & Hu, 1994) OR  Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (1994) … FIRST

(Oakes et al., 1994) OR  Oakes et al. (1994) … LATER

  • Cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations, include only the family name of the first author followed by et. al. (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) and the year of publication.

Six or more authors 

(Donat et al., 2002) OR Donat et al. (2002) ALL MENTIONS

  • Cite only the family name of the first author followed by et al. and the year of publication for the first and subsequent citations.

Group author (Government or organisation)

(Amnesty International, 1997) OR  Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO], 2013) LONG NAME, FIRST (WHO, 2009) LATER

  • Give the full name of the group in all mentions, without initials or abbreviations.
  • However, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name plus the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention. In all later mentions, give abbreviation only.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put an extra line in your reference list:
    • WHO – see World Health Organization.
  • Use the full group name for all entries in the reference list. Include initials in round brackets only if you used initials in your sentences.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case.
  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

(Reading Rates, 2012) OR Reading Rates (2012) WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp,” 2004) OR “Last Gasp” (2004) PART OF WORK

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works.
  • Use initial capital letters for all major words.

MULTIPLE SOURCES IN SAME CITATION

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • List multiple sources from the same author by year (earliest first). Separate by commas.

PAGE NUMBERS

Basic treatment

(Johnson, 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett, 1998, pp. 55­–63) … (Wong, 2012, Figure 3)

  • Add page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of source.
  • Add after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, ‘pp.’ before a page range, and ‘para.’, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’.

Quotations

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison, 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as “a stunning victory” (p. 15).

  • For direct quotations, add the page reference after the closing quotation mark.
  • For block quotations, i.e., when the quote is forty words or more, add the page reference after closing punctuation mark.
  • If a block quote text, indent and set as a separate paragraph with no quotation marks, as below.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).

No page numbers

(Duer, 1974, “Introduction,” para. 12).

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph number/s if these are shown.
  • If no paragraph numbers, give closest heading and paragraph number/s (as counted by you).

Multiple references in same parentheses

List multiple citations in alphabetical order, with a semi-colon (;) to separate them.

… along with other studies (Keen, 2005; Lee, 2004; Wojk, 2003, 2006).

Multiple works by same author in same year

In-text citations

When an author has published more than one cited article in the same year, distinguish each article by using a lower case letter after the year within the brackets (this is also written in the reference list).

In a study by Crowley (2011a), it was found that . . .

It is suggested that . . . (Crowley, 2011b).

Secondary citation

In-text citations

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (as quoted in Meldrum & Peters, 2012, p. 109).

Reference list

Meldrum, K., & Peters, J. (2012). Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Sydney, Australia: Pearson Australia.

  • Only use a secondary citation where you are using a quotation or there is significant importance to the original source. In most cases, where the author has paraphrased the original source, only cite the source you are reading.
  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and an in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘as cited in’ (or ‘as quoted in’ for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

Creating a reference list

Each source that is referred to in the text needs a corresponding entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic APA reference entry is made up of the following parts:

Author + Year + title+ Publisher Information or DOI or Retrieved from URL

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an APA reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that every part ends with a full stop, except DOIs and URLs, and a space follows each punctuation mark.

Author

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

One author

Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initial/s of the given name/s.

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

2–7 authors

Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

Hall, J. L., & Ashton, B. T. (2005). A spoonful of valour …

8 or more authors

Name the first six and last authors. Join last author by three dots (‘…’).

Donat, T. G., Jenkins, M., Baysch, V., Adamson, E., Wilkins, W. L., Lingstrom, A., … Farr, P. B.

Group author (government or organisation)

Give the name of the group in full followed immediately by the year of publication.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. (2004). Australia’s health …

Legislation/criminal cases (government or organisation)

No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case. Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

YEAR

Publication year/date

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown).
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

What to include:

  • Enclose year of publication in round brackets.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates. (Give only year in in-text citation).

Winton, T. (2001). Dirt music. Sydney, Australia: Picador.

Greendale, N. (2006, May 4). Road toll rising. The Age, p. 13.

Same author, Same year

Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.

Harris, D. W. (2001a). Hadrian’s wall …

Harris, D. W. (2001b). Julius Caesar …

No year/date

Use ‘n.d.’, (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Gardiner, I. T. (n.d.). Life in rural Australia …

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

What to include:

  • Give the title in italics in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and the subtitle, and to any proper nouns.
  • Give both titles if the source is part of a larger work. No italics for parts of works.

Harris, M. (1983). The mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. … TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, N. B. (2001). Method in action. Journal of Health, … PART OF & WHOLE WORK

No title

If no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets. No italics.

Jensen, P. R. (1945). [Wartime navy reminiscences]. Brisbane, Australia: Liberty Press.

Publication information

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

What to include:

  • If published in the USA, give city, US state (initials) and publisher.
  • If published outside the USA, give city, country and publisher.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.
  • If the publisher is also the author, use ‘Author’ instead of repeating name.

Gourley, D. (2002). Action man. Chicago, IL: Bellinger.

Temple, P. (2009). Truth. Melbourne, Australia: Text.

Gull Group. (1992). Annual report. Sydney, Australia: Author.

DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier [DOI]?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material has a DOI but you need to include one whenever it has been assigned.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t need to give the URL or retrieval date.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.Use a DOI when one has been assigned, even for print material. No full stop at the end. Give exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi’ (always use lower case). New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

doi:10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

Uniform Resource Locator [URL] and retrieval date

What is the address of the source online, and when did I retrieve it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it. It is only included if the source has no DOI.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the full URL.
  • Do not include the retrieval date unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

Retrieved from http://www.books.google.com/

How to present a reference list

How to set up the list in Microsoft Word

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the centred heading ‘References’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • In Word, select your references and use Ctrl+2 (Cmmd+2 on a Mac) to double-space lines.
  • Select your references and use Ctrl+T (Cmmd+T on a Mac) to format with a hanging indent, then (while the text is still selected), right-click on the highlighted text to get a pop-up menu, select Paragraph, and you can set the size of the hanging indent.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • If there is no author, list by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second (see Hillsdon 2002 entries).

Example of a reference list

References

Anderson, T.D. (1985). Panel data: A primer. New York: NY: Paragon.

Baird, J. (2016, November 05). There’s no such thing as ‘just a nurse’. The Age. Retrieved from http://www.theage.com.au/

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

Destounis, S. V., Arieno, A. L., Morgan, R. C., Cavanaugh, D., Seifert, P. J., Murphy, P. F., & Somerville, P. A. (2014). Comparison of breast cancers diagnosed in screening patients in their 40s with and without family history of breast cancer in a community outpatient facility. American Journal of Roentgenology, 202(4), 928-932. doi:10.2214/ajr.13.11194

Early Childhood Australia. (2016). Early childhood Australia’s advocacy: Advocacy goals. Retrieved from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/our-work/early-childhood-australias-advocacy/

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

Hillsdon, M. (2002). Statistical analysis primer. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Hillsdon, M. (2002a). Basic econometrics (4th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Hill.

Hillsdon, M. (2002b). Computational methods. Melbourne, Australia: Lansdowne.

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

Johnson, A. & Hanson, S. (1995). Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 11(2), 91-102.

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Primal Pictures. (2014, September 19). Primal’s 3D atlas of human anatomy [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g-BtsX3bGvs&feature=youtu.be

Schirm, V. (2013). Quality of life. In I. M. Lubkin & P. D. Larsen (Eds.), Chronic illness: Impact and interventions (8th ed., pp. 183-206). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sullivan, E. J. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.

Wang, H. (2015). Protein degradation pathways in hepatic ER stress and insulin resistance. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://researchbank.rmit.edu.au/view/rmit:161444

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Studies indicate that . . . (Sullivan, 2013).

Sullivan (2013) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (Sullivan, 2013, p. 103).

Sullivan (2013) notes that "challenging the power structure of institutions, organizations, or bureaucracies requires commitment and fortitude" (p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Sullivan, E. (2013). Becoming influential: A guide for nurses (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson.

  • Give author, year, title (italics), and place and name of publisher.

Two authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, use the ampersand symbol & between author family names only when they appear in brackets. Otherwise, just use and to separate author names in the body of the text.

. . . and is vital in order to encode memories (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016).

Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2016) have identified that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"The central executive functions as an attention-controlling mechanism within working memory have been found to ..." (Pastorino & Doyle-Portillo, 2016, p. 281).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2016). What is psychology?: Foundations, applications and integration. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

  • List both authors, and separate the names with an ampersand symbol &.

Three, four or five authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, Steven J., & Deschenes, Michael R. (2012). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

  • List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Six or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Brown et al. (2010) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Brown et al. (2010) state that "spontaneous processes that result in a decrease in the system's entropy are always exothermic" (p. 167).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Brown, T. L., LeMay, H. E., Bursten, B. E., Murphy, C. J., Langford, S. J., & Sagatys, D. (2010). Chemistry: The central science: A broad perspective (2nd ed.). Frenchs Forest, N.S.W.: Pearson.

  • List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.

Eight or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Lodish et al. (2013) identified . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lodish et al. (2013) state that "proteins, the workhorses of the cell, are the most abundant and functionally versatile of the cellular macromolecules" (p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Lodish, H., Kaiser, C. A., Bretscher, A., Amon, A., Berk, A., Krieger, M., . . . Scott, M. P. (2013). Molecular cell biology (7th ed.). New York, NY: W. H. Freeman.

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.

Edition number

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

According to Bandman and Bandman (2002) ethics in nursing is ….

Ethical medical care given by nurses … (Bandman & Bandman, 2002)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Nurses' commitment to following proper medical procedure is ..." (Bandman & Bandman, 2002, pp. 11-12).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Bandman, E., & Bandman, B. (2002). Nursing ethics through the life span (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

  • Different edition: Add edition description (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).
  • Multi-volume: Add volume number/s (in round brackets, no italics) to title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if citing a whole work; or volume number (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’) if citing an individual volume.

Edited book/ Book chapter

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Brown (2001) states …

Infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families … (Brown, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …" (Brown, 2001, p. 83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Include the edition number followed by the abbreviation ed. in brackets after the book title. If the book is a first edition, or no edition is stated, do NOT include the edition number.

Chapter from edited collection

Brown, J. (2001). Silence, taboo and infectious disease. In A. Mills & J. Smith (Eds.), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable (pp. 83–91). New York, NY: Peter Lang.

  • An edited book will generally be comprised of chapters written by a number of different authors. When citing in-text, you will need to attribute the authors of the particular chapter you are referencing, NOT the editors of the entire work.
  • Edited collection: Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(Ed.)’ or ‘(Eds.)’.
  • Chapter from edited collection: Give chapter author and title (no italics). Give book title (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics) and initials and surname/s of editor/s followed by ‘(Ed.),’ or ‘(Eds.)’. Add page range of chapter in round brackets (no italics) after title.
  • If the book is an authored (NOT edited) work, then reference it as a whole work, NOT by the book chapter.
  • For examples refer to the following relevant sections:
    • Single author
    • Two authors
    • Three, four or five authors
    • Six or more authors
    • Eight or more authors

E-book (from a database)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural competence ...

Building cross-cultural competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com/

Accessed on e-reader

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com

e-book without DOI

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Carbonaro, 2012).

Carbonaro (2012) contends that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Carbonaro (2012) concludes that "MR-mammography allows an accurate evaluation of both breast lesions and axillary lymph nodes, useful to predict the nodal status" (p. 18).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

When including journal articles in the reference list, you must italicise the title of the Journal and volume number, and include the digital object identifier (DOI) at the end of the reference (if stated).

Carbonation, L. A. (2012). Can we use MR-mammography to predict nodal status? European Journal of Radiology, 81(1), 17-18. doi:10.1016/s0720-048x(12)70007-4
Print

Normoyle, C. (2013). Nurses' wellbeing. Australian Nursing Journal, 20(10), 30–33.

Online with URL (no DOI)

Moran, W. (2014). Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 39(3). Retrieved from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Two authors

In-text citations

  • Name both authors.
  • Join authors by ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

Paraphrasing

. . . identifies skills intrinsic to current nursing practitioners (Felton & Royal, 2015).

Felton and Royal (2015) argue that . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

According to Felton and Royal (2015) "supporting the development of practitioners' skills within preregistration nursing education is complex" (p. 38).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Print or online with DOI

Felton, A., & Royal, J. (2015). Skills for nursing practice: Development of clinical skills in pre-registration nurse education. Nurse Education in Practice, 15(1), 38-43. doi:10.1016/j.nepr.2014.11.009

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Three, four or five authors

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

  • Name all authors the first time you refer to the source.
  • Separate each author by a comma. Join last author by ‘&’ or ‘and’.

. . . outlining the thought processes (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.
  • Later, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

Demacheva et al. (2012) outlined the through processes relevant to ...

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Demacheva et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Our findings suggest that decoupling the when and the where attention modules may play an important role in creating magic effects" (Demacheva, Ladouceur, Steinberg, Pogossova, & Raz, 2012, p. 547).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Demacheva, I., Ladouceur, M., Steinberg, E., Pogossova, G., & Raz, A. (2012). The applied cognitive psychology of attention: A step closer to understanding magic tricks. Applied Cognitive Psychology26(4), 541-549. doi:10.1002/acp.2825

  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Six or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Use only the first listed family name followed by et al. and year of publication.

Magnetic resonance imaging can … (Marinovich et al., 2013).

Marinovich et al. (2013) comment . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In comparative studies, MRI was more accurate than mammography, but no differences in accuracy were observed between MRI and other less technically complex and costly tests (ultrasound, clinical examination)" (Marinovich et al., 2013, p. 331).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Marinovich, M., Houssami, N., Macaskill, P., Sardanelli, F., Irwig, L., Mamounas, E., . . . Ciatto, S. (2013). Meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging in detecting residual breast cancer after neoadjuvant therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 105(5), 321-333. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs528

  • List the first six authors followed by three ellipsis points (. . .) then the last author.
  • Give volume number (italics) and issue number (round brackets, no italics). No space between.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (no ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • DOI format: The new recommended format looks like this: https://doi.org/10.1037/arc0000014
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘Available from’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Without DOI

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author family name(s) and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Recent studies indicate that . . . (Walker & Buchbinder, 1997).

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) contend that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal. If no pages are stated, then include the section heading and paragraph number.

Walker and Buchbinder (1997) noted that "analysis of the determinants of frequency of use of the various diagnostic methods revealed that motion palpation was more commonly employed by younger chiropractors" (Discussion section, para. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

Walker, B., & Buchbinder, R. (1997). Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: A survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 20(9), 583-589. Retrieved from http://www.jmptonline.org/

  • If citing a journal article without a DOI, include the volume, issue number (if available), and page number(s). If the journal article was retrieved online, include the URL of the journal homepage.

From a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

The results of the study indicate . . . (Evans, 2015).

Evans (2015) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

Evans (2015) notes that "aspirin's miracle properties revolve around its ability to stop blood platelets clumping together, reducing the risk of heart attacks and strokes" (p. 11).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Evans, K. (2015, January 05). Aspirin study raises hopes for dementia prevention. The Age. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.

Online

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Craig (1968) reports that Mrs Holt’s sorrow has been shared by …

A recent letter to the editor comments on Starbuck's … (Rosen, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Starbucks latest advertising campaign has …" (Rosen, 2014, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Online replica of print edition

Craig, B. (1968, January 10). Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow. The Australian Women’s Weekly, 2–3. Retrieved from https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185

Online edition

Rosen, L. (2014, January 22). Occupy Starbucks [Letter to the editor]. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Author: Give name of author. (Start with title if no author shown.)
  • Year/date: Give date as shown on source (i.e., year and month, or year, month and day).
  • Title: Give title of article (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., in square brackets (no italics), or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title (Newspapers, Separate section).
  • Page numbers. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (Newspapers, Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (Newspapers, Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post.

Print

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Kennedy's assassination has … (Hunt, 1963).

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt, 1963).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …" (Hunt, 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Hunt, J. (1963, November 22). Assassin kills Kennedy. The Chicago Tribune,  1, 4–6.

  • Author: Give name of author. (Start with title if no author shown.)
  • Year/date: Give date as shown on source (i.e., year and month, or year, month and day).
  • Title: Give title of article (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., in square brackets (no italics) (Ex 41), or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title (Ex 39).
  • Page numbers. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (Ex 38).

No author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

If no author has been identified, provide the first few words of the title in capital letters with double quotation marks " " followed by the year.

An increase in education spending . . . ("Budget to Link," 2016).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"An additional $118 million to support disabled children in schools over two years will be a modest boost in an important area of student assistance where many schools are struggling" ("Budget to Link," 2016, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Article title. Newspaper/Magazine Name, p. #. DOI or URL

Budget to link school spending to outcomes. (2016, May 02). The Australian. Available from http://search.ebscohost.com

  • Do NOT italicise the title of the article, only the title of the newspaper.
  • Include the day, month and year, as well as the exact URL of the article.
  • Place the title of the article in the author position, and provide the exact URL if taken from a database.

Act of Parliament

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Include the title of the legislation and the year in italics if referring to an Act in the body of the text. Otherwise, place the year and section numbers (if applicable) in brackets.

  • It is necessary to also state the jurisdiction of the legislation, either in the body of the text, or enclosed in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, (Vic) for Victoria, (UK) for United Kingdom etc.
  • Include the jurisdiction the first time the act is cited. The jurisdiction can be dropped with subsequent citations.

According to the Victorian Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) . . .

Victoria’s Mental Health Act (2014, s. 29) states that . . .

By virtue of s. 130.1 of the Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

"A person receiving mental health services in a designated mental health service may be kept in seclusion if seclusion is necessary to prevent imminent and serious harm to the person or to another person" (Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic), s. 110).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Statute name Year (jurisdiction) s. Retrieved from URL.

Statutes

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

Goods Act 1958 (Vic)

Statutes online

Mental Health Act 2014 (Vic) s. 115.1. Retrieved from http://www.legislation.vic.gov.au/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Statute references

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in italics, followed by the year the statute was passed in italics. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the jurisdiction which passed the Act, for example, the jurisdiction of the legislation appears in brackets e.g. (Cth) for Commonwealth, or the State abbreviation. Finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute. If a specific section of the legislation is used, this can be highlighted by using an s. for section.
  • If the legislation is obtained from an electronic source, add a retrieval statement to the reference.

Legal cases

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When citing a Case in-text, it is necessary to include the title of the case in italics followed by the year in brackets. Alternatively, it is also acceptable to include all case details enclosed in brackets; italicise only the case title, followed by the year.

Include the year with the first citation. The year can be dropped in subsequent citations.

According to the case of Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) . . .

. . . (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

"The Tribunal lacks the jurisdiction to consider the decisions made by the Secretary in relation to the drug Clozapine" (Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing, 2011, Held section, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year/Date) Volume/Series Law report Page number

For court decisions the elements to include are: title of the case in italics, year in brackets, volume number, reporter abbreviation, and starting page number.

If a case is obtained from an electronic database, add a retrieval statement.

Drew v Minister for Health and Ageing (2011) 56 AAR 227. Retrieved from http://www.westlaw.com.au/maf/wlau/app/document?docguid=I49472f517b6911e18eefa443f89988a0

Civil law cases

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

Civil law case references

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (comes from "versus" and separates the names of the opposing parties), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year, the year the case was reported (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons, 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …" (FitzSimon, 2011, 4:50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Reader) [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P. (2011). Kokoda (L. FitzGerald, Reader) [CD]. Sydney, Australia: ABC Audio.

Online

Dickens, C. (2013). Oliver Twist (P. Batchelor, Reader) [Audio file]. Available from http://www.audible.com.

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add reader’s name in round brackets. Add recording format in square brackets.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give place and name of record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details; use ‘Available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Cohen (2013, December 29) comments that the supermarket war has led to many casualties ...

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen, 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29) stated that due to the recent "supermarket war many small farmers … ".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year, Month Day). Episode title. Program title [Form]. DOI/URL

Cohen, H. (Presenter). (2013, December 29). Casualties in the supermarket war. Background briefing [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/backgroundbriefing/2013-03-24/4582278

  • Give primary contributor/s and role/s and date produced/uploaded.
  • Give title of episode (no italics) followed by title of whole podcast/program.
  • Give the URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘Available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription.

Music recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian, 2012, 0:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. (Year). Title of song [Recorded by Artist Name]. On Title of album [Form]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

Single track (LP)

Duke, V. (1934). Autumn in New York [Recorded by F. Sinatra]. On Come fly with me [Vinyl recording]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol. (1958).

Single track (online)

Sebastian, G. (2012). Big bad world. On Armageddon [MP3]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

Album (CD)

Perry, K. (2013). Prism [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Capitol.

  • SINGLE TRACK/SONG: Give name of songwriter and year of copyright. If songwriter is not the recording artist, add recording artist in square brackets after title (no italics). Give album title (italics) preceded by ‘On’. Give place and name of recording label. Add recording date at end if different from copyright year (see Ex 35).
  • WHOLE ALBUM: Give name of album recording artist. Give album title (italics).

Speech or performance (recorded)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliiner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared …" (Kennedy, 1963, June 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label. OR DOI/URL

Performance (CD)

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

Speech recording (Online video)

Kennedy, J. F. (1963, June 26). Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

Speech recording (Online audio)

King, M. L. Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Audio file]. Retrieved from http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/ (Speech recorded August 28, 1963).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …’
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add original recording date if different or more specific than publication date.

Streaming video from a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the database name and year of publication in brackets.

According to the latest research . . . (Informit EduTV, 2016).

InformitTV (2016) presents an interesting ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Australia's education system is falling behind. 15 years ago our schools were ranked sixth in the world, but now we're struggling to make the top 20" (Informit EduTV, 2016, 00:13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Database name. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Retrieved from URL

Informit EduTV. (2016, May 31). Revolution School: Ep. 1 of 4 [Video file]. Retrieved from http://edutv.informit.com.au/browse-videos.php

  • Include the database name in the author position.
  • Include the video title in italics and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video file].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Television series episode

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when … (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002).

Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?" (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso, 2002, 09.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title of episode [Form]. In Principal Contributor, Title of series. City, State/Country: Production/Distribution Company. OR DOI/URL

Television broadcast

Sherman-Palladino, A. (Writer), & Mancuso, G. (Director). (2002). Application anxiety [Television series episode]. In A. Sherman-Palladino, D. Palladino, & G. Polone (Producers), Gilmore girls. Melbourne, Australia: Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

Online video

Horowitz, A. (Writer), & Orme, S. (Director). (2014). The eternity ring [Television series episode; Video file]. In J. Green (Producer), Foyle’s war. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

DVD (whole series)

Gilligan, V. (Producer). (2008-2013). Breaking bad [Television series; DVD]. Los Angeles, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles, and episode title (no italics). Examples above show various roles to illustrate options. Give series title (italics) and form in square brackets preceded by the principal contributors and roles.
  • BROADCAST: Give city, station and broadcast date.
  • ONLINE: Give URL of site where you accessed item.
  • DVD: Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).

Video or film (studio production)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg (1985) directed …

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg, 1985, 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Country: Distributor/Studio.

Film

Zemeckis, R. (Writer/Director), Gale, R. (Writer), & Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1985). Back to the future [Motion picture]. United States: Universal Pictures.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Z. (Director), & Goyer, D. S. (Writer). (2013). Man of steel [Blu-ray]. United States: Warner Bros.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, A. (Producer/Director). (2003). Vertigo [DVD]. United States: Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958.

Online

Affleck, B. (Director), Terrio, C. (Writer), & Clooney, G. (Producer). (2012). Argo [Video file]. Available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, and/or producer) and their roles. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options.
  • Give title in italics. Add form of version accessed in square brackets (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of original release.
  • Give place and name of studio or, if accessed online, give URL of site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘Retrieved from’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.

Video game

In-text citations

Paraphrase

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Ulysses cried out: “Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Fallout: New Vegas, 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title [Form; Video game]. (Year). Place: Publisher.

Fallout: New Vegas [CD-ROM; Video game]. (2010). Rockville, Maryland: Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title (italics), then form and description in square brackets (no italics).
  • Give year of production. Give place and name of producer, or URL if accessed online.
  • Game developer can be given in author position.

Video podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include either the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the producer’s/presenter's/interviewee's family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name.

Current research indicates . . . (Trueman, 2016).

Trueman (2016) states that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"By editing DNA, we can not only eliminate the chance of disease, but also change how a person develops. . .and fundamentally understand what a single gene does" (Trueman, 2016, 2:00).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor. (Role). (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Trueman, H. (Producer). (2016, August 30). Gene editing made simple [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst

  • Include details of the producer/presenter/interviewee etc. in the author position.
  • Italicise the podcast title and describe the form type inside square brackets e.g. [Video podcast].
  • Provide the homepage URL to avoid any potential non-working URLs.

Web document (pdf)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the City of Ballarat (2011) there has been a housing boom over the past ...

There has been a housing boom in the Ballarat area … (City of Ballarat, 2011).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

"There has been an upsurge in the housing industry in the Ballarat area over the past three years due to more the appeal of country living" (City of Ballarat, 2011, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title. DOI or URL

City of Ballarat. (2011). Annual report. Retrieved from http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • If citing information taken directly from a webpage document include author(s) (which may be different from the site hosting it).
    • If no author(s) are stated then use a company or organisation name
    • Follow author or company/organisation name by the year in brackets.
  • Use author and date as found on the document.
  • If no year is stated then use n.d. for no date.
  • Do NOT italicise the title of the webpage document, and add a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.
  • Retrieval date is not needed because content is fixed.

Website post or page (general treatment)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Fry (2013, August 7) David Cameron's views …

David Cameron has recently announced … (Fry, 2013, August 7).

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference if quoting from a website that is NOT a PDF document.

"David Cameron has recently started campaigning …" (Fry, 2013, August 7, para. 3).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form, if needed]. Retrieved from URL

With retrieval date:

Department of Health. (2018). Latest My Aged Care updates: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved July 11, 2018, from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care/latest-my-aged-care-updates

Without retrieval date:

Department of Health. (2017). My Aged Care: Ageing and aged care. Retrieved from https://agedcare.health.gov.au/programs/my-aged-care

Fry, S. (2013, August 7). An open letter to David Cameron and the IOC. [Blog post]. Retrieved from The new adventures of Mr Stephen Fry website: http://www.stephenfry.com/2013/08/an-open-letter-to-david-cameron-and-the-ioc/

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year or specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page) or use the copyright date, last updated date, or (n.d.) as appropriate.
  • Give the title of post/page (no italics). If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase in square brackets. If material is non-routine, add description of form in square brackets.
  • Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of home page, whichever is more direct/reliable. If website name is different from URL, add this to the entry (see 'Fry' example above).
  • Provide a retrieval date for references where the content changes over time, such as for non-archived social media pages.

Website

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is … IN WRITING ONLY

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Book or journal article

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, as you would for a normal in-text reference, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 1 . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

Figure 1 illustrates . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013).

The data shows . . . (Fernandez-Lizarbe et al., 2013, Figure 1).

Figure layout

A figure from a book/journal article will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 1.) followed by a brief but descriptive phrase
  • book title in italics with proper nouns capitalised, or article title in double quotation marks " " and preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, preceded with the word by
  • year of publication
  • journal title in italics (if applicable)
  • volume number in italics (if applicable)
  • issue number (if applicable)
  • page number(s)

Figure 1. Hunting family by Indigenous artist Hippy Wanganee. Reprinted from "Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists," by M. Fletcher, 2013, Artlink, 34(2), p. 101. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Article title. Journal Name, vol(issue), xx–xx. DOI or URL

The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.

Fletcher, M. (2014). Our mob: Art by South Australian Aboriginal artists. Artlink, 34(2), 101-102. Retrieved from https://www.artlink.com.au

Webpage

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 2 . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

Figure 2 illustrates . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016).

The diagram shows . . . (National Cancer Institute, 2016, Figure 2).

Figure layout

A figure from a web page will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 2.)
  • title of image (or brief description)
  • title of webpage preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • year of webpage
  • retrieval statement in the form of a URL

Figure 2. Anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Reprinted from Parathyroid cancer treatment (PDQ®)–patient version, by National Cancer Institute, 2016, Retrieved from https://www.cancer.gov/types/parathyroid/patient/parathyroid-treatment-pdq

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Fidelity. (2016) The world’s largest economies are all in expansion, though at various phases of the business cycle. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://www.fidelity.com/viewpoints/market-and-economic-insights/business-cycle-update-December-2016

Library database

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 3 . . . (The eye, n.d.).

Figure 3 illustrates . . . (The eye, n.d.).

The diagram shows . . . (The eye, n.d., Figure 3).

Figure layout

A figure from a library database will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 3.)
  • title of image (and/or brief description)
  • title of library database preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • retrieval statement in the form of the library database homepage URL

Figure 3. The eye. Reprinted from Human anatomy and physiology – special senses, by Anatomy TV, (n.d.), Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1Anatomy TV

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

(n.d.). The eye. [Database image]. Retrieved from http://www.anatomy.tv/gotoview.aspx?cus=&htmlhapURL=product/specialsenses/type/Topics/displayType/displayFlash/id/6/layer/3/angle/0/structureID/-1

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Database image].

Creative commons

In-text citations

  • When citing figures in the text of your work, you need to acknowledge them in two places:
    • within the written body of your paper, and
    • below the figure.
  • Within the written body of your paper, cite the figure as you would for a normal in-text reference.
  • Refer to the figure by its assigned number. Do NOT refer to the figure as “the Figure above/below”, or “the Figure on page 17”.

As shown in Figure 4 . . . (West, 2012).

Figure 4 illustrates . . . (West, 2012).

The diagram shows . . . (West, 2012, Figure 4).

Figure layout

  • A figure from a creative commons source will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:
  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 4.)
  • title of image (or brief description)
  • title of the creative commons source preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • year of image
  • retrieval statement in the form of a URL

Figure 4. Classroom tour 3. Reprinted from Flicker, by Kathy Cassidy, 2006, Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

  • The figure must appear in the reference list, and the citation is formatted in correct APA style of the original source.
  • Also include the form type in square brackets e.g. [Website image].

Cassidy, K. (2006). Classroom tour 3. [Website image]. Retrieved from https://flic.kr/p/7UahE9

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The city of Casey as shown on … (Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012).

The Victorian Electoral Commission (2012) published a very useful map of …

Figure layout

A figure from a web page will include a double-spaced caption with the following elements directly below the figure:

  • label of figure in italics (e.g. Figure 3.)
  • title of image (and/or brief description)
  • title of library database preceded with the words Adapted/Reprinted from
  • author(s) initials followed by family name, or institute/organisation, preceded with the word by
  • retrieval statement in the form of the library database homepage URL

Figure 1: City of Casey: Local council boundaries. Reprinted from by Victorian Electoral Commission, 2012, Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Form]. DOI/URL

Online

Victorian Electoral Commission. (2012). City of Casey: Local council boundaries [Map]. Retrieved from https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

Print

Timms, P. E. (2006). Colonial settlement in Tasmania. Hobart, Australia: Tiger Press.

  • ONLINE: Give author/poster and the title of the item (no italics). Give year of publication (or date of post). Add form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Photograph’) in square brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description in same square brackets as form.
  • PRINT: Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Title should be in italics. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: ‘… (Timms, 2006, Figure 2)’.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g., the VEC for the Victorian Electoral Commission, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Visual artwork

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist. (Year). Title of artwork [Medium]. City, State/Country: Gallery. OR DOI/URL

Original artwork

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Melbourne, Australia: Museum of Modern Art.

Online production

Brack, J. (1955). The fish shop [Oil on composition board]. Retrieved from http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

Print reproduction

Bryant, H. (Ed.). (1993). Australian artists. Melbourne, Australia: Larwitt.

  • ORIGINAL: Give name of artist, year artwork was created, title of artwork (italics), medium (square brackets, no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery.
  • ONLINE REPRODUCTION: Give artist, year, title, medium, and DOI/URL.
  • PRINT REPRODUCTION: Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant, 1993, p. 46)’.

Blog post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvannian student buys WMD ingredients …

A Pennsylvanian student has been buying WMD ingredients … (Daly, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … " (Daly, 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Daly, Michael. (2014, January 29). Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://www.thedailybeast.com/articles/2014/01/28/

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Facebook post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) are pleased to announce ...

A recent announcement by Coles states that … (Coles Supermarket, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that "Our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …" (Coles Supermarket, 2014, para 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

Coles Supermarkets. (2014, January 2). Good News: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Forum comment

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that …

Recent criticism leveled at Twitter search functions have … (GeekBoy, 2008, October 9).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …" (GeekBoy, 2009, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

GeekBoy. (2008, October 9). Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search? [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Tweet

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

A recent Twitter tribute by Kanye West to Mandela's life work evoked …(West, 2013).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ..." (West, 2013, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author/Screen name.­ (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

West, K. [kanyewest]. (2013, December 9). Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give date of post. Give year if using an entire feed or page and not a specific post.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., Tweet; Facebook post; Photograph, etc.) in square brackets to title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

YouTube video

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Telemedicine benefits from Robnaut technology due to … (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014).

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (2014) states that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The benefits of Robonaut technology on telemedicine have …" (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 2014, 01:33).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster. [Screen Name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Form]. Retrieved from URL

MarinaHD2001. (2009, February 10). Bizkit the sleep walking dog [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BgjH_CtIA

National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (January 17, 2014). Robonaut supports telemedicine advances [Video file]. Retrieved from http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

  • Give name of poster (real name plus screen name, or just screen name if real name is unknown).
  • Give date of posting. Give title (italics) followed by form (no italics) in square brackets.
  • Give URL of individual post (archived URL if available—click date stamp to access).
  • Retrieval date is not needed if post has a specific associated date.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Taylor's (2013) exhibition catalogue presents Australian impressionists who have recently exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ..." (Taylor, 2013 p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title [Brochure]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, E. (2013). Australian impressionists in France [Exhibition catalogue]. Melbourne, Australia: National Gallery of Victoria.

Brochure (online)

Parks Victoria. (2004). Fire ecology in the Grampians [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

  • Give author and publication year or date as shown on document. Give title in italics.
  • Add description in square brackets (no italics) to title.

Conference paper presented

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent exhibition of Australian impressionists in France … (Taylor, 2013).

Wenzel (1998, June) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Films of Fellini have been very popular … (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Fellini's films always drew much attention from …" (Wenzel, 1998, June).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Presenter. (Year, Month). Title. Paper presented at Meeting Name, place.

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

Wenzel, B. Q. (1998, June). Films of Fellini. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, Australia.

  • Give year and month of conference, title of paper (italics), followed by name of location of meeting.

Conference paper published in proceedings

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour may benefit from … (Carbone et al., 2002).

Carbone et al. (2002) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour … (Carbone, et al., 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of paper. In Editor (Ed.), Proceedings of the Conference Name (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country, Publisher. DOI/URL

Carbone, A., Mitchell, I., Gunstone, D., & Hurst, J. (2002). Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour. In B. Werner (Ed.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 533-534). doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

Whole proceedings

Murphy, C. (2004). Job design and leadership. In G. Stewart, & P. Hyland (Eds.), Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association (pp. 1-13). Rockhampton, Australia: CQU.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, and title of paper (no italics).
  • Give editor, title of proceedings, and page range. (Use initial capitals for conference name in title.)
  • Add publication information or DOI. Give URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Course materials

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Other identifying detail. OR DOI/URL

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. 2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/fl1D5Gg76dA

Print handout

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture handout]. Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, Australia.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including this material in the reference list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.

Encyclopedia entry

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reed (2003) states that …

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed, 2003).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Recent discoveries of black holes …" (Reed, 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (pp. xx–xx). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Print

Reed, D. L. (2003). Black holes. In Science Encyclopedia (5th ed., pp. 501–508). New York, NY: Academic Resources.

e-Book

McColl, G. (2014). Abba. In L. Stacy & L. Henderson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century [Kindle version]. Available from http://www.amazon.com/

Online

Watergate scandal. (2009). In Encyclopedia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/

Panadol (children) 3+ years chewable tablets. (2017). In Mims Online. Retrieved from https://www.mimsonline.com.au

No author

The World Book encyclopedia. (2007). Chicago: World Book.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Give author of entry if one is named, otherwise begin with title.
  • Give title of entry (no italics) and title of whole work/website (italics) preceded by ‘In’ (no italics).
  • Give page and any edition and volume numbers after title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide URL of item (use the permanent link).
  • Include retrieval date if content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Interview transcript

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. (Date). Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer). Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Online (Transcript)

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong (S. E. Ambrose, Interviewer) [Transcript]. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications (see Ex 46).
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Media release

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Quantas, 2011).

Quantas (2011) announced …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and the paragraph number(s).

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … " (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Date). Title [Description]. City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Qantas. (2011, October 29). Response to industrial action [Media release]. Retrieved from http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

Personal communication

No reference entry required

E. Jensen, personal communication, June 7, 2008 IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008) IN-TEXT CITATION

Personal communications are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify the communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered to be personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Class or lecture notes taken by yourself or other students, and material accessible only to students of the unit course or institution.

Report, government or corporate

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the 2016 Defence White Paper there are … (Department of Defence, 2016).

Outback Windmills are now subject to … (Department of Primary Industries, 2014).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …" (Department of Health, 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title (Series number). City, State/Country: Publisher. OR DOI/URL

PDF document

Australia. Department of Defence. (2016). 2016 Defence white paper. Retrieved from http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

Review

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences … (Schembri, 2008).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Croggon (2014) commented that "Private Lives is a play that resonates with many audiences because ..".

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. (Year/Date). Title of review [Review of Work reviewed, role and name of principal contributor, Year of production/release]. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

Film review (print newspaper)

Schembri, J. (2008, November 10). [Review of the motion picture Australia, directed by B. Luhrmann, 2008]. The Age, p. 8.

Theatre review (online)

Croggon, A. (2014, January 31). [Review of the play Private lives, by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014.] The Guardian Australia. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog?page=46

  • Give author and date of review.
  • Give title of review (italics) followed by description (no italics except for title of work being reviewed), in square brackets. If review has no title, give description alone.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or app

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow, Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word, Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title (Version number) [Form]. (Year). City, State/Country: Company. OR DOI/URL

Mobile phone (app)

Weather Flow (Version 1.5.0) [Mobile phone application]. Available from http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

Computer software

Microsoft Word (Version 16.0.4639.1000) [Computer software]. Available from https://www.microsoft.com

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give title of software (no italics) followed by version number in round brackets. Add description in square brackets after version number. Give place and name of company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Standards, Australian

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the organisation name (in this instance, Standards Australia) and year of publication in brackets.

Residential timber framed construction techniques are … (Standards Australia, 2010).

Standards Australia (2010) claim that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames "have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …" (Standards Australia, 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

Provide both the title and Standard number in italics, and shorten the URL to the homepage.

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Standard title (Standard number). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Standards Australia. (2010). Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). Sydney: Standards Australia.

Thesis

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfuntional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional rivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. OR DOI/URL

Print (unpublished)

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Online

For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work in brackets and also include a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in brackets, and a retrieval statement that includes the name of the database and the accession or order number in brackets.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer.

Australian Harvard is an in-text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The in-text citation is made up of the source’s author and year of publication enclosed in round brackets.

For each source identified in the text, you also need to create a matching entry in the reference list. The reference list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the reference list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Creating in-text citations

Basic treatment (Australian Harvard)

As explained in the Australian Harvard overview, you need to insert a brief reference into your writing whenever you use a source. This is the in-text citation. It is made up of the author and the year of publication of the source. Include page numbers when you are quoting a source directly, or if the reference is long (e.g. a book or chapter) and it may be useful for the reader.

(Author Year) or (Author Year, Page)

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins 2013). BASIC AUTHOR AND YEAR

was ‘fully confirmed by these results’ (Jenkins 2013, p. 213).    

PAGE NUMBER FOR QUOTE

… the study by Jenkins (2013) confirmed these results.  AUTHOR IN SENTENCE

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (Grech, M 1994). AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL

  • Enclose the author’s surname and year in round brackets without a comma between them.
  • Insert the citation before the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of sentence) where you used the source.
  • If the author is already in sentence, give year alone in round brackets directly after the author’s name.
  • Write the initials and surname in your sentence if you have sources by authors with the same surname. Use their first initial/s in the reference list, as with other authors.

More than one author

2 OR 3 AUTHORS

(Hendricks & Angwin 1975)  OR Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

(Smith, Hendricks & Angwin 1975) OR Smith, Hendricks and Angwin (1975) …

  • Name all authors in all in-text citations.
  • In your text, separate each author by a comma.
  • Join authors with ‘&’ in round brackets, or ‘and’ in the sentence.

4 OR MORE AUTHORS

(Oakes et al. 1994) OR Oakes et al. (1994) … ALL MENTIONS

  • In your in-text citations, name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’) in all mentions.
  • Name all authors in the reference list, as given in the source.

Group author (government or organisation)

(Amnesty International 1997) OR Amnesty International (1997) ALL MENTIONS

(World Health Organization [WHO] 2013) LONG NAME, FIRST WHO (2009) SUBSEQUENT

  • Give full name of group if you only cite it once in your work, without initials or abbreviations.
  • If you cite the same group source two or more times, include the initials in square brackets inside the round brackets for the first citation. For subsequent in-text citations, use only initials.
  • Long group names can be abbreviated in the text (optional), but show them in full the first time. Similarly, if the name is long and well-known by an abbreviation, give its full name plus the abbreviation in square brackets in the first mention.
  • In all later mentions, give the abbreviation only.
  • If you use an abbreviation in a sentence, put an extra line in your reference list:
    ‘WHO – see World Health Organization’.
  • Use the full group name for all entries in the reference list. Include initials in round brackets only if you used initials in your sentences.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case.
  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See the section on how to present a reference list for more examples.

No author (Australian Harvard)

WHOLE TITLE, FIRST MENTION

(Style manual for authors, editors and printers 1996)  OR Style manual for authors, editors and printers (1996)

PART OF TITLE, SUBSEQUENT MENTIONS

(Style manual 1996)     OR  Style manual (1996)

  • Use the title of the work in italics in place of the author.
  • If you only cite a source using the title in place of the author once in your work, use the full title without initials or abbreviations.
  • In second/subsequent citations of the same source, you can give an abbreviation of the title, e.g. the first two to three words. If you use an abbreviated title in your text, add a separate line in your reference list that refers to the full source. For example: ‘Style manual – see Style manual for authors, editors and printers (1996)’.

Page numbers 

BASIC TREATMENT

(Johnson 2003, p. 6) … (Kennett 1998, pp. 55­–63) … (Wong 2012, Figure 3)

  • Page numbers are required for all direct quotes. Page numbers are not required when paraphrasing, however may be included where it would be useful for the reader.
  • Add the page number after the year, separated by a comma.
  • Use ‘p.’ before a page, or ‘pp.’ before a page range, ‘Chapter’, Figure’, or ‘Table’ to refer to a particular section or item. Indicate non-consecutive pages as (p.23, p.31).

QUOTATIONS

It was described as ‘a stunning victory’ (Harrison 1965, p. 15).

Harrison (1965) described it as ‘a stunning victory’ (p. 15).

  • In direct quotations, use single quotation marks to indicate exact words from the source. Use double quotation marks for a quote within a quote.
  • Short quotes (less than 30 words) are incorporated into your sentence, with the page reference included after the closing quotation mark.
  • If author and year are already part of the sentence, give the page reference alone at the end of the sentence or section.
  • Long quotes (30 words or more) are often referred to as block quotations, and should be separated from your writing with a semi colon, and placed on a new line. Indent the whole quote, use single line-spacing in one size smaller font, without quotation marks. The brackets with page reference details sit outside the full stop.

Carter, Chitwood, Kinzey and Cole (2000) note that:

In order to understand this neurophysiological mechanism, it is important to discuss the two proprioceptive bodies in the muscle: the muscle spindles and the Golgi tendon organs (GTOs). Muscle spindles are found within the muscle belly and provide information to the central nervous system (CNS) regarding the absolute length and the velocity of the stretch in the skeletal muscles (p. 275).

NO PAGE NUMBERS

(Duer, 1974, ‘Introduction’, para. 12).

If no page numbers are shown on the source, you can pinpoint the information by doing one of the following:

  • Give an approximate page number (p.3 or 9; pp. 3-7).
  • Give a paragraph number/s if shown (para. 2).
  • Give a relevant heading or sub-heading from the source, and paragraph number/s (as counted by you).

Multiple references in same parentheses

Multiple references in same parentheses

Studies by Keen (2005); Lee (2004); and Wojk (2003) indicate that…

… along with other studies (Keen 2005; Lee 2004; Wojk 2003).

  • List each source alphabetically by author. Separate each work by a semicolon.
  • Use ‘et al.’ for a source with four or more authors.
  • All sources must be included in the reference list.

Multiple works by same author in same year

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Matthews (2010a; 2010b) writes for both teenagers and very young children. AUTHOR PROMINENT

A crime committed in Australia is the basis for her first fictional account (Matthews 2010a); while in the second the narrative inches slothfully into adventure (Matthews 2010b). INFORMATION PROMINENT

Direct quote

Mathews' use of dialogue shifts from the idiomatic, 'she jumps a mile and screams' (2010a, p. 47).

Reference list

Matthews, P 2010a, A girl like me, Penguin Books, Camberwell.

Matthews, P 2010b, Zizzy, Omnibus Books, Malvern.

  • Order alphabetically by the next element (title)
  • Add 'a', 'b', 'c', etc. after the year of publication (e.g. 2010a, 2010b, 2010c).

Secondary citation

IN-TEXT CITATION

Hilferty describes the nature of teacher professionalism as “an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts” (cited in Meldrum & Peters 2012, p. 109).

REFERENCE ENTRY 

Meldrum, K & Peters, J 2012, Learning to teach health and physical education: The student, the teacher and the curriculum. Pearson Australia, Sydney.

  • When using a source that you found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but only give a reference entry and in-text citation for the source that you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, include ‘cited in’ in the in-text citation.

Creating reference entries

As explained in the Australian Harvard overview, each source that is referred to in the text needs a matching entry in the reference list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic Australian Harvard reference entry is made up of the following parts.

AUTHOR + YEAR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION OR DOI OR URL VIEWED

All the details you need for each part should be found on the source itself. Instructions and examples of how to format each part are given over the page.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?

  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. (Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.)
  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document), or the date of posting (for a post).

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include the title of each.

PUBLISHER
INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher and their location.
  • You need to include this information for print books and physical or broadcast media. You don’t need it for journals, newspapers or online sources.
  • Where e-books are accessed by an e-book reader (e.g. Kindle, Nook, Sony Reader), include the edition and/or version, where relevant.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.

DOI

Is there a Digital Object Identifier?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material has a DOI, but you need to include one whenever it has been assigned.
  • If you provide a DOI, you don’t need to give the URL or the date viewed.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.

DATE VIEWED and URL

What is the address of the source online, and when did I view it?

  • This is included for sources accessed online. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it. It is only included if the source has no DOI.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the full URL.
  • Do not include the date viewed unless the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of an Australian Harvard reference entry. When you are ready to create your entries, read the instructions and copy the punctuation used in the examples. Note that almost every part ends with a comma followed by a space. The exceptions are:

  • No punctuation after DOIs and URLs.
  • No punctuation after the author’s initial (only a space).

AUTHOR + YEAR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION OR DOI OR DATE VIEWED and URL

Author

ONE AUTHOR

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

  • Give the author’s surname, a comma, and the initial/s of the given name/s.

TWO AUTHORS

Hall, JL & Ashton, BT 2005, A spoonful of valour

  • Name both authors and join second author by ‘&’.

THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

Donat, T, Jenkins, M, Baysch, V, Adamson, E & Farr, P 2010, Shared care…

  • Name all authors. Separate by commas and join last author by ‘&’.

GROUP AUTHOR (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, Australia’s health

  • Give the name of the group in full followed immediately by the year of publication.

LEGISLATION/CRIMINAL CASES (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187 TITLE in CIVIL CASE LAW

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s 124(1) TITLE in STATUTES

  • No punctuation is required when citing legislation/criminal case. Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text. See following for more examples.

Year

BASIC

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

Greendale, N 2006,Road toll rising, The Age, 4 May, p. 13.

  • The year of publication follows the surname and initial.
  • Add month and day after the title for sources with specific publication dates. (Give only year in in-text citation.)

SAME AUTHOR, SAME YEAR

Harris, DW 2001a, Hadrian’s wall

Harris, DW 2001b, Julius Caesar

  • Add a lower case letter (‘a’, ‘b’, ‘c’, etc.) to the year to reflect the order the entry appears in the reference list.
  • Use the year with the additional letter as normal in the text.

NO YEAR/DATE

Gardiner, IT n.d., Life in rural Australia

  • Use ‘n.d.’, (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source. This is uncommon in academic sources.

Title 

BASIC

Harris, M 1983, The mighty Yarra: rivers of Victoria. TITLE AND SUBTITLE

Gerd, NB 2001, ‘Method in action’, Journal of Health,PART OF WORK & WHOLE WORK

  • Give the title in italics in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Give initial capitals to the first word of the title and to any proper nouns.
  • If the source is part of a larger work, such as an article in a journal, place the title of the article in single quote marks, and no italics. Place the name of the journal, or larger work, in italics.
  • Translate the title if relevant, giving the English translation in brackets after the original title and without italics.

NO TITLE

Jensen, PR 1945, [Wartime navy reminiscences], Liberty Press, Brisbane.

  • If no title, give a brief descriptive title in your own words in square brackets. No italics. This is uncommon in academic texts.

Publisher information

Gourley, D 2002, Action man, Bellinger, Chicago.

Temple, P 2009, Truth, Text, Melbourne.

Gull Group 1992, Annual report, Gull Group, Sydney.

Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, A 2000, Building cross-cultural competence: how to create wealth from conflicting values, e-book, Yale University Press, New Haven, http://ebscohost.com

  • Give publisher first, followed by the city of publication. Add further detail if required for clarification, e.g. Cambridge, Mass. or Cambridge, UK.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city. If the publisher is also the author, restate the author or group name.
  • If the source is an e-book, state the digital format (including edition where relevant) after the title (e.g. e-book, Kindle 3G edition, Nook, PDF). Include publication details if supplied, as well as a DOI or URL.

DOI

http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/529076

doi: 10.1037/0004-066X.60.6.561

  • Use a DOI when one has been assigned, even for print material. No full stop at the end.
  • Give exactly as found on the source. If using a DOI in the original format (beginning with ‘10’) introduce it by ‘doi:’ and add a space before the ‘10’. New format DOIs (beginning with ‘http’) don’t need ‘doi’ added in front.

Date Viewed and URL

…, viewed 5 May 2010, http://www.yourhealth.gov.au/

  • Introduce URL with ‘viewed’ and the date in the above format.
  • Remove hyperlinks so that there is no underlining or blue lettering (right click on the hyperlink, then click on ‘Remove hyperlink’.
  • Break URLs (if needed) before a punctuation mark or symbol. No full stop at end.
  • Include the date viewed if the content you have used is likely to be edited or updated, or has no publication date.

How to create a reference list

How to set up the list

  • Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Give the list the heading ‘References’ and make the heading left-aligned and bold.
  • Use a line break between each reference.
  • Australian Harvard is normally single-spaced, however use double line-spacing for your reference list if your lecturer has specified double-spacing in your assessment guidelines.
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or a punctuation mark.

What to include

  • Give an entry for every recoverable source you have cited in the text.
  • Do not add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.
  • In entries that include website URLs, remove the hyperlinks so that there is no underlining or blue lettering (right click on the hyperlink, then click on ‘Remove hyperlink’).

How to arrange the entries

  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list by year (earliest first).
  • If you have more than one entry with same author and year, list alphabetically by title, and add a lower case letter to each year; e.g., ‘a’ for first, ‘b’ for second, etc. (See Hillsdon entries below.)

Example of an Australian Harvard reference list

References

Anderson, TD 1985, Panel data: a primer, Paragon, New York.

Baxter, BH 2005, Models of economic analysis, Wiley, Sydney.

Breen, HP 1977, ‘An empirical test of the impact of managerial self-interest on corporate capital structure’, Journal of Finance, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 271-281.

Chen, JJ 2004, ‘Determinants of capital structure of Swedish companies’, Journal of Business Research, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 41-52.

Dorgan, D 1972, Future funds, Penguin, Melbourne.

Friedman, BM 1985, Corporate capital structure in the United States, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Hillsdon, M 2002, Statistical analysis primer, Lansdowne, Melbourne.

Hillsdon, M 2004a, Basic econometrics, 4th edn, Hill, Sydney.

Hillsdon, M 2004b, Computational methods. Landsdowne, Melbourne.

Johnson, A & Hanson, S 1995, ‘Determinants of capital structure: theory vs practice’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 91-102.

Keen, RP 2004, Strategy, structure and economic performance, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Lee, BL 1982, Credit risk and high yield bonds, Wiley, New York.

Linheiro, J & Bates, DM 2000, Mixed-effects models, Springer, New York.

Nguyen, BV 1994, Swedish economic reform, Griffin Press, Los Angeles.

Basic

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The main characters in Tim Winton's new book met for the first time after Geogie's car broke down … (Winton 2001, p. 64).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Luther suddenly feels spooked after his first encounter with Georgie and asks himself: 'What is this lurching, plunging sensation, this panic …' (Winton 2001, p. 103).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # ed., vol. #, Publisher, City.

Winton, T 2001, Dirt music, Picador, Sydney.

Different edition or multi volume

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

African villages are often … (Goh 1984, p.  132).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lee Goh (1984, p. 5) describes the landscape of Africa as 'extremely variable due to  …'.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # ed., vol. #, Publisher, City.

Goh, L 1984, African voyages, 2nd edn, vol. 2, Greyguides, Montreal.

Edition information is only given for editions other than the first edition. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it’s the first (and no statement is needed).

Edited collection

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Mills and Smith (2001, p. 13) taboo in literature is …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'All the papers in our collection deal with power of breaching taboo and speaking the unspeakable' (Mills & Smith 2001, p. 13).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # ed., vol. #, Publisher, City.

Mills, A & Smith, J (eds) 2001, Utter silence: voicing the unspeakable, Peter Lang, New York.

Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ – note: no full stop for plural abbreviations.

Chapter from edited collection

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Brown (2001, p. 84) states that infectious diseases are often not spoken about in some families …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'Recent research has suggested the infectious diseases are a taboo topic in many families across the world …' (Brown 2001, p.  83).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title: Subtitle, # ed., vol. #, Publisher, City.

Brown, J 2001, ‘Silence, taboo and infectious disease’, in A Mills & J Smith (eds), Utter silence: Voicing the unspeakable, Peter Lang, New York, pp. 83-91.

  • Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘(ed.)’ or ‘(eds)’ – note: no full stop for plural abbreviations.

Online or e-book

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars (2000, p. 15) believe that building cross-cultural  competence ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the book.

'Building cross-cultural  competence is seen as an essential skill …' (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars 2000,  p 15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author, Year, Title, digital format, publication details if supplied, DOI/URL

LIBRARY E-BOOK

Hampden-Turner, C & Trompenaars, A 2000, Building cross-cultural competence: how to create wealth from conflicting values, e-book, Yale University Press, New Haven, http://ebscohost.com

ACCESSED ON E-READER

Fitzgerald, F S 1925, The great Gatsby, Kindle Edition, available from http://www.amazon.com

E-BOOK WITHOUT DOI

Kirkwood, R & Goldsworthy, S 2013, Fur seals and sea lions, PDF, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, http://uball.csiro.patron.eb20.com/Collections/ViewBook/295eae4d-f807-481b-95cc-05fb9d9f5f48

Print

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Normoyle (2013, p. 30)  states that nurses are ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'I teamed up with an IT specialist friend and the myShift concept was born' (Normoyle 2013, p. 30).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Normoyle C 2013, ‘Nurses' wellbeing’, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 20, no.10, pp. 30.

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.

Online with DOI

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Krueger and Gray (2013, p. 201) the influenza virus originated in pigs during ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'Influenza-like illness in pigs was first recognised ...' (Krueger & Gray 2013, p. 201).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

PRINT OR ONLINE WITH DOI

Krueger, WS & Gray, GC 2013, ‘Swine influenza virus infections in man’, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 370, pp. 201-225, doi: 10.1007/82_2012_268

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Online with URL

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Moran (2014, p. 68) discusses a new model for teaching rounds in Australia that could benefit ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

'A primary aim of teacher education institutions is to create quality courses that effectively prepare preservice teachers (PSTs) for their future career.' (Moran 2014, p. 68).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Moran, W 2014, ‘Enhancing understanding of teaching and the profession through school innovation rounds’, Australian Journal of Teacher Education, vol. 39, no.3, pp. 68-85, available from http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Abstract (non preferred source)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Patients with Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) are at risk of ... (Gray & Bolitho 2003, p. 58).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Gray and Bolitho (2003, p. 58) report on  'a new treatment for Chronic Obstructive Airways Disease (COAD) which is now available ...'.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Journal Name, vol. X, no. X, pp. xx–xx. DOI or URL

Gray, E & Bolitho, AJ 2003, ‘Patients with COAD’, abstract, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, no. 55, p. 58, viewed 26 September 2015, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/

  • If source is an abstract, letter, or review, add ‘abstract’, ‘letter to the editor’ or ‘review of …’ (name work reviewed)’ after title.
  • Capitalise first letter of all major words in the journal name.
  • Give volume number (vol.) and issue number (no.) as an abbreviation, no italics.
  • Give page range of article if page numbers are shown (with ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’).
  • DOI: Give DOI for print as well as online articles if one has been assigned.
  • ONLINE: Give URL only if no DOI. Introduce URL with ‘viewed (date)’ if the article is accessible only via login or behind a paywall.

Basic

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The assassination of President Kennedy has rocked … (Hunt 1963, p. 1).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'The world mourns the loss of President Kennedy who was shot …' (Hunt 1963, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Hunt, J 1963, ‘Assassin kills Kennedy’, The Chicago Tribune, 22 November, pp. 1, 4–6.

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).

Separate section

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Rousseau (2008, p. 4) can recommend many restaurants and cafes in Melbourne that serve wonderful African dishes full of exotic spices ..

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

There are 'a bunch of African bakeries and groceries have sprung up in Footscray' that offer ... (Rousseau 2008, p. 4).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Rousseau, N 2008, ‘Arrival of the spice setters’, The Age, Epicure section, 3 June, p. 4.

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Online replica of print edition

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Craig (1968, p. 2) reports on the memorial service held for Prime Minister Harold Holt who was remembered as ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'When Mrs Holt, a small, most dignified figure in black - her face, under the mourning veil showing signs of the terrible strain ...' (Craig 1968, p. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Craig, B 1968, ‘Australia and the world shares Mrs Holt’s sorrow’, The Australian Women’s Weekly, 10 January, pp. 2–3, viewed 22 March 2015, http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Online edition

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Rosen (2014) the elderly find it difficult to get a seat at Starbucks because ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper.

'Invariably there are no seats because they are occupied by young people with their laptops and cellphones using the cafe as their private office' (Rosen 2014).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Article title’, Newspaper/Magazine Name, #, Date, pp. DOI or URL

Rosen, L 2014, ‘Occupy Starbucks’, letter to the editor, The New York Times, 22 January, viewed 14 May 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html

  • Start with title if no author shown.
  • Year/date: Give year after the author. The date, as shown on source (i.e., month and/or day), appears after the name of the newspaper/magazine.
  • Title: Give title of article in single quote marks (no italics). Capitalise first letter of first word and any proper nouns. Add description for reviews, letters, etc., or give alone if no title.
  • Newspaper/magazine name (in italics). Capitalise first letter of all major words. If separate section, add name of section (no italics) after title (see: Separate section).
  • Page numbers. Use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front. If non-consecutive, separate by commas (see: Basic article).
  • ONLINE: If article is digital replica of print edition, give publication date of print edition and include page numbers (see: Online replica of print edition). If article is posted on media outlet’s website, give date of post (see: Online edition).

Civil law cases

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In a case that involves a long-running dispute over ... (Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72, para. 5).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the title of the case, year, page number, section heading (if applicable) and paragraph number.

Hungry Jacks argued that Burger King 'must act reasonably in exercising its powers under the Development Agreement; and that there was an implied obligation  ...' (Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187, para 141).

TEMPLATE

Plaintiff v Defendant (Year). Volume. Law report. Page number.

Plaintiff v Defendant [Year]. Series (if present). Law report. Page number.

CIVIL LAW CASES

Oceanic Sun Line Special Shipping Co Inc v Fay (1988) 165 CLR 197

Esso Petroleum Ltd v Commissioners of Customs and Excise [1976] 1 AII ER 117

Burger King Corp v Hungry Jack’s Pty Ltd [2001] NSWCA 187

Todd v Nicol [1957] SASR 72

Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562

** Check with your teacher or lecturer to confirm their particular requirements.

  • Formatting of civil law cases appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the plaintiff, followed by v (stands for ‘and’ or ‘against’), then the name of the defendant, all in italics.
  • The year is next in brackets. If the law report series is ordered according to year (such as in the UK Appeal Cases), the year the case was reported, is in square brackets. If the series is based on volume number (such as in the Commonwealth Law Reports), the year the case was decided is in round brackets.
  • After the year may be a volume number (as in Ex 30/1 above). Volume numbers may be used in two situations: (1) if the series is based on years but has more than one volume for a given year, or (2) where the whole series appears in sequentially numbered volumes. Otherwise, where the series is based on year of reporting, it could simply be the abbreviation for the law report as in Ex 30/3, 30/4 and 30/5 above. Include the page number in the law report where the case begins.

Statutes

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s. 124(1) outlines the powers possess by a company.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the title of the Act, year, jurisdiction and section number(s) (if applicable).

Section 1 of the Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth) outlines the purpose of this Act: 'The object of the this Act is to enhance the welfare of Australians through the promotion of competition and fair trading and provision for consumer protection' (2).

Reference list

Corporations Act 2001 (Cth) s. 124(1)

Competition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)

TEMPLATE

  • Formatting of statutes appears the same in the reference list as in your text.
  • Start with the name of the statute in Italics, followed by the year the statute was passed. Then in brackets, state the abbreviation for the parliament which passed the Act, and finally the section number and subsection number if referring to a particular section of the statute.

Audio book or recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Trekking on the Kokoda track can be … (FitzSimons 2011).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

FitzSimon (2011)  believes that 'the history of the Kokoda track can be traced back to …' (min. 04.50).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author, Year, Title, Reader, Format, Label, City OR DOI/URL

CD

FitzSimons, P 2011, Kokoda, L FitzGerald, reader, CD, ABC Audio, Sydney.

ONLINE

Dickens, C 2013, Oliver Twist, P Batchelor, reader, audio file, available from http://www.audible.com

  • Treat author, year and title as for basic book.
  • Add reader’s name, and recording format.
  • If physical media (e.g., CD), give name and place of record label.
  • If accessed online, give retrieval details (‘viewed [date], URL); use ‘available from’ if purchase is required.

Audio podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The supermarket war has led to many casualties … (Cohen 2013, December 29).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Cohen (2013, December 29, sec. 00.20)  stated that due to the recent 'supermarket war many small farmers are suffering … '.

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor (role) Year, ‘Episode title’, Program title, form, viewed date, DOI/URL

Cohen, H (presenter) 2013, ‘Casualties in the supermarket war’, Background Briefing, audio podcast, 29 December, available from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/programs/backgroundbriefing/

  • Give the date viewed and URL of the item (or the home page if the item is searchable from there).
  • Use ‘available from’ if accessible only via purchase or subscription, login, or search.

Music recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's (2012) song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Won't let the big bag world get you no way' (Sebastian 2012, sec. 00:59).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer Year, ‘Title of song’ recorded by Artist Name, on Title of album, form, Label, City OR DOI/URL (Recording year if different from copyright year)

SINGLE TRACK (LP)

Duke, V 1934, ‘Autumn in New York’, recorded by F. Sinatra, on Come fly with me, vinyl recording, Capitol, Los Angeles. (1958)

SINGLE TRACK (ONLINE)

Sebastian, G 2012, ‘Big bad world’, on Armageddon, MP3, available from http://store.apple.com/au

ALBUM (CD)

Perry, K 2013, Prism, CD, Capitol, Los Angeles.

Performance

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Seinfeld and Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'I'm telling you for the last time don't ...' (Seinfeld & Callner 1998, min. 20:15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer (role) Year Title, by Author, format, date, label/company, City, viewed date OR DOI/URL

PERFORMANCE (CD) 

Seinfeld, J (performer) & Callner, M (director) 1998, I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway, CD, performance recorded August 9, 1998, Universal, Los Angeles.

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES: These are not recoverable so they are not included in the reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add any identifying details not already in the surrounding sentence in round brackets (e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …’
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add original recording date if different or more specific than publication date.
  • PERFORMER role in this context could be director, choreographer, performer, etc.
  • FORMAT in this context could be theatre performance, dance performance, concert performance, etc.

Speech

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase 'I have a dream' … (King 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliiner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared …' (Kennedy 1963, June 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Performer (role) Year Title, by Author, format, date, label/company, City, viewed date OR DOI/URL

SPEECH RECORDING (VINYL)

Churchill, W (speech) 1964, ‘In a solemn hour’, on Winston Churchill: A selection from his famous wartime speeches, vinyl recording, recorded 19 May, 1940, Decca, London.

SPEECH RECORDING (ONLINE VIDEO)

Kennedy, JF (speech) 1963, Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner), video file, 26 June, viewed 12 April 2015, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html

SPEECH RECORDING (ONLINE AUDIO)

King, ML Jr (speech) 1963, I have a dream, audio file, 28 August, viewed 25 March 2014, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/

Television/radio news or current affairs broadcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

WIN News (2013) reported that recent council elections ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Councillor Julie Smith stated that: 'I am pleased to represent Alfredton residents. Over the next twelve months I aim to ...' (WIN News 2013, min. 13.15).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, description, Broadcast Station, City, broadcast date OR viewed date, URL (if from an online source)

TELEVISION BROADCAST

WIN news 2013, television broadcast, WIN Television, Ballarat, 12 November.

RADIO BROADCAST

Sunday profile 2009, radio broadcast, ABC Local Radio, Melbourne, 18 August.

Television series episode

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Sherman-Palladino and Mancuso (2002) wrote an episode of the Gilmore girls that dealt with anxiety issues…

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Loralai, how is your anxiety today?' (Sherman-Palladino & Mancuso 2002, min. 09.25).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Primary Contributor (role) Year, ‘Episode number OR title’, Title of series, Form, Production/Distribution Company, broadcast date OR DOI/URL.

TELEVISION BROADCAST

Sherman-Palladino, A (writer) & Mancuso, G (director) 2002, ‘Application anxiety’, Gilmore girls, television series episode, Nine Network, 12 June 2012.

ONLINE VIDEO

Horowitz, A (writer) & Orme, S. (director) 2014, ‘The eternity ring’, Foyle’s war, television series video file, ABC TV, viewed 9 February 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/79688397

DVD (SINGLE EPISODE)

Gilligan, V (writer) & MacLaren, M (director) 2012, ‘Madrigal’, Breaking bad, television series episode, DVD, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, California.

DVD (WHOLE SERIES)

Gilligan, V (producer) 2008-2013, Breaking bad, television series, DVD, Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, California.

  • Give name/s of episode’s principal contributors (e.g., director and/or writer) and their roles in brackets, as the author. Give the name of the producer when referencing an entire series.
  • The episode title appears in single quote marks, no italics. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options. Give the series title (in italics) and form.
  • BROADCAST: Give station and broadcast date.
  • ONLINE: Give URL of site where you viewed item.
  • DVD: Give studio and year of production (or year range for whole series).

Video or film (studio production)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Marty McFly walked towards the car when suddenly … (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg 1985).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?' (Zemeckis, Gale & Spielberg 1985, min. 10.06).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, form, Distributor/Studio, Country, credits and other information.

FILM

Back to the future 1985, motion picture, Universal Pictures, United States, R Zemeckis (writer/director), R Gale (writer) & S Spielberg.

DVD/BLU-RAY RELEASE

Man of steel 2013, Blu-ray, Warner Bros., United States, Z Snyder (director) & DS Goyer (writer).

DVD/BLU-RAY RE-ISSUE

Vertigo 2003, DVD, Universal Home Entertainment; Paramount, 1958, United States, A Hitchcock (producer/director).

ONLINE

Argo 2012, video file, B Affleck (director), C Terrio (writer) & G Clooney (producer), available from http://store.apple.com/au

  • Give title in italics. Add form of version accessed (no italics). If re-issued, add studio and year of original release.
  • Give place and name of studio or, if accessed online, give URL of site where accessed.
  • Use ‘Available from’ instead of ‘viewed’ if accessible only via subscription or paywall.
  • Give primary contributors (e.g., director, writer, producer, and/or starring actors) and their roles if the information is useful. Examples above show various roles to illustrate options.

Video game

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Fallout: New Vegas (2010) is a great new video game that features ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

Ulysses cried out: 'Who are you, that you do not know your history?' (Fallout: New Vegas 2010).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, form, video game, Publisher, Place.

Fallout: New Vegas 2010, CD-ROM, video game, Rockville, Maryland, Bethesda Softworks.

  • Give title in italics, then year of production (no italics).
  • Give form and description. Give name and place of producer, or URL if accessed online.

Video post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A video on BuzzFeedVideo (2016) shows some hilarious video people are trying to walk their cats on a lead.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

'I have tried so many times to walk mt cat on a lead but ...' (BuzzFeedVideo 2016, min. 03.05).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Poster (screen name) year, Title, form, date of posting, site authority, viewed date, URL

BuzzFeedVideo 2016, People try to walk their cats, video file, 12 April, YouTube, viewed 28 June 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9C1leq--_wM

National Aeronautics and Space Administration 2014, Robonaut supports telemedicine advances, video file, 17 January, YouTube, viewed 30 February 2015, http://youtube/9gbfL590Fgg

** Also, see examples in: Lecture or class material - Online lecture;  Speech - Speech recording (online video) 

  • Give name of poster (real name plus screen name, or just screen name if real name is unknown).
  • Give year of posting. Give title in italics, followed by form (no italics), and date of posting (if available), followed by the overall site owner or authority.
  • Give URL of individual post (archived URL if available—click date stamp to access).

Website document (PDF)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In Federation University Australia's (2016, p. 3) annual report for 2015 the Vice Chancellor summarises ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s) of the direct quote if taken from a PDF document.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

'Over the past 12 months there have been many highlights including ...' (Federation University Australia 2016, p. 3).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, date viewed, DOI or URL

Federation University Australia 2016, Annual report 2015, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, viewed 30 February 2016, https://federation.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/297610/FedUni_AnnualReport_2015.pdf

Phillips, A, Bohning, G, Allan, C & Edwards, G 2006, Agnote: the European rabbit - pastoral pest, leaflet, Northern Territory Government, viewed 30 February 2015, http://www.nt.gov.au/d/Content/File/p/Anim_Man/437.pdf

  • Give the author and year shown on the document (which may be different from the site hosting it).
  • Give the title in italics. Give the form if useful.
  • Give the source sponsor or provider, and location, if supplied.
  • Give the date viewed and the full URL (without a full stop at the end).

Website post or page (general treatment)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Wilkin (2011) claims that jogging can trigger osteoarthritis due to the ...

Direct quote

  • Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers, unless they are in PDF format.
  • Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.
  • If the document does NOT contain page numbers, then use the name of the section and the paragraph number as part of the in-text reference.

'The link between jogging and osteoarthritis in older people has been investigated recently with ...' (Wilcken 2011).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year/Date, Title, (form, if needed) Date viewed, URL

Department of Health and Ageing 2009, Aged care, Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, viewed 27 December 2009, http://www.yourhealth.gov.au/

Wilcken, H 2011, Does jogging up the risk of knee osteoarthritis?, 27 June, Medical Observer, viewed 31 June 2016,  http://www.medicalobserver.com.au/medical-news/does-jogging-up-the-risk-of-knee-osteoarthritis

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the content on the post or page.
  • Give the year posted or updated.
  • Give the title of post/page in italics. If material is non-routine, add description of form.
  • Give the specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page).
  • Give the source sponsor or provider, and location, if supplied. Give URL of post/page (archived URL if available; click date stamp to access) or of home page, whichever is more direct/reliable. Give date viewed even if post/page has a specific date.

Website

In-text citations

The video-sharing website YouTube (http://www.youtube.com) is …  IN-TEXT ONLY

Reference list

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED

  • When making a general reference to a website as a whole (i.e., not to a specific document, page or post on the site), give the URL in round brackets after the mention; no reference entry is needed.

Map, chart, illustration, figure, image

In-text citations

Local boundaries for the city of Casey are clearly marked on the attached map (Victorian Electoral Commission 2012, Figure 1).

Figure layout

Fig. 2. Local boundaries for the city of Casey (Victorian Electoral Commission 2012).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, Form, DOI OR publisher, place OR viewed date, URL

ONLINE

Victorian Electoral Commission 2012, City of Casey: Local council boundaries, map, viewed 22 July 2015, https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/profile/CaseySummary.gif

PRINT

Timms, PE 2006, Colonial settlement in Tasmania, Tiger Press, Hobart.

  • ONLINE: Give author/poster and the year of publication. Give title of the item (in italics). Add form (e.g., ‘map’, ‘photograph’) without brackets. If no title or caption, give a short description (no italics).
  • Give either DOI or publishing details. If no DOI and online, give viewed date and URL.
  • PRINT: Give an in-text citation and reference entry for the print source containing the item, not the item itself. Add the identifying number to in-text citation: ‘… (Timms, 2006, Figure 2)’.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. the VEC for the Victorian Electoral Commission, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Visual artwork

In-text citations

Brack's (1955) painting 'The Fish Shop' is painted with oils ...

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Artist Year, Title of artwork, medium, Gallery, City, date viewed. OR DOI/URL

ORIGINAL ARTWORK

Brack, J 1955, The fish shop, oil on composition board, Museum of Modern Art Melbourne, Australia.

ONLINE REPRODUCTION

Brack, J 1955, The fish shop, digital image of painting, National Gallery of Victoria, viewed 26 March 2015, http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack

PRINT REPRODUCTION

Bryant, H (ed.) 1993, Australian artists, Larwitt, Melbourne, Australia.

  • ORIGINAL: Give name of artist, year artwork was created, title of artwork (italics), medium, (no italics), and the location and name of the museum or gallery.
  • ONLINE REPRODUCTION: Give artist, year, title, medium, and DOI/URL.
  • PRINT REPRODUCTION: Give a reference entry for the print source (e.g., book) containing reproduction, not the artwork itself. Name the artist and artwork in the text and add the page or plate number to the in-text citation for the print source; e.g., ‘(Bryant 1993, p. 46)’.

Forum comment

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

GeekBoy (2008, October 9) reports that  …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'Unfair criticism of Twitter's search function has been reported over the past few days …' (GeekBoy 2009, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name], Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

GeekBoy 2008, ‘Re: Who’s messing with Twitter search?’, online forum comment, 9 October, viewed 24 September 2011,  http://www.techcrunch.com/2008/10/09

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
  • Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics). Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Tweet

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

West (2013) pays tribute to Mandela's life work …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'Mandela's humanitarian work should be remembered for all of eternity because ...' (West 2013, para. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name], Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

West, K [kanyewest], 2013, ‘Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future’, tweet, 9 December, viewed 19 February 2014, https://twitter.com/kanyewest/status/410097143261589504

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Facebook post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarket (2014) are pleased to announce ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

Coles Supermarket CEO announced at a recent promotional event that 'our Coles Brand fresh chicken is 100% RSPCA Approved which means …' (Coles Supermarket 2014, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name], Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

Coles Supermarkets 2014, ‘Good news: in another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved’, facebook post, 2 January, viewed 23 February 2014,  https://www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380?stream_ref=10

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Blog post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Daly (2014) asserts that a Pennsylvannian student buys WMD ingredients …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number.

'A Pennsylvanian student has been buying ingredients on Amazon for a WMD … ' (Daly 2014, para. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author [screen name], Year, ‘Title’ form, viewed date, URL

Daly, Michael 2014, ‘Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon’, blog post, 29 January, viewed 13 March 2014, http://www.thedailybeast.com
/articles/2014/01/28/

This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). (Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Example in Other sources - Report, government or corporate - Online).

  • Give real name of poster. Add screen name (if one) in square brackets, or alone if real unknown.
    Give year after name. Add date of post after the title and form.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as title (with single quote marks, no italics).
  • Add form (e.g., tweet; facebook post; photograph, etc.) after title. (Use ‘twitter page’ or ‘facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give full URL of item. If item is archived, give archived version URL (click post’s date stamp). Retrieval date: Not needed for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is needed for whole feeds/pages because content will change.

Brochure, pamphlet or catalogue

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Taylor's (2013, p. 1) exhibition catalogue presents Australian  impressionists who have recently  exhibited in France …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Well known Australian impressionists have recently exhibited in Paris to great acclaim ...' (Taylor 2013, p. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author, Year, Title, brochure type, DOI OR Publisher, City OR viewed date, URL

EXHIBITION CATALOGUE (PRINT)

Taylor, E 2013, Australian impressionists in France, exhibition catalogue, National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne.

BROCHURE (ONLINE)

Parks Victoria 2004, Fire ecology in the Grampians, brochure, viewed 9 May 2015, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Wenzel (1998, June, p. 8) claims that Fellini's films were ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Fellini's films always drew much attention from …' (Wenzel 1998, June, p. 7).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Presenter Year, Title, paper presented at Meeting Name, place, date(s) and month of conference.

Wenzel, BQ 1998, Films of Fellini, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, 7-8 December.

  • Give name of presenter, year of conference, title of paper (italics), followed by name of conference or meeting, the location and date/s.

Conference paper published in proceedings

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Carbone, A, Mitchell I, Gunstone, D, & Hurst, J (2002, p. 26) claim that self-management metacognitive behaviour can be …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'The design of programming tasks has been linked to the self-management of metacognitive behaviour …' (Carbone, A, Mitchell I, Gunstone, D, & Hurst, J 2002, p. 26).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Title of paper’, Title of proceedings of Conference Name, Date of conference (if available), City, Publisher, pp. xx–xx OR DOI/URL

PAPER IN PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS (ONLINE)

Carbone, A, Mitchell I, Gunstone, D, & Hurst, J 2002, ‘Designing programming tasks to elicit self-management metacognitive behaviour’, Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, pp. 533-534, doi: 10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998

PAPER IN PUBLISHED PROCEEDINGS (PRINT)

Murphy, C 2004, ‘Job design and leadership’, Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association, CQU, Rockhampton, pp. 1-13.

  • Give author/s of paper, year of publication of proceedings, title of paper (no italics) and title of proceedings (italics).
  • Use initial capitals for conference name in title.
  • Add the date of the conference, publication information and page range OR page range and DOI. Give viewed date, URL if no DOI and accessed online.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Encyclopedia entry

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Black holes are still being discovered … (Reed 2003, p. 502).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Recent discoveries of black holes …' (Reed 2003, p. 502).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, ‘Title of entry’, Editor (ed.), Title of reference work, Publisher, City. OR DOI/URL

PRINT

Reed, DL 2003, ‘Black holes’, Science Encyclopedia, 5th edn, Academic Resources, New York.

E-BOOK

McColl, G 2014, ‘Abba’, L Stacy & L Henderson (eds), Encyclopedia of music in the 20th century, Kindle version, available from http://www.amazon.com/

ONLINE

‘Watergate scandal’, 2009, Encyclopaedia Britannica online, viewed 7 March 2015, http://www.britannica.com/

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Give any edition and volume numbers after title. Page numbers are not needed if entries are arranged in a single alphabetical sequence.
  • Give publication information or DOI or URL if online. Provide URL of item (use the permanent link).
  • Include date viewed if content is not fixed (i.e., likely to be edited or updated).

Government documents

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the Department of Health (2014, p. 6) breastfed babies are thought to  ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Australian babies that are breastfed appear to …' (Department of Health 2014, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Dependent on source

PDF DOCUMENT

Department of Defence 2016, 2016 Defence white paper, Department of Defence, Canberra, viewed 28 June 2016, http://www.defence.gov.au/whitepaper/Docs/2016-Defence-White-Paper.pdf

PRINTED FACT SHEET

Department of Education & Training 2015, Resources for inclusion, fact sheet, The State of Victoria, Melbourne.

WEBPAGE

Department of Health 2014, Breastfeeding, May 27, Department of Health, Canberra, http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/health-pubhlth-strateg-brfeed-index.htm

PRINT DOCUMENT

Department of Primary Industries 2014, Windmills in the outback, report prepared by A Smith & B Jones, DPI, Sydney.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using a fact sheet as a reference source. These are usually not acceptable as academic sources unless as objects of research.

  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. the ADF for the Australian Defence Force, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Interview

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong 2001, p. 5).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'When we finally landed on the moon …' (Armstrong 2001, p. 5).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Interviewee Date, Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer), Publisher. OR DOI/URL

ONLINE (TRANSCRIPT)

Armstrong, NA 2001, September 19, An interview with Neil Armstrong (SE Ambrose, Interviewer), Transcript, Date, Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, viewed 16 July 2014, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications (see example in Other sources - Personal communication).
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give description in square brackets. Give form where needed, and the date of the interview if provided.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).

Lecture or class material

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Hull and Drennon (2011, Feb 17) Plants lose 95% of their moisture through the stomata spore ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.

A stomata is "a microscopic spore in the epidermis of a plants" (Hull & Drennon 2011, Feb 17).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year/Date, Title, format, other identifying detail OR DOI/URL

ONLINE DOCUMENT/FILE

Hull, B. & Drennon, D.  2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density, PowerPoint slides, online course materials, February 17, 2011, SlideShare, available from https://www.slideshare.net/BreanaHull/stomata-density-denzelbreana-6963546

ONLINE LECTURE

Lucas, J, 2012, September 4, Drought tolerant plants: Introductory lecture, video file, online course materials, viewed 30 February 2016, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v6GNvGWIL5

PRINT HANDOUT

Huang, L 2012, March 5, The cost of retribution, lecture handout, Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including lecture/class material in the reference list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if they are available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.

Media release

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action … (Quantas 2011, October 29 ).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the paragraph number(s).

'We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … ' (Qantas, 2011, para. 1).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Date, Title, description, Publisher, City OR DOI/URL

Qantas 2011, October 29, Response to industrial action, media release, viewed 30 July 2012, http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/

Personal communication

NO REFERENCE ENTRY REQUIRED  

(E Jensen 2008, pers. comm., 7 June) IN-TEXT CITATION

Ford’s Adelaide performance (2008, Festival Theatre, 6 May) IN-TEXT CITATION

Personal communications (pers. comm.) are not recoverable, so they are not included in the reference list but may be referred to in the text. Identify communicator (seek approval for private communications) and date in round brackets (omit any detail already in surrounding sentence). The following sources are considered personal communications:

  • Live lectures, presentations, performances, speeches, etc.
  • Private communications, such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Class/lecture notes taken by yourself/other students, and material accessible only to enrolled students.

Report, government or corporate

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2004) the nation's health is slowly ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Average Australian's are generally not aware that a health diet can ...' (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, p. 2).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Title, Series number, Publisher, City. OR DOI/URL

PRINT

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 2004, Australia’s health 2004, AIHW cat. no. AUS 44, AIHW, Canberra.

ONLINE

City of Ballarat 2011, Annual report, viewed 26 August 2012, http://www.ballarat.vic.gov.au/media/499612/annual%20report_complete.pdf

  • Give title of report in italics.
  • Add any series name or number, no italics, after report title.
  • If published by the same institution and an unambiguous abbreviation is used for the institution, use the abbreviation for publisher name. Otherwise, repeat the full institution name.
  • If accessed online, add DOI or URL in place of publisher name and location.
  • If using the abbreviated name of a government body in your text, e.g. AIHW for Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, follow the same reference list guidelines as for a group author (see the in-text citation section).

Review

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Schembri (2008, p. 8) states that the motion picture Australia has ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Baz Luhrmann's movie Australia has attracted large audiences …' (Schembri 2008, p. 8).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Reviewer Year, ‘Title of review’, review of Work reviewed, name (and role) of principal contributor, Date of production/release. Format remaining entry according to the category of material.

FILM REVIEW (PRINT NEWSPAPER)

Schembri, J 2008, review of the motion picture Australia by B. Luhrmann (director), 2008, The Age, 10 November, p. 8.

THEATRE REVIEW (ONLINE)

Croggon, A 2014, review of the play Private lives by N. Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, 2014, The Guardian Australia, 31 January, viewed 4 April 2014,  http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/

  • Give author and year of review.
  • Give title of review in single quote marks followed by description (no italics except for title of work reviewed). If review has no title, give description alone. Give name and role of principal contributor to work reviewed.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Standards, Australian

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Residential timber framed construction  techniques are … (Standards Australia 2010, p. 6).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

New residential timber frames 'have been simplified for non-cyclonic areas of Australia due to …' (Standards Australia 2010, p. 6).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author Year, Standard title, standard number, Publisher, Location.

Standards Australia 2010, Residential timber framed construction – simplified - non-cyclonic areas: formal specifications (AS 1684.4:2010), Standards Australia, Sydney.

Thesis

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Reid (1998, p. 56) found that dysfuntional drivers ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' ' and provide the page number(s).

'Dysfunctional rivers have caused chaos on most major freeways …' (Reid 1998, p. 56).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Author year, Title of thesis, description, Institution, Location. OR DOI/URL 

PRINT (UNPUBLISHED)

Reid, JM 1998, ‘A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours’, PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, Australia.

ONLINE

Ryan, DA 2013, ‘Crowd monitoring using computer vision’, PhD thesis, Queensland University of Technology, Australia, viewed 31 January 2014, http://eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/

Software or app

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between single quotation marks ' '.

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges 'certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems' (Microsoft Word Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Reference list

TEMPLATE

Title Year, Version number, form, Company, City, State, DOI/URL

MOBILE PHONE APP

Weather Flow 2014, Version 1.5.0, mobile phone application, http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/

COMPUTER SOFTWARE

Dolphin 2013, Version 4.0.2, computer software, https://dolphin-emu.org/

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give title of software (in italics) followed by year (no italics) and version number. Add description after version number. Give name and place of company if accessed as CD, or DOI/URL if accessed online.

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the following resources to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples:

The Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed., 2010)

A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (8th ed., 2013) by Kate L. Turabian

Overview of Chicago/Turabian full note citation style

This guide describes the basic features and gives examples of Turabian and Chicago full note citation styles. (Each style also has an author-date version not covered here.) Chicago and Turabian styles follow the notes-bibliography system, which involves citing sources in footnotes (or endnotes) and then presenting a list of the cited sources in a bibliography at the end of your work. Turabian style is based on and largely mirrors Chicago style, with some minor differences. To avoid repetition, separate explanations and examples have been given in this guide only when there is a difference in treatment.

Footnotes

Footnotes are created by inserting a superscript reference number (i.e., smaller and above the line) in your writing directly after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) containing the words or information you are citing. The reference number directs the reader to the corresponding footnote, which should contain the bibliographic details of the source.

Numbering and formatting of footnotes is an automatic function in most word-processing programs via the insert footnote command. Notes are normally set one or two points smaller than the general text, and the footnote number is followed by a full stop and a space before the bibliographic details, as in the examples below. Refer to the general rules and punctuation section for more detailed information.

Bibliography

The bibliography is an alphabetical list of all the sources cited. It should begin on a separate page at the end of your paper and provide enough identifying details to allow the source to be located by someone else. Refer to the general rules and punctuation sections following for more detail.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

Monash University - Chicago

Creating full note citations

Creating the footnote

Insert the footnote number immediately after the punctuation mark that ends the sentence (or part of the sentence) where you have used the source. The first time you cite a source, the corresponding footnote should contain the full source information.

  1. FirstName LastName, Title (City: Publisher, Year), page reference.
  2. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.

Basic full footnote in Chicago/Turabian note style

  • Use the author’s full name in standard order, i.e. first name followed by surname.
  • Set titles of larger works (e.g. books and journals) in italics, and capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose titles of smaller works (e.g. chapters, articles), parts of works, or unpublished sources in double quotation marks without italics.
  • Enclose publication details in parentheses (round brackets). If the city is likely to be unknown to the reader or confused with another city of the same name, add the state (abbreviated) or country.
  • Add the page number or range (or figure or table number) when quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source. Use of ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ before the page number is not necessary. If the source shows no page numbers, give paragraph number/s or closest heading.
  • Separate the elements with a comma, and end the note with a full stop.
  • Use abbreviations such as ‘ed.’ or ‘eds.’ (for editor/edited by), ‘trans’ (translator/translated by), ‘vol.’ (volume), ed. (edition), ‘pt.’ (part) and rev. (revised, revised by, revision and review).

Repeating citations by using ibid. or shortening

Once you have provided a full citation, subsequent citations for the same source can be repeated by either using ‘ibid.’ if the notes are consecutive, or shortening the note if there are notes intervening.

HOW TO USE ‘IBID.’ TO REPEAT NOTES

  • If a citation directly follows a citation for the same work, use ‘ibid.’ (abbreviation of Latin ‘ibidem’ meaning ‘in the same place’) to stand for repeated parts. Add page numbers if these are different.
  • Use a capital letter to begin ‘ibid.’ if it begins the note.
  • Do not use ibid. if the immediately preceding note contains more than one citation.

HOW TO SHORTEN REPEATED NOTES

If there are intervening notes between a repeated citation, shorten the note as follows. (The examples section contains examples of shortened notes in all categories.)

  • Give author’s last name only (add first name or initial/s to differentiate if citing authors with the same last name) and omit any abbreviations (e.g., ed. or trans.) used in the full reference. Use the accepted abbreviation for organisation names and include the abbreviation in the first mention.
  • Shorten titles of over four words by omitting ‘A’ or ‘The’, and selecting key words. Preserve the same word order and format (italics or quotations marks) as in the full title.
  1. Sarah Gleeson, The Medical Experience of Art and Music (Sydney: Collins, 1983), 24.
  2. Ibid., 34–36.  ‘IBID.’ STANDS FOR REPEATED PART OF IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING NOTE
  3. Tom Edgerson, Drama Therapy (Melbourne: Harrap, 2011), 19.
  4. Gleeson, Medical Experience, 86. SHORTENED REPEATED NOTE (NON-CONSECUTIVE)

Author variations

Fullnote

ONE AUTHOR

1. F. Scott Fitzgerald, …

TWO AUTHORS

2. Hazel Smith and R. T. Dean, …

THREE AUTHORS

3. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Jit Kanwar, …

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

4. Jane Medwell et al., …

GROUP AUTHOR (ORGANISATION OR GOVERNMENT)

5. World Health Organization [WHO], …

BASIC

  • Present   the author’s name as it appears on the source.
  • Present the name in normal order in the note;   i.e., First name (and/or initials) Last name.
  • Present the name in reverse order in the   bibliography; i.e., Last name, First name (and/or initials).

MORE THAN ONE AUTHOR

  • Two   or three authors: Name all authors in the note and bibliography. Join last   author by ‘and’.
  • Four or more authors: In the note, name   first author only followed by ‘et al.’. Name all in bibliography.
  • Present first author only in reverse order in the bibliography; present co-authors names in normal order.

GROUP AUTHOR

  • If   there is no personal author credited, give the group as the author (even it   is also the publisher).
  • Give   the name in full in the first note and in bibliography entry.
  • Use the accepted abbreviation (include in first full note) in all subsequent notes if the group has a long name.

Multiple sources in the same note

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Two interesting novels spring to mind ...1

Direct quote

Full note

1. Ernest Hemingway, A Farewell to Arms (New York: Scribner, 2012); F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003).

Subsequent note

2. Hemingway, Farewell to Arms, 58.

3. Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby, 82–93.

Bibliography

Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003.

Hemingway, Ernest. A Farewell to Arms. New York: Scribner, 2012.

  • Group multiple sources that support a single point into one note and separate by a semicolon.
  • If you have named the sources in your writing, list them in the same order in the note.
  • Do not use ‘ibid.’ to repeat a source in an immediately preceding note containing multiple sources.

Multiple works by same author in same year

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Cultural insights can be found in ...1

Celebrations in certain cultures ...3

Full note

1. Jeremy Smith. “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 236. Accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/07256860903003559. Jeremy Smith. “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations.” Atlantic Studies, 6, no. 1 (2009): 74-75. Accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/14788810902731984.

Subsequent notes

3. Smith,"Civilisational Analysis", 240. Smith, "Outside and Against", 69.

Bibliography

Smith, Jeremy “Civilisational Analysis and Intercultural Models of American Societies.” Journal of Intercultural Studies, 30, no. 3 (2009): 233-248. Accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/07256860903003559.

Smith, Jeremy “Outside and Against the Quincentenary: Modern Indigenous Representations at the Time of the Colombian Celebrations.” Atlantic Studies, 6, no. 1 (2009): 63-80. Accessed June 28, 2018, doi: 10.1080/14788810902731984.

No date and/or place of publication

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The vicar had been based in Wakefield for many years when ...2

Direct quote

"I have been in the parish of Wakefield for many years now and recently ..."4

Full note

DATE AND/OR PLACE UNKNOWN

1. Edith M. Harrison, Pacific Travels (n.p.: Collins, n.d.), 56.

PUBLISHER UNKNOWN

2. Oliver Goldsmith, The Vicar of Wakefield (Salisbury, 1766).

Subsequent notes

3. Harrison, Pacific Travels, 82.

4. Goldsmith, Vicar of Wakefield, 16–22.

Bibliography

Goldsmith, Oliver. The Vicar of Wakefield. Salisbury, 1766.

Harrison, Edith M. Pacific Travels. N.p.: Collins, n.d.

  • If the place of publication is unknown, use ‘n.p.’ (for ‘no place’) in note and ‘N.p’. in bibliography.
  • If the publisher is unknown, give the place (if known) and date.
  • If the date is unknown, use ‘n.d.’ (for ‘no date’).

Secondary citation

Fullnote

1. Fiona Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia,” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58, quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum (Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012), 109.

Subsequent notes

3. Hilferty, “Teacher Professionalism.”

Bibliography

Hilferty, Fiona. “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia.” Australian Educational Researcher 35, no. 3 (2008): 58. Quoted in Kathryn Meldrum and Jacqui Peters, Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum, Sydney: Pearson Australia, 2012.

If you are using words or ideas from a source that you found quoted or cited in another (secondary) source, you must identify both of the sources.

  • Give one entry that includes both sources.
  • Begin the entry with the original source and add 'cited in' or 'quoted in' (as relevant) in front of the full details for the secondary source.

Creating a reference list

Looking at the elements

Each source cited in a footnote needs a corresponding entry in the bibliography. This entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else.

In Chicago/Turabian style, the bibliography entry and the full footnote contain the same information, with minor formatting differences.

A basic Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry is made up of the following elements:

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR+ ACCESS DATE + URL or DOI

AUTHORS

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title in the words and spelling   of the source.
  • If your source   is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book), you need to include both titles.

PUBLISHER INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

  • This identifies the publisher of the version you used and their location (city). You need to include this for print books and physical media. You don’t need it for journals and newspapers or online sources.
  • The information can usually be found with the copyright information.
PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?
  • This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.
  • For online sources, this is the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document) or the date of posting (for a post).

ACCESS DATE

If I accessed this source online, when did I do this?

  • This is included for sources accessed online. It tells your reader the location of the source on the Internet and the date you accessed it.
  • Include an access date for all sources accessed online unless you are instructed otherwise by your teacher or lecturer.

URL or DOI

If I accessed this source online, what is its Digital Object Identifier (DOI)?

If there is no DOI, what is the address of the source onne?

  • The DOI acts as a permanent link to an item. Not all material will have a DOI, but you need to include it if one has been assigned.
  • If a DOI has been assigned, you should find it with the copyright information, or with other details on database or catalogue lists.
  • If there is no DOI, include a URL.
  • Provide the URL that leads most directly and reliably to the source. Give the homepage URL if the item can be searched for easily from there or if a login is required or if the URL is unstable. Otherwise give the full URL.

Creating the bibliography entry

Below are instructions for formatting the parts of a Chicago/Turabian bibliography entry. Note that every part ends with a full stop, and there is a space after each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFORMATION + YEAR + ACCESS DATE + URL OR DOI

Author

Hall, Jane. L., and Brian. T. Ashton. A Spoonful of Valour

Smith, Gina, Terry L. Ferris, and Erin Henderson. Rainfall

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. …

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.
  • Name all authors if there are more than one. Invert first author’s name only.
  • For more detail on author treatment, see example section.

Title

Harris, Miles. The Mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. …

Irwell, Maria. “Reimagining Dadaism.” Journal of Abstract Art …

Jensen, Paul. R. Wartime Navy Reminiscences …

  • Give the title in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Give both titles if source is part of a larger work.
  • Enclose parts of works in quotation marks and set larger work in italics.
  • Give initial capitals to the first, last and principal words of the title and the subtitle.
  • Separate title and any subtitle by a colon.
  • If no title is shown, give a brief descriptive title, using no italics or quotation marks.

Publisher information

Gourley, Dianne. Action Man. Chicago: Bellinger, 2002.

  • Give city and name of publisher. Add state (initials) or country if extra identification needed.
  • Separate city and state/country by a comma and publisher by a colon.
  • If there is more than one city named on the source, give the first-named city.

Year

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no. 10 (2013): 30–33

Gardiner, Ian T. Life in Rural Australia. Adelaide: Phoenix, n.d.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age (Melbourne), May 4, 2006.

  • Add year after publisher details for books, or in parentheses after issue number for journals.
  • Add month and day for sources with specific publication dates (newspapers, magazines).
  • Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

Access date

  • Turabian style requires an access date for all sources accessed online, whereas Chicago suggests inclusion only if the content is likely to change. Because it may be difficult to judge if content is static, and because your teacher or lecturer may require you to provide access dates for all such sources, the examples in this guide include access dates for both styles.
  • Give date of access before URL or DOI.
  • Note that access dates are not necessary for sources that are electronically published and downloaded in a dedicated e-book format (e.g., Kindle).
  • If you are unsure whether or not to include access dates for particular online sources, seek advice from your teacher or lecturer for their preference.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-ubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

URL/DOI

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

Kurland, Philip B., and Ralph Lerner, eds. The Founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987. Accessed June 12, 2014. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/founders.

  • Give the DOI, when one has been assigned, exactly as found on the source.
  • If DOI is in the old format (beginning with ‘10’), introduce it by ‘doi:’.
  • New format DOIs beginning with ‘http’ don’t need ‘doi:’ added in front.
  • If no DOI, give the URL. Break URL/DOI (if needed) before a single slash or punctuation mark.

How to present a reference list

How to set up the bibliography

  • Begin the list with the heading ‘Bibliography’ on a new page at the end of your work.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken across a line, break before a single slash or punctuation mark.

What to include

Unless advised otherwise by your teacher or lecturer:

  • Include an entry for every source you have cited in a note.
  • Do not include entries for sources you have not cited, however relevant.

How to arrange the entries

  • Alphabetise entries by author’s last name (which begins the entry).
  • Use a long dash (or three hyphens) to stand for a repeated author name.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with the same author, list alphabetically by title.

Example of a Chicago/Turabian bibliography

Basic

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Travelling through Italy, India and Indonesia provided Elizabeth Gilbert with ... 1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As I travelled through Italy ..."5

Fullnote

1. Elizabeth Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia (New York: Viking, 2006), 22.

Subsequent notes

5. Gilbert, Eat, Pray, Love, 59.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Gilbert, Elizabeth. Eat, Pray, Love: One Woman’s Search for Everything across Italy, India, and Indonesia. New York: Viking, 2006.

  • Give author’s name in normal order in note, inverted in bibliography.
  • Give title in full, including any subtitle separated by a colon. Capitalise in headline style.
  • Enclose publisher, place and year in parentheses in note, but not in bibliography.
  • Add page numbers when referring to a specific page, or page range.

Translation

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Albrecht Dϋmling paints a powerful picture of the Jewish refugee experience in Australia by ...2

Direct quote 

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Jewish refugees in Australia during the ..."6

Fullnote

2. Albrecht Dϋmling, The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia, trans. Diana K. Weekes (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016), 98.

Subsequent notes

6. Dϋmling, Vanished Musician, 105.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Translated by name of translator. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Dϋmling, Albrecht. The Vanished Musician: Jewish Refugees in Australia. Translated by Diana K. Weekes. Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016.

  • Name translator after title, preceded by ‘trans.’ in note, and ‘Translated by’ in bibliography.

Different edition

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Those new to writing will benefit from the many topics covered in this book including ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Correct grammar is essential because ..."7

Fullnote

3. William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 4th ed. (New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000), 41–50.

Subsequent notes

7. Strunk and White, Elements of Style, 58.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. # ed. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. White. The Elements of Style. 4th ed. New York: Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

  • Add edition description after title (abbreviate to ‘ed.’).
  • Edition information is not given for first editions. (If no edition statement is shown, assume it is the first.)

Volume from a multi-volume work

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Dramatic performance is an art dating from ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent performances by young actors has shown that ..."8

Fullnote

4. Jennifer Roberts, ed., Dramatic Arts (Sydney: Milton Press, 1987), 1:234.

Subsequent notes

8. Roberts, Dramatic Arts, 1:68-73.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Vol. #. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Roberts, Jennifer, ed. Dramatic Arts. Vol. 1. Sydney: Milton Press, 1958.

  • If citing a volume of a multi-volume work, add volume number before page reference (separated by a colon).
  • If volume has its own title, add volume number and title after title of whole work.

Edited book/ Book chapter

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith discuss the complex topic of taboo ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The silence surrounding infectious disease is often deafening ..."2

Full note

EDITED COLLECTION

1. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, eds., Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable (New York: Peter Lang, 2001).

CHAPTER FROM EDITED COLLECTION

2. Janet Brown, “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease,” in Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, ed. Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith (New York: Peter Lang, 2001), 86.

Subsequent notes

3. Mills and Smith, Utter Silence.  NB: OMIT ‘ed.’ OR ‘eds.’ IN SUBSEQUENT NOTES
4. Brown, “Silence, Taboo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Chapter title." In Title of book, edited by authors, Page range. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Brown, Janet. “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease.” In Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable, edited by Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith, 83–91. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

Mills Alice, and Jeremy Smith, eds. Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable. New York: Peter Lang, 2001.

  • If citing the collection, give editor/s in author position, followed by ‘ed.’ (or ‘eds.’). Treat remaining elements as for a basic book. If citing a chapter from an edited collection, begin with chapter author and title, followed by title of work, editor/s and page reference to passage being cited; in bibliography give the chapter page range.

Online or e-book

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The great Gatsby is set in the roaring twenties ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Gatsby entered the room with an air of contempt ..."4

Fullnote

ACCESSED ONLINE

1. Scott Dorkins, Good Times (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996), accessed February 28, 2010, http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.

DOWNLOADED AS E-BOOK

2. F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003), Kindle edition.  NB: Turabian uses single word ‘Kindle’ (without edition).

Subsequent notes

3. Dorkins, Good Times, chap. 10

4. Fitzgerald, The Great Gatsby.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Dorkins, Scott. Good Times. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Accessed February 28, 2010. http://press-pubs.uchicago.edu/goodtimes/.


Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. Kindle edition.

NB: Turabian uses single word ‘Kindle’ (without edition).

  • Treat as for a print book in relevant category.
  • If pages are not static, give relevant heading or chapter or other numbered division as location reference.
  • If book is consulted online, add access date and URL, DOI or database name.
  • If downloaded as a dedicated e-book, add e-reader format. No access date or URL is needed.
  • Note that Turabian uses the single word ‘Kindle’, and Chicago uses ‘Kindle edition’.

Print

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Patient wellbeing is important becauuse ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Recent studies investigating patient wellbeing have found that ..."6

Full note

1. Chris Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 31.

Subsequent notes

6. Narvin, “Patient Wellbeing,” 32.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Narvin, Chris. “Patient Wellbeing.” Nursing Journal 20, no.10 (2013): 30–33.

  • NB: Turabian includes ‘abstract’ in note but omits it from bibliography entry.
  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online with DOI

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The term homophily refers to ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Friends, spouses, romantic partners, co-workers, colleagues, and other professional and recreational associates ail tend to be more similar to each other than randomly chosen members of the same ..."9

Full note

4. Gueorgi Kossinets and Duncan J. Watts, “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network,” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 411, accessed February 28, 2010, doi:10.1086/599247.

Subsequent notes

9. Kossinets and Watts, “Origins of Homophily,” 406.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. Accessed date. DOI.

Kossinets, Gueorgi, and Duncan J. Watts. “Origins of Homophily in an Evolving Social Network.” American Journal of Sociology 115 (2009): 405–50. Accessed February 28, 2010. doi:10.1086/599247.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online with URL

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The quality of teaching rounds is often inconsistent doe to a range of factors such as ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The method of observation imitates that used by medical students completing medical rounds and ..."8

3. Wendy Moran, “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds,” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 212, accessed June 22, 2016, http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

Subsequent notes

8. Moran, “Enhancing Understanding,” 72.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range. URL.

Moran, Wendy. “Enhancing Understanding of Teaching and the Profession through School Innovation Rounds.” Australian Journal of Teacher Education 39, no. 3 (2014): 68–85. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://ro.ecu.edu.au/ajte/.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Online from database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

According to recent research ...5

Paraphrasing

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The quality of treatment is linked to selective contracting due to ..."10

Direct quote

Full note

5. David H. Howard, “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation,” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008): 214, accessed April 15, 2015, PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

Subsequent notes

10. Howard, “Hospital Quality,” 218.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Journal name volume, no. # (year).  Accessed date. Database name.

Howard, David H. “Hospital Quality and Selective Contracting: Evidence from Kidney Transplantation.” Forum for Health Economics and Policy 11, no. 2 (2008). Accessed April 15, 2015. PubMed Central (PMC2600561).

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Abstract

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Vitiligo has a condition that ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Many patients receive treatment which increases their quality of life ..."7

Full note

2. Parsad Davinder, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar, “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo,” abstract, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

Subsequent notes

7. Davinder, Dogra, and Kanwar, “Quality of Life,” 22.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Abstract. Journal name volume, no. # (year): Page range.

Davinder, Parsad, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Kanwar. “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo.” Abstract. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 1 (2003): 58.

NB: Turabian includes ‘abstract’ in note but omits it from bibliography entry.

  • Give article author, article title in double quotations marks, journal name in italics, volume and issue number.
  • Give specific page references in the note. Give page range of whole article in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the access date and DOI, URL or database name.

Print

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Kennedy's assassin has been identified as ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"The president was shot today as he ..."7

Full note

1. Jim Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy,” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

Subsequent notes

7. Hunt, “Assassin Kills Kennedy.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date.

Hunt, Jim. “Assassin Kills Kennedy.” Chicago Tribune, November 22, 1963.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Separate section

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

There are many restaurants and cafes in Melbourne that serve wonderful African dishes full of exotic spices ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"The exotic tastes of Africa have added a new dimension to Melbourne dining"8

Full note

2. Nina Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters,” Age (Melbourne), June 3, 2008, Epicure sec.

Subsequent notes

8. Rousseau, “Arrival of the Spice Setters.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Section.

Rousseau, Nina. “Arrival of the Spice Setters.” Age (Melbourne), June 3, 2008, Epicure sec.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • If article is in a separate section, add name (no italics) after title (see Rousseau example above).
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

No author credited

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent advertisement supporting the Republican candidate ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"The race for Governor in the state of ..."9

Full note

3. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor,” New York Times, July 30, 2002.

Subsequent notes

9. “Ad Heats Up Race.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Newspaper name. "Article title." Date.

New York Times. “Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Letter to the editor

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In a recent letter to the editor ...4

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"I would like to make readers aware that ..."10

Fullnote

4. Jamila Khan, letter to the editor, Australian, September 7, 2012.

Subsequent notes

10. Khan, letter to editor.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Letter to the editor. Newspaper name, Date.

Khan, Jamila. Letter to the editor. Australian, September 7, 2012.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Online replica or print edition (e.g., from Trove)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Mrs Holt's Sorrow is an excellent example of ...5

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"As Mrs Holt entered the room it was apparent that ..."11

Fullnote

5. Brian Craig, “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow,” Australian Women’s Weekly, 2–3, January 10, 1968, accessed July 14, 2016, http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

Subsequent notes

11. Craig, “Mrs Holt's Sorrow,” 2.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Accessed date. URL.

Craig, Brian. “Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, January 10, 1968. Accessed July 14, 2016. http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Online edition

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Russia's journey with Scientology has been ...6

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Scientology has been ..."12

Fullnote

6. Wendy Cole and Janice Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia,” Time, April 13, 1992, accessed May 1, 2011, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

Subsequent notes

12. Cole and Castro, “Scientology’s Largesse.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Article title." Newspaper name, Date. Accessed date. URL.

Cole, Wendy, and Janice Castro. “Scientology’s Largesse in Russia.” Time, April 13, 1992. Accessed May 1, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/.

  • Give author, article title (in quotation marks), newspaper/magazine name (italics) and date of issue.
  • If no author is credited, begin with article title in the note but newspaper/magazine name in bibliography.
  • Omit any ‘The’ from beginning of newspaper name. If city is not in name, add in round brackets.
  • Page references can be omitted from newspaper articles (they may be unreliable due to multiple editions of a single issue) but should be included when citing magazine articles.
  • If accessed online, treat as for print article and add access date and URL or DOI. If the article is a digital replica of a print edition (e.g., from Trove), page numbers can be added.

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Oliver finds himself in trouble when ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Fagin's boys were always on the look out for ..."4

CD

1. Peter FitzSimons, Kokoda, read by Lewis FitzGerald (Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013), audiobook, compact disc.

ONLINE

2. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, read by Peter Batchelor (New York: Random House Audible, 2013), audiobook, MP3 audio, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.audible.com.

Subsequent notes

3. FitzSimons, Kokoda.
4. Dickens, Oliver Twist.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Read by name. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Medium, Format. Accessed date. URL.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Read by Peter Batchelor. New York: Random House Audible, 2013. Audiobook, MP3 audio. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.audible.com.

FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Read by Lewis FitzGerald. Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013. Audiobook, compact disc.

TURABIAN

Full note

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Peter FitzSimon's trip to Kokoda provided him with experiences that ...1

Direct quote

"When I first arrived in Kokoda I was amazed by ..."3

CD

1. Peter FitzSimons, Kokoda, read by Lewis FitzGerald (Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013), CD.

ONLINE

2. Charles Dickens, Oliver Twist, read by Peter Batchelor (New York: Random House Audible, 2013), MP3, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.audible.com.

Subsequent notes

3. FitzSimons, Kokoda.
4. Dickens, Oliver Twist.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Read by name. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Format. Accessed date. URL.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Read by Peter Batchelor. New York: Random House Audible, 2013. MP3. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.audible.com.


FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Read by Lewis FitzGerald. Sydney: ABC Audio, 2013. CD.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Treat as for print book and add reader’s name after the title.
  • If accessed as physical recording, add format at end. Note Chicago does not abbreviate compact disc to CD.
  • If accessed online, add file format, access date and URL or DOI.

Audio podcast

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A special episode of American Life featured a discussion regarding troubled friendships among teens in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Two best friends now enemies are about to embark on a ..."3

Full note

1. “Frenemies,” This American Life, podcast audio, Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009, accessed July 17, 2016, http://www.thisamericanlife.org/play_full.php?play=389.

Subsequent notes

3. “Frenemies.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

"Title of podcast." Program.  Medium. Publisher, Date. Accessed date. URL.

“Frenemies.” This American Life. Podcast audio. Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009. Accessed July 17, 2016. http://www.thisamericanlife.org/play_full.php?play=389.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A special episode of American Life featured a discussion regarding troubled friendships among teens in ...1

Direct quote

"Two best friends now enemies are about to embark on a ..."3

Full note

1. “Frenemies,” This American Life (MP3 podcast), Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009, accessed July 17, 2016, http://www.thisamericanlife.org/play_full.php?play=389.

Subsequent notes

3. “Frenemies.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

"Title of podcast." Program (Format Medium). Publisher, Date. Accessed date. URL.

“Frenemies.” This American Life (MP3 podcast). Chicago Public Media, September 11, 2009. Accessed July 17, 2016. http://www.thisamericanlife.org/play_full.php?play=389.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Give episode (quote marks), podcast title (italics), description, production entity and date, access date, URL.

Movie, screen or recording

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Back to the Future is a wonderful adventure story ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Well Marty it's time to get the ..."5

Full note

MOVIE SCREEN

1. Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis (Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985).

DVD

2. Man of Steel, directed by Zach Snyder (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013), DVD.

DVD RE-ISSUE OF EARLIER FILM

3. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (1958; Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003), DVD.

ONLINE

4. Argo, directed by Ben Affleck (Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012), accessed June 13, 2016, http://store.apple.com/au.

Subsequent notes 

5. Back to the Future.

6. Man of Steel.

7. Vertigo.

8. Argo.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Title. Directed by name.  City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Argo. Directed by Ben Affleck. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016. http://store.apple.com/au.

Back to the Future. Directed by Robert Zemeckis.  Los Angeles, CA: Universal Pictures, 1985.

Man of Steel. Directed by Zach Snyder. Los Angeles, CA: Warner Bros, 2013. DVD.

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. 1958. Los Angeles, CA: Universal Home Entertainment, 2003. DVD.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alfred Hitchcock films are always very ...3

Direct quote

"What are we going to do Scottie?"7

Full note

MOVIE SCREEN

1. Back to the Future, directed by Robert Zemeckis (Universal Pictures, 1985).

DVD

2. Man of Steel, directed by Zach Snyder, DVD (Warner Bros, 2013).

DVD RE-ISSUE OF EARLIER FILM

3. Vertigo, directed by Alfred Hitchcock (Paramount, 1958), DVD (Universal Home Entertainment, 2003).

ONLINE

4. Argo, directed by Ben Affleck (Warner Bros, 2012), accessed June 13, 2016, http://store.apple.com/au.

Subsequent notes

5. Back to the Future.

6. Man of Steel.

7. Vertigo.

8. Argo.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Title. Directed by name. Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Argo. Directed by Ben Affleck. Warner Bros, 2012. Accessed June 13, 2016. http://store.apple.com/au.

Back to the Future. Directed by Robert Zemeckis. Universal Pictures, 1985.

Man of Steel. Directed by Zach Snyder. DVD. Warner Bros, 2013.

Vertigo. Directed by Alfred Hitchcock. Paramount, 1958. DVD. Universal Home Entertainment, 2003.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

  • Give title (italics), roles and names of primary contributors (e.g., director, writer), studio and year of release.
  • If focusing on the contribution of the director or writer, begin the entry with him/her followed by title.
  • If accessing a re-issue of an earlier studio version, include the original release year as well.
  • If accessing online, add access date and URL

Music recording

CHICAGO

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

A classic song about autumn in New York warms the heart after a long winter.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Autumn in New York, why does it seem so inviting?"5

Full note

ALBUM (CD)

1. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

ALBUM TRACK

2. Frank Sinatra, vocal performance of “Autumn in New York,” by Vernon Duke, recorded October 8, 1957, on Come Fly with Me, Capitol, 1958, LP.


ONLINE MUSIC VIDEO

3. Sheppard, “Geronimo,” YouTube music video, posted August 1, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Subsequent notes

4. Strauss, Don Quixote.

5. Sinatra, “Autumn in New York.”

6. Sheppard, “Geronimo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. "Title of song." Form. Posted date. Accessed date. URL.

Sheppard. “Geronimo.” YouTube music video. Posted August 1, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Sinatra, Frank. Vocal performance of “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Recorded October 8, 1957. On Come Fly with Me. Capitol, 1958, LP.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, compact disc.

TURABIAN

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

Popular band Sheppherd have a great hit with Geronimo which is topping the charts this week.3

Direct quote

Consider the first two lines of the song Geronimo: "Can you feel it? Now it's coming back we can steel it."6

Full note

1. Richard Strauss, Don Quixote, with Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Eugene Ormandy, recorded February 24, 1940, Biddulph LAB 042, 1991, CD.

2. Frank Sinatra, “Autumn in New York,” by Vernon Duke, recorded October 8, 1957, on Come Fly with Me, Capitol, 1958, LP.

3.  Sheppard, “Geronimo” (music video), posted Aug 1, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Subsequent notes

4. Strauss, Don Quixote.

5. Sinatra, “Autumn in New York.”

6. Sheppard, “Geronimo.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Songwriter or Performer. "Title of song" (Form). Posted date. Accessed date. URL.

Sheppard. “Geronimo” (music video). Posted August 1, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UL_EXAyGCkw.

Performer. "Title of song." By writer of song. Recorded date. On Album title. Label, Year, Format).

Sinatra, Frank. “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Recorded October 8, 1957. On Come Fly with Me. Capitol, 1958, LP.

Performer. "Title of song." With name of accompanying performer/s. Conducted by name. Recorded date. Label, Year, Format.

Strauss, Richard. Don Quixote. With Emanuel Feuermann (violoncello) and the Philadelphia Orchestra. Conducted by Eugene Ormandy. Recorded February 24, 1940. Biddulph LAB 042, 1991. CD.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

A music recording can be cited in the notes and bibliography if you are using it as a source. For a general mention, just identify the work in your writing unless extra detail needs to be added in a note.

  • ALBUM: Give principal contributor (performer or composer), album title (italics), any other major contributors, label, year and form. Any useful extra information (e.g., names of other major contributors) is added after title.
  • TRACK FROM ALBUM: Give performer and title of song (in quotation marks), songwriter (if different from performer), recording date (if available), album title (italics), recording label information, year and form.
  • ONLINE: If accessed online, add access date and URL.

Performance (recorded)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text-citations

Paraphrasing

Private lives is a great comedy set in the 1930s ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"I think very few people are completely normal really, deep down in their private lives."5

Full note

PLAY

1. Private Lives, by Noel Coward, directed by Sam Strong, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014.

MUSICAL THEATRE

2. Nice Work If You Can Get It, by Joe DiPietro, music by George and Ira Gershwin, directed by Annette Zol, Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society, Broadford Shire Hall, June 10, 2016.

CONCERT

3. Glenda Harris (violin) and Kurt Hegelmann (piano), Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014.

RECORDED PERFORMANCE

4. Jerry Seinfeld, I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998 (Los Angeles: Universal, 1998), CD.

Subsequent notes

5. Private Lives.

6. Nice Work.

7. Harris and Hegelmann.

8. Seinfeld, I’m Telling You.

Bibliography

Harris, Glenda (violin), and Kurt Hegelmann (piano). Helen MacPherson Theatre, Ballarat, April 21, 2014.

Nice Work If You Can Get It. By Joe DiPietro. Music by George and Ira Gershwin. Directed by Annette Zol. Broadford Amateur Theatrical Society. Shire Hall, Broadford, June 10, 2016.

Private Lives. By Noel Coward. Directed by Sam Strong. Melbourne Theatre Company. Southbank Theatre, Melbourne, January 30, 2014.

Seinfeld, Jerry. I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Recorded, Broadhurst Theatre, New York City, August 9, 1998. Los Angeles: Universal, 1998. CD.

Live performances are not normally included in the bibliography, and you can also do without a note by weaving the identifying details into your writing. However, different units will have different requirements, so seek your teacher’s or lecturer’s advice on their preference for citing such sources.

  • Begin with title (italics), or if the performance is untitled or is focused on individual performance, give performer/s name at the beginning.
  • Add names of major contributors (writers, composers, directors, etc.) and performance group.
  • Give the venue and date of the performance, if these details are known.
  • If accessing a recording, treat according to relevant category above and add the form of recording.
  • If accessing online, add access date and URL.

Speech (recorded)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During his speech Dr Martin Luther King stated with great passion ...4

Direct quote

"I have a dream!"8

Full note

PRINT TRANSCRIPT

1. Patrick Henry, “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death” (speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775), in The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, ed. Brian MacArthur (London: Penguin, 1995), 88–90.

ONLINE TRANSCRIPT

2. Paul Keating, “The Redfern Address” (speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992), transcript, accessed 14 July 2016, http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/.

ONLINE VIDEO

3. John F. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner)” (speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963), video file, accessed May 11, 2016, http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html.

ONLINE AUDIO

4. Martin Luther King, Jr., “I Have a Dream” (speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963), MP3, accessed April 2, 2016, http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/

Subsequent notes

5. Henry, “Give Me Liberty.”

6. Keating, “Redfern Address.”

7. Kennedy, “Ich bin ein Berliner.”

8. King, “I Have a Dream.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Speaker's name. "Title of speech." Speech, City, State/Country, Date. Format. Accessed date. URL.

Henry, Patrick. “Give Me Liberty, or Give Me Death.” Speech, Richmond, Virginia, March 23, 1775. In The Penguin Book of Historic Speeches, edited by Brian MacArthur, 88–90. London: Penguin, 1995.

Keating, Paul. “The Redfern Address.” Speech, Redfern, December 10, 1992. Transcript. Accessed 14 July 2016. http://aso.gov.au/titles/spoken-word/keating-speech-redfern-address/extras/.

Kennedy, John F. “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner).” Speech, Berlin, June 26, 1963. Video file. Accessed May 11, 2016. http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/jfkberliner.html.

King, Martin Luther, Jr. “I Have a Dream.” Speech, Washington, DC, August 28, 1963. MP3. Accessed April 2, 2016. http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/.

  • Begin entry with speaker. Give title of speech in quotation marks, and place and date of speech.
  • If accessed in a print source, treat like a chapter in a book.
  • If accessed online, add file type, access date and URL.

Streaming video from a library database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

Full note

Subsequent notes

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Television series episode

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Gilmore girls were feeling anxious when ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Loralai, how is your anxiety today?"4

Full note

BROADCAST

1. Gilmore Girls, season 3, episode 3, “Application Anxiety,” directed by Gail Mancuso, aired September 13, 2005, on WINTV.

ONLINE

2.  Foyle’s War, season 7, episode 1, “The Eternity Ring,” directed by Stuart Orme, accessed October 12, 2013, http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/7968839.

DVD

3.  Breaking Bad, season 5, episode 2, “Madrigal,” directed by Michelle MacLaren (Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012), DVD, disc 1.

Subsequent notes

4. Gilmore Girls.

5. Foyle’s War.

6. Breaking Bad.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name. Production/Distribution Company, Year. Format, disc#.

Breaking Bad. Season 5, episode 2, “Madrigal.” Directed by Michelle MacLaren. Sony Pictures Home Entertainment, 2012. DVD, disc 1.

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name.  Accessed date. URL.

Foyle’s War. Season 7, episode 1, “The Eternity Ring.” Directed by Stuart Orme. Accessed October 12, 2013. http://www.abc.net.au/iview/#/view/7968839.

Series title. Season #, episode #, "Episode title". Directed by name. Aired date, on name of television network.

Gilmore Girls. Season 3, episode 3, “Application Anxiety.” Directed by Gail Mancuso. Aired September 13, 2005, on WINTV.

  • Give program title (italics), season and episode numbers (if known).
  • Give episode title (quotation marks) and role and name of principal contributor/s (e.g., director and/or writer).
  • If accessed via television broadcast, give date aired and broadcast station.
  • If accessed in recorded form, give production studio, year of production and form.
  • If accessed online, give access date and URL.

Television or radio broadcast, live to air

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When Tony Jones comments on the situation in ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Good evening and welcome to Late line. My name is Tony Jones. Tonight we will be reporting on ...!"3

Full note

TELEVISION BROADCAST

1. Lateline, Tony Jones, aired June 2, 2016, on ABC TV News 24.

RADIO PROGRAM

2. Late Night Live, Phillip Adams, aired July 14, 2016, on ABC Radio National.

Subsequent notes

3. Lateline, June 2, 2016.

4. Late Night Live, July 14, 2016.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Program title. Presenter. Aired date, on name of television network.

Lateline. Tony Jones. Aired June 2, 2016, on ABC TV News 24.

Late Night Live. Phillip Adams. Aired July 14, 2016, on ABC Radio National.

  • Give program title (italics), name of presenter, date of broadcast, and broadcast station.
  • If accessed online (after broadcast), give access date and URL.

Video game

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

For those of us into video games with adventure Minecraft will ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

Minecraft is "set in infinitely-generated worlds of wide open terrain - icy mountains, swampy bayous, vast pastures and much more - filled with secrets, wonders and peril!"3

Full note

1. Minecraft (version 1.10.2), video game (Mojang, 2016), accessed July 21, 2016, https://minecraft.net/en/.

Subsequent notes

3. Minecraft.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Title (version #). Video game. Publisher, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Minecraft (version 1.10.2). Video game. Mojang, 2016. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://minecraft.net/en/.

  • It is not necessary to give a note or bibliography entry for video games unless your paper is focused on this area. Otherwise, simply identify such works in the body of your writing.

Web document (pdf)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Parks Victoria the Grampians ...1

Direct quote

"Bushfires are often considered to be disasters, but fire is a natural occurrence that has influenced the Gariwerd/Grampians plant and animal diversity."3

Full note

1. Parks Victoria, “Fire Ecology in the Grampians,” accessed July 14, 2004, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

Subsequent notes

3. Parks Victoria, “Fire Ecology.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Accessed date. URL.   

Parks Victoria. “Fire Ecology in the Grampians.” Accessed July 14, 2004. http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

  • Give the author, title (quotation marks) and retrieval details of document. Include date if one is shown.

Website post or page (general treatment)

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The ABC has recently introduced a new policy dealing with privacy issues that ...1

Direct quote

"A new policy has just been implemented by the ABC to address the privacy concerns of ..."3

Full note

1. “ABC Privacy Policy,” Australian Broadcasting Corporation, last modified March 12, 2014, accessed July 19, 2016, http://about.abc.net.au/abc-privacy-policy/.

2. “Employment Conditions,” Country Fire Authority, last modified December 8, 2015, accessed May 3, 2016, http://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/volunteer-careers/employment-conditions/.

Subsequent notes 

3. “ABC Privacy Policy.”

4. “Employment Conditions.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Last modified date. Accessed date. URL.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “ABC Privacy Policy.” Last modified March 12, 2014. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://about.abc.net.au/abc-privacy-policy/.

Country Fire Authority. “Employment Conditions.” Last modified December 8, 2015. Accessed May 3, 2016. http://www.cfa.vic.gov.au/volunteer-careers/employment-conditions/.

  • Give title of page/post in quotation marks followed by the website name or publisher/sponsor.
  • If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase (no quotation marks).
  • Give date of last modification or update, access date and URL.

Website

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Donald Trump’s campaign website is illustrative of …1

Direct quote

Donald trump's campaign motto is as follows: "Make America great Again!"3

Full note

NOTE CONTAINING EXTRA DETAIL

1. Make America Great Again! (official 2016 campaign website of Donald Trump), accessed July 23, 2016, https://www.donaldjtrump.com/.

Subsequent notes

3. Make America Great Again!

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

  • When referring to a website (as distinct from a specific document, page or post on the site), identify the website (by name, sponsor/owner or descriptive phrase) in your writing in place of a note.
  • If extra identifying detail is likely to be helpful to your reader, either include this in a note as in the example above, or weave it into your writing in place of the detailed note.
  • No bibliography entry is needed.

Book or journal article

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

John Brack's painting 'The Fish Shop' is reminiscent of ...1

Full note

1. John Brack, The Fish Shop, 1955, in Australian Artists, ed. Howard Bryant (Melbourne: Larwitt, 1993), 46.

Subsequent notes

3. Brack, The Fish Shop.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.

  • PRINT SOURCE: Give print source information in place of medium and gallery. Add page/plate number.

Webpage

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

John Brack's painting titled 'The Fish Shop' is painted with oils that are ...1

Full note

1. John Brack, The Fish Shop, 1955, oil on composition board, 60.0 x 71.6 cm, Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne, accessed June 12, 2014, http://www.ngv/collections/johnbrack.

Subsequent notes

3. Brack, The Fish Shop.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.

  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.

Library database

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

An excellent example of Fang mask ...1

Full note

1. Cohen, Joshua I. "Fauve Masks: Rethinking Modern “Primitivist” Uses of African and Oceanic Art, 1905–8." The Art Bulletin 99, no. 2 (2017): 142, accessed June 27, 2018, EBSCOhost, doi: 10.1080/00043079.2017.1252241

Subsequent notes

3. Cohen, "Fauve masks", 142.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.

  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.

Male face mask, Fang culture, Betsi group, Gabon, 19th century, wood and pigment, 111/8 × 7 × 21/4 in. (28.3 × 17.8 × 5.7 cm).

Creative commons

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Oscar Schindler's grave is inscribed with ...1

Full note

1. Adam Jones, “Details of Grave of Oskar Schindler – Old City – Jerusalem – Israel – 02,” 2011. Photograph.  Source: Flickr, posted 1 May, 2011, accessed 19 June, 2014, http://www.flickr.com/photos/adam_jones/5676126945.

Subsequent notes

2. Jones, “Details of Grave of Oskar Schindler”.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.

  • ONLINE SOURCE: Add access date and URL to details of original.

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Local council boundaries for Casey can be seen ...2

PRINT

1. Richard Sobel, ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993), 87, table 5.3.

ONLINE

2.  Victorian Electoral Commission, “City of Casey: Local Council Boundaries, 2012,” map, accessed June 22, 2016, https://www.vec.vic.gov.au.images/profile
/CaseySummary.gif.

Subsequent notes

3. Sobel, Public Opinion, 92, table 6.4.  DIFFERENT MAP, SAME SOURCE

4. Victorian Electoral Commission, “City of Casey.”

Bibliography

Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

Victorian Electoral Commission. “City of Casey: Local Council Boundaries, 2012.” Map. Accessed June 22, 2016. https://www.vec.vic.gov.au.images/profile
/CaseySummary.gif.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Local council boundaries for Casey can be seen ...2

Full note

PRINT

1. Richard Sobel, ed., Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid (Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993), 87, table 5.3.

ONLINE

2. Victorian Electoral Commission, “City of Casey: Local Council Boundaries, 2012” (map), accessed June 22, 2016, https://www.vec.vic.gov.au.images/profile
/CaseySummary.gif.

Subsequent notes

3. Sobel, Public Opinion, 92, table 6.4.  DIFFERENT MAP, SAME SOURCE

4. Victorian Electoral Commission. “City of Casey.”

Bibliography

Sobel, Richard, ed. Public Opinion in US Foreign Policy: The Controversy over Contra Aid. Boston: Rowman and Littlefield, 1993.

Victorian Electoral Commission. “City of Casey: Local Council Boundaries, 2012” (map). Accessed June 22, 2016. https://www.vec.vic.gov.au.images/profile/
CaseySummary.gif.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

PRINT: If you have accessed the item in a published work (e.g., a book or journal), give an entry for the source containing the item, not the item itself, and add the item’s identifying label (e.g., table or figure number) after the page reference.

ONLINE: If you have accessed the item online (e.g., from a website or webpage) give the author, title (in quotation marks) and description (e.g., map, chart). Note that the description is given in parentheses in Turabian but not Chicago style. Give access date and URL or DOI.

Visual artwork

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

John Brack's painting of 'The Fish Shop' shows ...1

Full note

1. John Brack, The Fish Shop, 1955, oil on composition board, 60.0 x 71.6 cm, Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne.

Subsequent notes

3. Brack, The Fish Shop.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry required.

Visual artworks are normally cited in notes only but it is acceptable to include a bibliography entry for published sources containing reproductions. Check with your teacher or lecturer for their preference in this matter.

  • GALLERY: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, dimensions (when required), gallery name and place.

Blog post

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Melinda Chang's blog has many interesting insights about ...1

Direct quote

"During a recent discussion with a close friend I realised ..."3

Full note

WHOLE BLOG

1. Melinda Chang, Heart of Me (blog), accessed July 15, 2016, http://heartofme.blogspot.com/2016/07/.

BLOG POST

2. Kevin Ferris, “Close Borders Now,” Half-Baked Times (blog), May 5, 2016, accessed May 7, 2016, http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com/2016/05/.

Subsequent notes

3. Chang, Heart of Me.
4. Ferris, “Close Borders Now.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title (Form). Accessed date. URL.

Chang, Melinda. Heart of Me (blog). Accessed July 15, 2016.  http://heartofme.blogspot.com/2016/07/.

Ferris, Kevin. “Close Borders Now.” Half-Baked Times (blog). Accessed May 7, 2016. http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com//2016/05/.

Blogs and blog posts are normally cited in the notes only; however, if the source is cited frequently in your paper or if it is important to your argument, a bibliography entry can be included (as shown above).

BLOG

  • Give the author and the blog name (italics) followed by ‘blog’ in round brackets (unless already in blog name).
  • Give access date and URL.

BLOG POST

  • Give author, title of post (in quotation marks), blog name (italics) followed by ‘blog’ in round brackets.
  • Give the date of the post, the date you accessed it, and the URL.

Facebook post

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

A recent post on Telstra's Facebook page was ...3

Direct quote

"All men must dial What a deal. Get in quick."6

Full note

3. All Men Must Dial, post to Telstra’s Facebook page, June 27, 2016 (8.53 p.m.), accessed July 20, 2016, https://www.facebook.com/Telstra/.

Subsequent notes

6. All Men Must Dial, Facebook post.

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

Forum comment

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent discussions have centred on Kevin Ferris' opinions regarding ...1

Direct quote

"According to Kevin Ferris our borders are ..."4

Full note

1. Bazza34, May 6, 2016 (11.23 p.m.), comment on Kevin Ferris, “Close Borders Now,” The Half-Baked Times (blog), May 5, 2016, accessed May 7, 2016, http://thehalfbakedtimes.blogs.com.au/2016/05/05/.

Subsequent notes

4. Bazza34, comment on Ferris, “Close Borders Now.”

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

Tweet

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

During the recent campaign trail Hillary Clinton repeatedly promoted ...2

Direct quote

"I believe that Americans need ..."5

Full note

2. Hillary Clinton, Twitter post, July 19, 2016 (8:09 p.m.), accessed July 20, 2016, https://twitter.com/HillaryClinton.

Subsequent notes

5. Clinton, Twitter post.

Bibliography

No bibliography entries are required for online discussion or social media posts.

  • Include in notes only (or identify within your writing) – no bibliography entry is required.
  • Do not cite posts or comments protected by privacy settings.

YouTube video

CHICAGO

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleep walking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog,” YouTube video, 0.23, posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit.”

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog.” YouTube video, 0.23. Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This video shows a poor dog sleep walking during the night and ...1

Direct quote

"As you can see Bizkit has just started sleep walking ..."2

Full note

1. MarinaHD2001, “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video), posted May 1, 2009, accessed May 9, 2015, http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

Subsequent notes

2. Marina HD2001, “Bizkit.”

Bibliography

MarinaHD2001. “Bizkit the Sleep Walking Dog” (video). Posted May 1, 2009. Accessed May 9, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=z2BH_CA.

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

Video posts are normally cited in the notes only; however, if the video is important to your argument, a bibliography entry can be included (as above).

  • Give screen name of poster, title (quotation marks), description, length (Chicago style only), date posted, access date and URL.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to the catalogue the National Gallery of Victoria will hold this exhibition in honour of ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"This exhibition features the most prominent Australian impressionist who travelled to France during ..."3

Full note

EXHIBITION CATALOGUE (PRINT)

1. Elena Taylor, Australian Impressionists in France (Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2013), 24, exhibition catalogue.

BROCHURE (ONLINE)

2. Parks Victoria, Fire Ecology in the Grampians (Melbourne: Parks Victoria, 2004), accessed March 5, 2016, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/.

Subsequent notes

3. Taylor, Australian Impressionists, 12.

4. Parks Victoria, Fire Ecology, 3.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City, State/Country, Year. Form. Accessed date. URL.

Parks Victoria. Fire Ecology in the Grampians. Melbourne: Parks Victoria, 2004. Accessed March 5, 2016.  http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/.

Taylor, Elena. Australian Impressionists in France. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2013. Exhibition catalogue.

  • Treat as for a book.
  • ONLINE: If accessed online, add date of access and URL or DOI.
  • PRINT: Note the form, for example,  brochure, exhibition catalogue, pamphlet, etc.

Conference paper presented

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The importance of Fillini's films are ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Fellini's films often depict characters that ..."3

Full note

1. Barry Q. Wenzel, “Films of Fellini” (paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, June 4, 1998).

Subsequent notes

3. Wenzel, “Films of Fellini.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Presenter. 'Title." Paper presented at Meeting name, City, State/Country, date.

Wenzel, Barry Q. “Films of Fellini.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, Ballarat, June 4, 1998.

  • If paper is presented only, give presenter’s name, title (quotation marks), name of meeting, location and date.

Conference paper published in proceedings

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognitive behaviour is now possible with the help technology.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The use of programming tasks have proven to be ..."4

Full note

2. Angela Carbone et al., “Designing Programming Tasks to Elicit Self-Management Metacognitive Behaviour,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, 2002, ed. B. Werner (Washington, DC: IEEE, 2002), 533-34, accessed May 12, 2016, doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998.

Subsequent notes

4. Carbone et al., “Designing Programming Tasks,” 533.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title of paper." In Proceeding of the title, edited by name, Page range, City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Carbone, Angela, Ian Mitchell, Dick Gunstone, and John Hurst. “Designing Programming Tasks to Elicit Self-Management Metacognitive Behaviour.” In Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education, edited by B. Werner, 533-34. Washington, DC: IEEE, 2002. Accessed 8 June 2016. doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998.

  • If paper is part of published conference proceedings, treat like a chapter from an edited collection.
  • If accessed online, add date of access and URL or DOI.

Course materials

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Keith Barrett's lecture on cell structure ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Remember that the cell structure in amphibians differs from ..."4

Full note

ONLINE DOCUMENT/FILE

1. Keith Barrett, “Cell Structure” (topic notes, Biology 112 tutorials, Barrett Education, June 19, 2010), accessed June 20, 2010, http://www.barrett.edu/openaccess/courses/lectureNotes.

ONLINE LECTURE

2. Rebecca Claskich, “BOT234: Week 1 Video Lecture,” posted June 2, 2015, accessed June 3, 2015, http://www.hewsoncollege.com/watch?v=-v6LKvGQIL7.

PRINT HANDOUT

3. Lee Huang, “The Cost of Retribution” (class handout, Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, March 5, 2012).

Subsequent notes

4. Barrett, “Cell Structure.”

5. Claskich, “BOT234 Lecture.”

6. Huang, “Cost of Retribution.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Barrett, Keith. “Cell Structure.” Topic notes prepared for Biology 112 tutorials, Barrett Education, June 19, 2010. Accessed June 20, 2010. http://www.barrett.edu/openaccess/courses/lectureNotes.

Claskich, Rebecca. “BOT234: Week 1 Video Lecture.” Posted June 2, 2015. Accessed June 3, 2015. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-v6GNvGWIL5.

Huang, Lee. “The Cost of Retribution.” Class handout distributed in Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, March 5, 2012.

**Seek advice from your teacher or lecturer before citing lecture/class material as sources.

  • ONLINE LECTURES, PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so can be cited as sources but only if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to type (e.g., video post, website document, etc.).
  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable. If permitted for use as a source, treat as personal communications (see Other resources, Personal communication).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: These are not recoverable if available only to participating students. If permitted for use as a source, treat as for Huang example, above.

Encyclopedia entry

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The Smashing Pumpkins recent tour of the United States ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"The Smashing Pumpkins formed their band at a time when popular music was ..."5

Full note

PRINT

1. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “constructivism.”

ONLINE

2. Grove Music Online, s.vv. “Smashing Pumpkins,” accessed July 31, 2016, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

AUTHORED ENTRY (ESSAY OR CHAPTER)

3. Chris McConville, “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929,” in The Australian Dictionary of Biography (Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013), accessed 22 July 2016, http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

Subsequent notes

4. Encyclopaedia Britannica, “constructivism.”

5. Grove Music Online, “Smashing Pumpkins.”

6. McConville, “Melbourne Crime.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed.

Grove Music Online. Accessed July 31, 2016. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/.

McConville, Chris. “Melbourne Crime: From War to Depression, 1919-1929.” In The Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: National Centre of Biography, 2013. Accessed 22 July 2016. http://adb.anu.edu.au/essay/6/text28416.

**Ask your teacher or lecturer for guidelines on using Wikipedia as a reference source.

Well-known reference works are normally cited in the notes only; ask your teacher or lecturer for advice before including in your bibliography. (Bibliography entries have been given above as examples if needed).

  • Place, publisher and year can be omitted from well-known reference works but edition number (if not the first) should be included.
  • Specialised or less well-known reference works should be included in the bibliography with their full publications details.
  • If the reference work is alphabetically arranged, precede the entry by ‘s.v.’ or ‘s.vv.’ (abbreviation for ‘sub verbo’, which is Latin for under the word/words). If entries are non-alphabetical, give the page number.
  • If an item has a named author and is lengthy and substantial (see McConville example above), treat like a chapter in an edited book and include in the bibliography.
  • If accessed online, add the date of access and URL or DOI. If downloaded to an e-reader add format.

Interview transcript or recorded

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"When we finally landed on the moon ..."3

Full note

TRANSCRIPT

1. Neil A. Armstrong, interview by S. E. Ambrose, September 19, 2001, transcript, Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, NASA, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf/.

RECORDING

2. Lily Brett, interview by Jane Hutcheon, One Plus One, ABCTV News 24, July 28, 2016, accessed August 6, 2016, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-28/one-plus-one:-lily-brett/7670520.

Subsequent notes

3. Armstrong, interview by Ambrose.

4. Brett, interview by Hutcheon.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. Interview by name. Date. Form. Publisher. Accessed date. URL.

Armstrong, Neil A. Interview by S. E. Ambrose. September 19, 2001. Transcript. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project, NASA. Accessed June 22, 2016. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf/.

Brett, Lily. Interview by Jane Hutcheon. One Plus One. ABC TV News 24, July 28, 2016. Accessed August 6, 2016. http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-07-28/one
-plus-one:-lily-brett/7670520.

The treatment above applies to transcripts or recorded interviews. Private or informal interviews should be treated as personal communication.

  • Give interviewee’s name at the beginning of the entry followed by the name of the interviewer.
  • Add other details relevant to the format you consulted. If accessed online, add access date and URL or DOI.

Media release

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent industrial action has disrupted ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"We apologise for the interruption to international  flights due to recent industrial action … "3

Full note

1. Qantas, “Response to Industrial Action,” media release, October 29, 2011, accessed June 1, 2012, http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/.

Subsequent notes

3. Qantas, “Response to Industrial Action.”

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Media release. Date. Accessed date. URL.

Qantas. “Response to Industrial Action.” Media release. October 29, 2011. Accessed June 1, 2012. http://www.qantas.com.au/travel/airlines/media-releases/oct-2011/5218/.

Music score

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Mozart's music is well suited to piano, for example, his collection titled: 'Sonatas and Fantasies'.1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

Biographical details on the music score mention that "Mozart was born at a time when ..."3

Full note

1. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano, prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder, rev. ed. (Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser, 1960).

Subsequent notes

3. Mozart, Sonatas and Fantasies.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Composer. Title. City, State/Country, year.

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Sonatas and Fantasies for the Piano. Prepared from the autographs and earliest printed sources by Nathan Broder. Rev. ed. Bryn Mawr, PA: Theodore Presser, 1960.

  • Published musical scores are treated like books.
  • Any useful extra information (e.g., name of transcriber or arranger) can be added after the title.
  • If accessed online, treat as above and add access date and URL or DOI.

Personal communication

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Regional art has been great for the the community because ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Local artists have renewed this town's appeal to visitors as evidenced by a recent exhibition during the holiday period".4

Full note

1. Elizabeth Jensen, email message to author, June 7, 2008.

2. Interview with a regional arts administrator, July 1, 2016 (interviewee’s name withheld by mutual agreement).

Subsequent notes

3. Jensen, email to author.

4. Interview with regional arts administrator.

Bibliography

No bibliography entry is required for personal communications.

Personal communications such as letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts and comments on sites protected by privacy settings may be cited in the notes but are not included in the bibliography.

  • Identify the communicator (seek their approval) and give the date of communication.
  • If the communicator wishes to be anonymous, use a generic description and add a phrase that explains the absence of a name (see note 2 above). If your paper has multiple instances of anonymous interviewees, add a general explanation to the first interview note; e.g., ‘All interviews cited in this paper were confidential and names have been withheld by mutual agreement.’

Play or film script

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In the first act the tension steadily builds as the characters ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and include the number of the act or scene.

"I can't take it any more, I'm leaving you!"3

Full note

PUBLISHED (PLAY)

1. Joanna Murray-Smith, Honour (Sydney: Currency Press, 1997), act 1.

UNPUBLISHED

2. Gleeson, Miranda, “Daylight Shines Darkly” (film script, final draft, March 8, 2015), scene 15, accessed July 19, 2016, http://www.scriptheaven.com.au/.

Subsequent notes

3. Murray-Smith, Honour, act 1.

4. Gleeson, “Daylight,” scenes 53–55.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Gleeson, Miranda. “Daylight Shines Darkly.” Film script, final draft, March 8, 2015. Accessed July 19, 2016. http://www.scriptheaven.com.au/.

Murray-Smith, Joanna. Honour. Sydney: Currency Press, 1997.

  • If published, treat like a book.
  • If unpublished, give title in quotation marks (not italics), and add description and any other identifying information and date as shown on title page.
  • In the notes, give act (and scene and line numbers if relevant) when quoting or referring to specific passages.
  • If accessed online, add access date and URL/DOI.

Report, government or corporate

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The mental health of the homeless people in our community ...2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Homeless people in Australia are often grappling with mental health issues that go untreated".4

Full note

PRINT

1. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare [AIHW], Australia’s Health 2004, AIHW cat. no. AUS 44 (Canberra: AIHW, 2004), 25.

ONLINE

2. Australian Bureau of Statistics [ABS], Mental Health and Experiences of Homelessness, Australia, 2014, cat. no. 4329.0.00.005 (Canberra: ABS, 2014), 5, accessed July 11, 2016, http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/.

Subsequent notes

3. AIHW, Australia’s Health 2004, 22.

4. ABS, Mental Health, 8.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Series Name/Number. City, State/Country: Publisher, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Australian Bureau of Statistics. Mental Health and Experiences of Homelessness, Australia, 2014. Cat. no. 4329.0.00.005. Canberra: ABS, 2014. Accessed July 2, 2016. http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/.

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australia’s Health 2004. AIHW Cat. No. AUS 44. Canberra: AIHW, 2004.

  • If author’s name is long, use accepted abbreviation for subsequent citations (add to full form in square brackets in first note). Give title of report in italics. Add any series name or number (no italics) after title.
  • Add access date and URL or DOI if accessed online.

Review

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

For those interested in classical music a must see performance is scheduled for ...3

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) if print item.

"Timothy Fain and Steven Beck were well received by the audience tonight in New York and graciously responded to many calls for an encore."7

Full note

FILM REVIEW

1. Jim Schembri, review of Australia, directed by Baz Luhrmann, Age (Melbourne), November 10, 2008.

THEATRE REVIEW

2. Alison Croggon, review of Private Lives, by Noel Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, Southbank Theatre, Melbourne,

Guardian Australia, January 31, 2014, accessed July 11, 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/.

CONCERT REVIEW

3. Allan Kozinn, review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano), 92nd Street Y, New York, April 20, 2000, New York Times, April 21, 2000.

EXHBITION REVIEW

4. Denise Taylor, review of Degas: A New Vision, National Gallery of Victoria, June 2016, accessed July 17, 2016, http://www.denisemtaylor.com.au/2016/07
/review-degas-a-new-vision/.

Subsequent notes

5. Schembri, review of Australia.

6. Croggon, review of Private Lives.

7. Kozinn, review of Fain and Beck.

8. Taylor, review of Degas.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

See notes below.

Croggon, Alison. Review of Private Lives, by Noel Coward, Melbourne Theatre Company, January 30, 2014. Guardian Australia, January 31, 2014. Accessed July 11, 2016. http://www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/.

Kozinn, Allan. Review of concert performance by Timothy Fain (violin) and Steven Beck (piano), 92nd Street Y, New York, April 20, 2000. New York Times, April 21, 2000.

Schembri, Jim. Review of Australia, directed by Baz Luhrmann. Age (Melbourne), November 10, 2008.

Taylor, Denise. Review of Degas: A New Vision, National Gallery of Victoria,
June 2016. Accessed July 17, 2016. http://www.denisemtaylor.com.au/2016/07
/review-degas-a-new-vision/.

  • Give reviewer, the words ‘review of’ followed by the work being reviewed and its major contributors (e.g., author, director, performance company).
  • For reviews of performances, exhibitions, etc., give the venue and date of work being reviewed.
  • Format the remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software or App

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device.2

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"This software is compatible with ..."5

Full note

1. Dolphin (version 4.0.2), computer software (Dolphin Emulator Project, 2013), accessed January 14, 2014, https://dolphin-emu.org/.

2. Weather Flow (version 1.5.0), mobile phone application (Microsoft, 2013), accessed December 12, 2013, http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/.

3. Minecraft (version 1.10.2), video game (Mojang, 2016), accessed July 21, 2016, https://minecraft.net/en/.

Subsequent notes

4. Dolphin.

5. Weather Flow.

6. Minecraft.

Bibliography

It is not necessary to give a note or bibliography entry for software unless your paper is focused on this area. Otherwise, simply identify such works in the body of your writing.

TEMPLATE

Title (Version #). Computer software. Company, Year. Accessed date. URL.

Dolphin (version 4.0.2). Computer software. Dolphin Emulator Project, 2013. Accessed January 14, 2014. https://dolphin-emu.org/.

Minecraft (version 1.10.2). Video game. Mojang, 2016. Accessed July 21, 2016. https://minecraft.net/en/.

Weather Flow (version 1.5.0). Mobile phone application. Microsoft, 2013. Accessed December 12, 2013. http://www.windowsphone.com/en-au/store/.

Standards, Australian

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Standards Australia heat packs can now be filled with ...1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Wheat and other organic material are deemed ..."3

Full note

1.  Standards Australia, Microwaveable Heat Packs – Wheat and Other Organic Filling Materials, AS/NZS 5116:2016 (Sydney: Standards Australia, 2016).

Subsequent notes

3. Standards Australia, Microwaveable Heat Packs.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Standard numbers.City, State/Country: Publisher, Year.

Standards Australia. Microwaveable Heat Packs – Wheat and Other Organic Filling Materials. AS/NZS 5116:2016. Sydney: Standards Australia, 2016.

Thesis

CHICAGO & TURABIAN

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Research has shown that dysfunctional drivers are often ..."1

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) in the note.

"Dysfunctional driver behaviour is connected to ..."3

Full note

PRINT

1. John Maxwell Reid, “A Cognitive Study of Dysfunctional Driving Behaviours” (PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998), 34.

ONLINE

2. Carol Tocknell, “Student Acquisition of Social Skills through Teacher Modelling” (PhD thesis, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, 2015), 13, accessed August 2, 2016, http://researchonline.federation.edu.au:8080/vital/access/HandleResolver/1959.17/75649.

Subsequent notes

3. Reid, “Cognitive Study,” 43.

4. Tocknell, “Student Acquisition,” 25–27.

Bibliography

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title." Form,  University name, Location, Year. Accessed date. DOI/URL.

Reid, John Maxwell. “A Cognitive Study of Dysfunctional Driving Behaviours.” PhD thesis, University of Melbourne, 1998.

Tocknell, Carol. “Student Acquisition of Social Skills through Teacher Modelling.” PhD thesis, Federation University Australia, Ballarat, 2015. Accessed August 2, 2016. http://researchonline.federation.edu.au:8080/vital/access/HandleResolver/1959.17/75649.

  • Give author and title (in quotation marks).
  • Give description and name and location of institution. Omit location if part of institution name.
  • If accessed online, add date of access and URL/DOI or database name.

Introduction

Important: This is a guide only. To avoid losing marks:

Confirm the referencing requirements of your school with your lecturer, and use the MLA Handbook. 8th ed. to clarify referencing rules or if you need more examples. This guide is based on this publication.

MLA is an in text citation style. This means you insert a brief reference (‘citation’) into your writing whenever you use a source. The in text citation is made up of the author of the source and any page reference enclosed in round brackets.

For each source identified in the text, you also need to create a corresponding entry in the Works Cited list. The Works Cited list is an alphabetical presentation of all the sources used in a piece of writing.

Each entry in the Works Cited list should contain enough identifying detail to allow your reader to locate the source if they wished.

Additional resources

Referencing information

Study skills website

MLA Style Center

MLA Purdue

Changes in the 8th edition

For more detail see (page numbers in parentheses):

Gibaldi, Joseph, and Modern Language Association of America. MLA Handbook. Eighth ed., The Modern Language Association of America, 2016.

Abbreviations

  • Common terms in the Works Cited list like editor, edited by, translator, and review of are no longer abbreviated. The eighth edition provides a shorter list of recommended abbreviations (96–97).

Authors

  • When a source has three or more authors, only the first one shown in the source is normally given. It is followed by et al. (22). (Previously, the omission of co-authors was limited to sources with four or more authors and was presented as an option.)

Journals

  • Issues of scholarly journals are now identified with “vol. 64, no. 1” rather than “64.1” (39–40).
    If an issue of a scholarly journal is dated with a month or season, the month or season is now always cited along with the year (45).

Online Works

  • The URL (without http:// or https://) is now normally given for a Web source.
  • The citing of DOIs (digital object identifiers) is encouraged (110).
  • Citing the date when an online work was consulted is now optional (53).
  • Placeholders for unknown information like n.d. (“no date”) are no longer used. If facts missing from a work are available in a reliable external resource, they are cited in square brackets (2.6.1). Otherwise, they are simply omitted.

Page numbers 

  • In the Works Cited list (but not in in-text citations) are now preceded by p. or pp. (46).

Place of publication

  • For books,  except in special situations (51),  the City of Publication should only be used if the book was published before 1900, if the publisher has offices in more than one country, or if the publisher is unknown outside North America.

Publisher names

  • Publishers’ names are now given in full, except that business words like Company (Co.) are dropped and, for academic presses, the abbreviations U, P, and UP are still used (97).
  • A forward slash (/) now separates the names of copublishers (108).
  • The kinds of publications that don’t require a publisher’s name are defined (42).
  • When an organization is both author and publisher of a work, the organization’s name is now given only once, usually as the publisher (25). No author is stated.

Miscellaneous

  • Full publication information is now given for widely used reference works. Page-number spans are given for articles in alphabetically arranged reference books in print. In other words, reference works are treated like other works and are no longer subject to exceptions.
  • The medium of publication is no longer stated, except when it is needed for clarity (52).

In-Text Citations

The principles behind in-text citations in MLA style are unchanged. A few details have been added or clarified, though:

  • For time-based media like video, times are now cited in the text (57).
  • The use of my trans. to identify the writer’s translation of a non-English quotation is described (90–91).
  • How to shorten long titles when they have to be included in a parenthetical citation is clarified (117–18).
  • The common practice of documenting borrowings from Greek, Roman, and medieval works with part numbers, not page numbers alone, is described (122).
  • The punctuation used when various items are combined in one parenthetical citation is summarized (126–27).
  • Ways of formatting citations in research projects other than traditional papers are suggested (127–28).
  • Recommended abbreviations can be found on pages 96-97 of the MLA handbook (https://library.federation.edu.au/record=b2647637~S4). If confusion may result, spell the word out in full.

Other Aspects of Writing

Following are new points that concern the writing in a research project:

  • When the title of a periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) begins with an article (A, An, The), the article is now treated as part of the title: the article is italicized and its first letter capitalized. For example, the handbook previously specified “the Georgia Review”  in text and “Georgia Review” in the Works Cited list but now specifies “The Georgia Review” in all contexts.
  • For works in a language not written in the Latin alphabet, writers must choose between giving titles and quotations in romanization or in the language’s writing system (74, 91).
  • Two forward slashes (//) mark stanza breaks in run-in quotations of verse (78).
  • If a block quotation of prose contains internal paragraphing, the first line of the quotation now begins without a paragraph indention even if one is present in the source (77).

Creating in-text citations

Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing is when you are expressing the ideas of the author(s) in your own words. When paraphrasing, use parentheses to add the author(s) family name and page number(s), or use the author(s) first and family name as part of your sentence, followed by the page number(s) preceded by p. or pp.

Note: when paraphrasing, the citation details can be used at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence.

Citation at the beginning

Maria Hillsdon states that  … (105).

Citation in the middle

Econometrics analysis according to Maria Hillsdon provides a basis for … (1).

Citation at the end

Econometrics can be used to analyse … (Hillsdon 150).

Basic treatment for in-text citations

You need to insert a brief reference (the author’s surname) into your writing whenever you use a source. A page reference is added when you are referring to a specific part of the source.

Author Page

… which is confirmed by the most recent study (Jenkins 22). AUTHOR AND PAGE

… the study by Jenkins (22) confirmed these results. AUTHOR IN SENTENCE

… seemingly different from Twain’s later work (M. Grech 45–54).  AUTHOR NEEDING INITIAL if two or more authors have the same last name.

  • Enclose author’s surname in round brackets.
  • Add page reference if quoting from or referring to a specific part of the source.
  • Insert before punctuation mark ending sentence (or part of sentence) where you used source.
  • If author is already in sentence, give page reference alone in round brackets.
  • Add given name or initial/s to surname if you have sources by authors with the same surname.

More than one author

TWO AUTHORS

(Hendricks and Angwin 34)            OR             … Hendricks and Angwin (34) …

  • Name both authors and join by ‘and’.

THREE AUTHORS

(Oakes, Grocz, and Hu 23–45)       OR             … Oakes, Grocz, and Hu (23–45) …

  • Name all authors. Separate each author by a comma. Join last author by ‘and’.

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

(Donat et al. 68)                               OR              … Donat et al. (68) …

  • Name the first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation meaning ‘and others’).

Group author (government or organisation)

(World Health Org. 57)                  OR                … World Health Organization (57) …

  • Give the name of the group in all mentions.
  • Use common abbreviations (e.g., ‘Org.’, ‘Assn.’, ‘Dept.’, ‘Soc.’) if name is in parentheses.

Same author, different sources 

(Winton, Riders 34)         DISTINGUISHES FROM         (Winton, Breath 56)

  • Add the first words of the title to the author after a comma.
  • Italicise whole works; enclose parts of works in quotation marks.

No author 

(Reading Rates 16)                  OR            … Reading Rates (16) … WHOLE WORK

(“Last Gasp” 89)                       OR           … “Last Gasp” (89) … PART OF WORK

  • If the source has no author, give the first two to three words of the title.
  • Use italics for whole works, and quotation marks around parts of works.
  • Use initial capital letters for all major words.

Multiple sources, same citation

… along with other studies (Keen 14; Lee 109; Wojk, 123–45).

  • List each source alphabetically by author and separate by semicolons.

Multiple works by same author in same year

In-text citations

(Smith, "Fantasy" 65)

(Smith, "Science Fiction" 1)

  • Include the short form of the source's title.

Page numbers

BASIC TREATMENT

(Johnson 6)     … Kennett (55­–63) …

  • Add page or other location/ label references when referring to a specific part of source.
  • Enclose in round brackets (with or without author depending on if author is in sentence).
  • No comma between author and page reference.
  • Do not use ‘p.’ or ‘pp.’ in front of pages.

QUOTATIONS

It was described as “a stunning victory” (Harrison 15).

Harrison described it as “a stunning victory” (15).

  • Add the page reference after the closing quotation mark.
  • If author is already in the sentence, give page reference alone.
  • For block quotations, i.e., set apart from the text with no quotation marks, add page reference after closing punctuation mark.

NO PAGE NUMBERS

(Duer par. 12)             … Jansz (sec. 12) …

  • If no page numbers are shown on the source, give paragraph, location or section number/s.
  • Use the abbreviations ‘par.’, ‘sec.’, or ‘loc.’ before the numbers.

Creating Works Cited entries

Each source that is referred to in the text needs a corresponding entry in the Works Cited list. The entry should contain enough identifying information about the source to allow it to be located by someone else. The information is presented as parts in a set order to help the reader identify at a glance which piece of information relates to which part.

A basic MLA Works Cited entry is made up of the following parts: 

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFO + YEAR

All the details you need for each part will be found on the source itself. Instructions and examples of how to format each part are given over the page.

AUTHOR

Who created the source?

  • This identifies the creator or principal contributor of the source.
  • It could be a person or it could be a group (organisation or government).
  • Some sources may have more than one author.

TITLE

What is the source called?

  • This is the full title of the source in the words and spelling of the source.
  • If your source is part of a larger work (e.g., article from a journal; chapter from a book; post or page from a website), you need to include the title of the part and the title of the larger work.

PUBLISHER INFORMATION

Who made the source available in the form I used?

For sources published only online, give the publisher/sponsor of the website. Place of publication is not needed.

  • This information can usually be found with the copyright information.

PUBLICATION YEAR/DATE

When was the source published?

This identifies the year or specific date the source was made available in the version you accessed. Use the copyright year/date if this is shown.

  • For online sources, use the year or specific date the content was created (for a page or document) or the date of posting (for a post).

Digital files

If the work is in digital format you need to state the format at the end of the entry, for example, PDF, JPEG , MP3 or Microsoft Word file.

Smith, George. "Pax Americana: Strife in a Time of Peace". 2005. Microsoft Word file.

RETRIEVAL DATE

When did I access the source online?

This is the date you accessed the source online.

  • It is preferable to use a doi (digital object identifier), however, if this is not available use the URL.
  • The access date can be useful when no publishing date is available, however,this is optional in MLA because URLs can change.
  • Break URLs (if needed) after a slash.
  • Do not include unless you are instructed by your lecturer or teacher to do otherwise.  If instructed to use a retrieval date put it at the end, e.g., Accessed 12, Jan. 2018.
  • Below are instructions for formatting the parts of a Works Cited entry. Note that every part ends with a full stop, and there is a space after each punctuation mark.

AUTHOR + TITLE+ PUBLISHER INFO + YEAR + PUBLICATION MEDIUM

Author

ONE AUTHOR

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.

TWO TO THREE AUTHORS

Hall, Jane. L., and Brian. T. Ashton. A Spoonful of Valour …

Guong, Gina, Terry L. Ferris, and Erin Henderson.  Rainfall …

  • Name all authors. Give first author with surname first; other authors with given name first.
  • Separate by commas, join last author by ‘and’.

FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS

Donat, Tao, et al.  “Cardiovascular Health of European…

  • Name first author followed by ‘et al.’ (a Latin abbreviation for ‘et alia’, Latin for ‘and others’.

GROUP AUTHOR (GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION)

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Rural Health …

Victoria. Dept. of Treasury and Finance. Output Specification …

  • Give name of group.
  • Give government name in front of agency name (where applicable).
  • Use common abbreviations (e.g., ‘Dept.’).

Title 

BASIC

Harris, Miles. The Mighty Yarra: Rivers of Victoria. …

Taber, Nancy. “Detectives and Bail Bonds ‘Persons’ as Fairy Tale Heroines: A Feminist Antimilitarist Analysis of Grimm and Once

Upon a Time.” Gender Forum, no. 44, 2013, www.genderforum.org/index.php?id=731.

  • Give the title in italics in the wording and spelling shown on the source.
  • Separate title and subtitle by a colon.
  • Use Headline capitalisation, i.e., give initial capitals to the first, last and principal words of the title and the subtitle.
  • If source is part of a larger work, give title of part in quotation marks before title of larger work.

NO TITLE

Jensen, Paul. R. Wartime Navy Reminiscences. Brisbane: ….

  • Give a brief descriptive title in your own words. No italics or quotation marks.

Publisher information

Gourley, Dianne. Action Man. Chicago: Bellinger, 2002.

Taber, Nancy. “Detectives and Bail Bonds ‘Persons’ as Fairy Tale Hero/ines: A Feminist Antimilitarist Analysis of Grimm and Once Upon a Time.” Gender Forum, no. 44, 2013, www.genderforum.org/index.php?id=731.

  • If a source is published only online, give name of publisher/sponsor after the website name.

Year 

BASIC

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Sydney: Picador, 2001.

Normoyle, C. “Nurses’ Wellbeing.” Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 20, no. 10, 2013, pp. 30–33.

Greendale, Nilma. “Road Toll Rising.” Age [Melbourne] 4 May 2006. p. 13.

  • Add year after publisher details for books, or in round brackets after issue details for journals.
  • Add month (abbreviate if long) and day for sources with specific publication dates.

NO YEAR/DATE

Gardiner, Ian T. Life in Rural Australia. Adelaide: Phoenix, n.d.

  • Use ‘n.d.’ (stands for ‘no date’) if no year/date can be found on the source.

How to present an MLA Works Cited list

How to set up the list

Begin the list on a new page at the end of your work.

  • Give the list the centred heading ‘Works Cited’.
  • Use double line-spacing and a hanging indent (approx. 0.75 cm or 4-5 spaces).
  • If a DOI or URL needs to be broken, break before a slash or punctuation mark.

What to include

Give an entry for every recoverable source you have cited in the text.

  • Don’t add entries for material you have not used, however relevant.
  • How to arrange the entries
  • List entries alphabetically by author.
  • List entries with no author by title. (Ignore ‘A’ or ‘An’ or ‘The’ as first words.)
  • If you have more than one entry with same author, list alphabetically by title.
  • Use a long dash (or three hyphens) to stand for repeating author’s name.

Example of an MLA works cited list

Works cited

Anderson, Tania D. Panel Data: A Primer. New York, Paragon, 1985.

Barnes, Robert J. Economic analysis: An introduction.  London, Butterworths, 1971.

Friend, Erwin, and Larry H. P. Lang. “An Empirical Test of the Impact of Managerial Self-Interest on Corporate Capital Structure.” Journal of Finance, vol.  43, no. 2, 1988, pp. 271-281.

Chen, Jean.J. “Determinants of Capital Structure of Swedish Companies.” Journal of Business Research, vol.  57, no. 12, 2004, pp. 1341-1351. doi: 10.1016/S0148-2963(03)00070-5

Computational Methods. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 2004.

Dorgan, Delia. Future Funds. Melbourne: Penguin, 1972. Friedman, B. M. Corporate Capital Structure in the United States. U of Chicago P, 1985.

Hamilton, Margaret. “Postdramatic Theatre and Australia: A 'New' Theatre Discourse.” Australasian Drama Studies, no. 52, 2008, pp. 3–23. Informit, search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=791708669318288;res=IELAPA

Hillsdon, Maria. Basic Econometrics. 4th ed. Sydney: Hill, 2004.

Kjellman, Anders, and Staffan Hansen. “Determinants of Capital Structure: Theory vs Practice.” Scandinavian Journal of Management, vol. 11, no. 2, 1995, pp. 91-102, doi: 10.1016/0956-5221(95)00004-F. 

Keen, Rex P. Strategy, Structure and Economic Performance. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2004.

Lee, Bung L. Credit Risk and High Yield Bonds. New York: Wiley, 1982.

Oakes, Jeffrey D., Wing. T. Woo, Samual. Fisher, and Garry. Hughes. “Structural Factors in Economic Reforms in Sweden.” Economic Policy, vol. 9, no. 18, 1994. pp. 101-145.

Statistical Analysis Primer. Melbourne: Lansdowne, 2002.

Indirect citations

In-text citations

Hilferty1 describes the nature of teacher professionalism as "an evolving idea that responds to political, social & historical contexts" (qtd. in Meldrum and Peters 109).

Footnote (original source)

1.   Fiona Hilferty. “Teacher Professionalism and Cultural Diversity: Skills, Knowledge and Values for a Changing Australia.” Australian Educational Researcher, vol. 35, no. 3, 2008, pp. 53–70.

Works Cited

Meldrum, Kathryn, and Jacqui Peters. Learning to Teach Health and Physical Education: The Student, the Teacher and the Curriculum. Pearson Australia, 2012.

Notes

  • When using a source that you have found in another (secondary) source, refer to the original in your writing but add its details as a footnote only. Give a Works Cited entry and an in-text citation for the source you accessed (the secondary source).
  • To make it clear that you have used a secondary source, making an indirect citation, include "cited in" (or "qtd. In" for a quotation) in the in-text citation.

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The main characters in Tim Winton's new book met for the first time after Geogie's car broke down … (64).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Luther suddenly feels spooked after his first encounter with Georgie and asks himself: "What is this lurching, plunging sensation, this panic …" (Winton 103).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Place: Publisher, Year.

Winton, Tim. Dirt Music. Picador, 2001.

  • Give the author’s surname plus the given name/s or initials as shown on the source.

Two authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Paul Allain and Jen Hevei theatre is a medium through which … (8).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Paul Allain and Jen Hevei state that "the field of of theatre studies has undergone a paraigm shift in recent years …" (8).

"The field of of theatre studies has undergone a paraigm shift in recent years ..." (Allain and Hevei 8).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author/s. Title. Publisher, Year.

Allain, Paul, and Jen Harvie. The Routledge Companion to Theatre and Performance. 2nd ed., Routledge, 2015.

  • Name all authors. Give first author with surname first; second author with given name first.
  • Separate by commas, join last author by ‘and’.

Three or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The literature review is … ( Booth et al. 15).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

According to Booth et al. "the literature review is a crucial part of any research study because …" (15)

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Publisher, Year.

Booth, Wayne C., et al. The Craft of Research. 3rd ed., U of Chicago P, 2008.

  • Name first author followed by "et al." (a Latin abbreviation for "et alia", Latin for "and others".

Edition number or multi-volume

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

African villages are often … (Goh 132).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

Lee Goh describes the landscape of Africa as "extremely variable due to  …" (5).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Edition, Volume, Publisher, Year.

Goh, Lee. African Voyages. 2nd ed., Vol. 2, Greyguides, 1984.

  • MULTI-VOLUME: Add volume number/s after title. Give all volumes (e.g., ‘3 vols.’) if you are citing a whole work; or the volume number if citing an individual volume (e.g., ‘Vol. 2’).

Edited book/ Book chapter

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Alice Mills and Jeremy Smith taboo in literature is … (23).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Infectious disease is a topic that …" (Brown 83).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

EDITED COLLECTION

Editor/s. Book title. Publisher, Year.

Mills, Alice, and Jeremy Smith, editors. Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable. Peter Lang, 2001.

CHAPTER FROM EDITED COLLECTION

Chapter author. Chapter title. Book title, edited by editor/s name(s) (given name then surname), Publisher, Year, Chapter page range.

Brown, Janet. “Silence, Taboo and Infectious Disease.”  Utter Silence: Voicing the Unspeakable,  edited by Alice Mills and JeremySmith,  Peter Lang, 2001, pp. 83–91.

  • BASIC: Give author, title (italics), place and name of publisher and year, and publication medium.
  • DIFFERENT EDITION: Add edition description after title. Edition information is only given for editions other than the first. If no edition statement is shown on the book, assume it is the first (and no statement needed).
  • EDITED COLLECTION: Give editor/s in author position followed by ‘editor.’ or ‘editors’.
  • CHAPTER FROM EDITED COLLECTION: Give chapter author and title (in quotation marks). Give book title (italics). Give editor/s name/s (given name then surname) preceded by ‘Ed.’. Add page range of chapter in parentheses (no italics) after publication information.

E-book (from a database)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Zipes fairy tales have long been associated with oral storytelling and ... (16).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Fairy tales are rooted in oral traditions ..." (Zipes 16).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title of Book. Publisher, Year. Title of the database or website, URL.

LIBRARY E-BOOK

Zipes, Jack. The Irresistible Fairy Tale: The Cultural and Social History of a Genre. Princeton UP, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central, ebookcentral-proquest-com.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/lib/ballarat/detail.action?docID=864785.

Kindle book

Author. Title of book. Version. Publisher, Year.

​Levy, Emanuel. Cinema of Outsiders: The Rise of American Independent Film. Kindle ed., New York UP, 1999.

  • Treat as for a print book, including publisher information.
  • If accessed online, add website/database name. You can include the date of access if you think it is relevant to your discussion, although this is optional.
  • If accessed offline as a digital file, add file type.
  • If you do not know the type of e-book simply add e-book before the publisher

Single author

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Feminist theory can be used to examine fairy tales because … (Taber 13).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Nancy Taber's article discusses "the ways in which gender is performed in Grimm and Once, as modern fairy tales ..." (14).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, volume, issue, year, page range. Database, doi/URL.

Print

Markoff, Gabriel H. H. “The Invisible Barrier: Issue Exhaustion as a Threat to Pluralism in Administrative Rulemaking.” Texas Law Review, vol. 90, no. 4, 2012, pp. 1065–1092.

Online

Taber, Nancy. “Detectives and Bail Bonds ‘Persons’ as Fairy Tale Hero/ines: A Feminist Antimilitarist Analysis of Grimm and Once Upon a Time.” Gender Forum, no. 44, 2013, pp. 13-27, www.genderforum.org/index.php?id=731.

Database

Hamilton, Margaret. “Postdramatic Theatre and Australia: A 'New' Theatre Discourse.” Australasian Drama Studies, no. 52, 2008, pp. 3–23. Informit, search.informit.com.au/documentSummary;dn=791708669318288;res=IELAPA

  • Give author and title of article (quotation marks). If source is an abstract, letter or review, add "Abstract", "Letter to the editor" or "Review of … (name the work being reviewed)" after author.
  • Give journal name in italics.
  • Give volume and issue numbers separated by a full stop, no space between.
  • Give year of publication in parentheses, a colon and page range (if pages are shown).
  • ONLINE: Add website name (if different from name of journal).

Two authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The fairy tale princess in Children's literature can be seen as (Hsieh and Matoush 214).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"Metaphor in supervision is often …" (Smith and Bird 2).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, volume, number, year, page range. Database, doi/URL.

Print

Hsieh, Ivy, and Haoyin Matoush. “Filial Daughter, Woman Warrior, or Identity-Seeking Fairytale Princess: Fostering Critical Awareness Through Mulan.” Children's Literature in Education, vol. 43, no. 3, 2012, pp. 213–222.

Online

Kuykendal, Leslee Farish, and Brian W. Sturm. “We Said Feminist Fairy Tales, Not Fractured Fairy Tales! The Construction of the Feminist Fairy Tale: Female Agency over Role Reversal.” Children and Libraries, vol. 5, no. 3, 2007, pp. 38-41, http://www.michelepolak.com/3003spring2014/Weekly_Schedule_files/Kuykendal%20.pdf

Database

"Smith, Margaret E., and Drew Bird. “Fairy Tales, Landscapes and Metaphor in Supervision: An Exploratory Study.” Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 1, 2014, pp. 2–9. CINAHL,  doi: 10.1080/14733145.2013.779732

Abstract

Davinder Parsad, Sunil Dogra, and Amrinder Jit Kanwar. Abstract. “Quality of Life in Patients with Vitiligo.” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, vol. 1, no. 58, 2003, p. 58. PubMed, 10.1186/1477-7525-1-58.

Three or more authors

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Characters in Caldecotts' works are … (Koss 26)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

Marek Tesar, et al. discuss the "philosophical underpinning fairytales are essential to understanding …" (222).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, volume, number, year, page range. Database, doi/URL.

Print

Koss, Melanie D., et al. “Meeting Characters In Caldecotts: What Does This Mean For Today's Readers?” Reading Teacher, vol. 70, no. 1, 2016, pp. 19–28.

Online

Moreno-Ríos, Sergio, et al. “Bias in Perspective-Taking during Reading: Adjusting the Knowledge of Characters.” Journal of Pragmatics: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Language Studies, vol. 43, no. 7, 2011,  pp. 1977–1986, doi: org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.12.013. Accessed 19 Dec 2017.

Database

Tesar, Marek, et al. “Forever Young: Childhoods, Fairy Tales and Philosophy.” Global Studies of Childhood, vol. 6, no. 2, 2016, pp. 222–233. Sage Premier 2017, doi: 10.1177/2043610616647642.

Abstract

Tesar, Marek, et al. Abstract. “Forever Young: Childhoods, Fairy Tales and Philosophy.” Global Studies of Childhood, vol. 6, no. 2, 2016, pp. 222–233. Sage Premier 2017, doi: 10.1177/2043610616647642.

Without DOI

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Smith and Bird's view on collaborative supervision … (2).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the journal.

"In conclusion, a collaborative supervision relationship can be used to enhance a therapist’s ability to  …" (Smith and Bird 10).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, volume, number, year, page range. Database, doi/URL.

"Smith, Margaret E., and Drew Bird. “Fairy Tales, Landscapes and Metaphor in Supervision: An Exploratory Study.” Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 1, 2014, pp. 2–9. CINAHL,  doi: 10.1080/14733145.2013.779732

From a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Kerry Greenwood writes in her front room … (Stephens 11).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"When I wrote my last book, I wrote it in about six weeks. I just write and don't do anything else " (Stephens 11).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper/Magazine Name [City (if not in name)] Day Month Year, page range. Database, URL.

Library database

Stephens, Andrew. "My space - Kerry Greenwood." The Age [Melbourne] 7 Dec. 2008, p. 11. Newspaper Source Plus. http://web.a.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=6&sid=43a16fdf-226d-4081-adf4-7163b006abc8%40sessionmgr4009&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=SYD-5KT5FPNBIM0LS42K5FK&db=n5h

  • For publication dates, abbreviate all months to the first three letters (e.g. Oct.), except for September (which should be Sept.).
  • If the newspaper is a less well-known or local publication, include the city name in brackets after the title of the newspaper, as seen in the second example above.
  • For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

Online

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Brian Craig  Mrs Holt … (2).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"Starbucks is an international …" (Rosen).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper/Magazine Name [City (if not in name)] Day Month Year, page range,  doi/URL.

Online replica of print edition

Craig, Brian. “Australia and the World Shares Mrs Holt’s Sorrow.” Australian Women’s Weekly, 10 Jan. 1968, pp.  2–3. Trove,   https://trove.nla.gov.au/newspaper/article/45649185?searchTerm=%22Australia%20and%20the%20World%20Shares%20Mrs%20Holt%27s%20Sorrow.&searchLimits=.

Litson, Jo. “Pulse of the Times.” The Australian, 7 May 2004, p. 17.

Online edition

Rosen, Len. Letter. “Occupy Starbucks.” New York Times, 22 Jan. 2014, https://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/23/opinion/occupy-starbucks.html.

Wilson-Clark, Charlie. "Computers ranked as key literacy." The West Australian, 29 Mar. 2004, p. 3, thewest.com.au.

  • Give author, or start with title if no author.
  • Give title (quotation marks). If needed, add description (e.g., Letter) before title, or give alone.
  • Give newspaper/magazine name (italics). Omit ‘The’ if at beginning. If city is not in name, add this in square brackets, no italics. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title.
  • Give date of publication followed by page numbers. If non-consecutive, add plus sign (See: Newspapers - No consecutive page numbers).
  • ONLINE: Give website name (italics), publisher of website, date of publication, medium of publication (Web), and retrieval date. If article is a digital replica of print edition, include page numbers.
  • For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

Print

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Jim Hunt has reported that the assassin of President Kennedy … (1).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The death of President Kennedy has impacted people world over …" (Hunt 1).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Article Title.” Newspaper/Magazine Name [City (if not in name)] Day Month Year, page range. 

Basic

Hunt, Jim. “Assassin Kills Kennedy.” Chicago Tribune, 22 Nov. 1963, p. 1+.

Litson, Jo. “Pulse of the Times.” The Australian, 7 May 2004, p. 17.

Smith, John.”Steelers win Super Bowl XLIII.” Star-Ledger [Newark]. 2 Feb. 2009, pp. 4-6.

Separate section

Rousseau, Nina. “Arrival of the Spice Setters.” The Age [Melbourne] 3 June 2008, Epicure sec.: p. 4.

  • Give author, or start with title if no author.
  • Give title (quotation marks). If needed, add description (e.g., Letter) before title, or give alone.
  • Give newspaper/magazine name (italics). Omit "The" if at beginning. If city is not in name, add this in square brackets, no italics. If separate section, add name (no italics) after title.
  • Give date of publication followed by page numbers. If non-consecutive, add plus sign (See: Newspapers - No consecutive page numbers).
  • For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

No consecutive page numbers

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Clancy Yeates and Dan Harrison state that a Swan surplus is unlikely due to … (3).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the newspaper. If no page numbers are provided, then include the paragraph number.

"The reason a surplus is unlikely …" (3).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. "Title of Article." Title of Newspaper, day month year, first page of article.

Yeates, Clancy and Dan Harrison. "Swan Admits Surplus Unlikely." The Age, 20 Dec. 2012, pp. 3+.

  • ​For example, an article might begin on page 3, then skip to page 14. In this instance, record only the first page number and a plus sign +, leaving no intervening space.
  • For works that are anonymously authored, or have no author, include a shortened version of the title in the in-text citation (do not list the author as "anonymous", nor as "anon.").

Audiobook (CD, audio file)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Peter FitzSimons presents an excellent program about the Kakoda trail including fitness preparation tips … (03:01-05:03).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"The Kakoa trek is an experience that …" (FitzSimons 0:01).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Narrated by name,  Recording label, Year. Website Name (if online).  URL.

CD

FitzSimons, Peter. Kokoda. Narrated by Lewis FitzGerald. ABC Audio, 2013.

ONLINE

Sullivan, Anne O. The Bees. Read by Anne-Marie Cusac. Poem of the Day, Poetry Foundation, 27 Aug. 2017, www.poetryfoundation.org/ podcasts/76357/the-bees.

  • Give author and title. Add reader’s name after title preceded by ‘Narr.’ (abbreviation of ‘Narrator’).
  • Give name of recording label/publisher.
  • If accessed online, give name of website and date of retrieval.

Audio podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Small independent supermarkets have suffered financially in recent supermarket wars … (Cohen 0:01-01:12).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Recent supermarket wars have seen many local farmers protesting in Melbourne …" (Cohen 0:01).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Narrator/host name. “Episode Title.” Podcast Title, Season Number, Episode Number, Website (if different from Podcast title), Publisher, Day Month Year, URL.

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. “The Lady Vanishes.” Revisionist History, season 1, episode 1, Slate Group, 2016, revisionisthistory.com/seasons?selected=season-1.

Contained in a website

Chang, Ailsa, host. “Why Scientists Can’t Explain All the Appeal of an Eclipse.” Morning Edition, NPR, 11 Aug. 2017, www.npr.org/2017/08/11/542753070/scientists-can-t-explain-all-the-appeal-of-an-eclipse.

Podcast on an app

Gladwell, Malcolm, narrator. “The Lady Vanishes.” Revisionist History, iTunes app, 16 June 2016.

Music recording

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Guy Sebastian's song touches a father's love for his child and ...

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Won't let the big bag world get you no way" (Sebastian 0:59).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Performer. “Title of Song.” By Writer (if different from performer). Title of Album. Label, Year. Website Name (if online).

SINGLE TRACK (LP)

Sinatra, Frank. “Autumn in New York.” By Vernon Duke. Come Fly With Me. Capitol, 1958.

SINGLE TRACK (ONLINE)

Sebastian, Guy. “Big Bad World.” Armageddon. Sony Music Australia, 2012. Apple iTunes.

ALBUM (CD)

Perry, Katy. Prism. Capitol, 2013. CD.

SINGLE TRACK/SONG: Give name of performer and title of song (in quotation marks). Give name of songwriter if different from performer. Give album title (italics), and name of recording label and year. Add form (e.g., LP, CD, Web, etc.).

WHOLE ALBUM: Give name of performer, album title (italics), label and year, and form.

ONLINE: Give website name before publication medium (‘Web’) and give retrieval date. If available originally in another form, add original publisher (label) and year.

Speech, Performance, live

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Martin Andrews  presents a review of Philip Larkin's poems which span …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"The poems of Philip Larkin have been loved by many generations because …" (Andrews).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Performer/Speaker. “Title of Performance.” Title of Whole Work. Venue, City. Day Month Year of performance. Address (if performed live).

Andrews, Martin. “The Poems of Philip Larkin.” Poetry Live. Federation Square, Melbourne. 15 June 2012. Address.

Perfect, Eddie. Misanthropology. The Famous Spiegeltent, Sydney. 13 Jan. 2011. Address.

  • Give speaker/performer at beginning of entry.
  • Give title in italics if it is a stand-alone production. If part of a larger work, or if a speech or lecture, use quotation marks.
  • Give name and location of venue, date of performance, and form (e.g., Reading, Lecture, Performance).

Speech, Performance, recorded

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

According to Winston Churchill during World War II …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"At this solemn hour I declare …" (Churchill 0:30).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Performer. “Title.” Title of whole work (where applicable). Date recorded. Label, Year (or Website Name and date, if online).
Performance (CD)

Performance (CD)

Seinfeld, Jerry. I’m Telling You for the Last Time: Live on Broadway. Performance. 9 Aug. 1998. Universal, 1998.
Speach recording (vinyl)

Speach recording (vinyl)

Churchill, Winston. “In a Solemn Hour.” Winston Churchill: A Selection from his Famous Wartime Speeches. Recorded 19 May 1940. Decca, 1964.

Speech recording (online video)

Kennedy, John F. “Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner).” Speech. 26 June 1963. Online video clip. American Rhetoric. American Rhetoric, 17 June 2009. Accessed 14 Nov. 2013.

Speech recording (online audio)

King, Martin Luther, Jr. “I Have a Dream.” Speech. 28 August 1963. Online audio clip. King Institute. The King Center, 2013. 6 Jan. 2014.

  • Give speaker/performer at beginning of entry.
  • Give title of whole show/performance in italics. Give title of speeches/acts in quotation marks.
  • Give date of recording, description of form and label and year of publication.
  • ONLINE: Add website, publisher, publication medium, and date of access.

Streaming video from a library database

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In this film a retired chef struggles with ... (Lee).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Well, what shall we cook for next Sunday's dinner?" (Lee).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Director's Surname, Director's Name, director. Title of Film. Date of release. Lead performers' names, version information, name of service provider, film studio or distributor's name, date of streaming, URL.

Burger, Neil, director. Divergent. Performance by Shailene Woodley, Theo James and Kate Winslet, Netflix, Red Wagon Entertainment, 30 Aug. 2014.

Gutiérrez Aragón, Manuel, director. Una rosa de Francia. Performance by Jorge Perugorría, Álex González and Ana de Armas, 3 Feb. 2006. CMAX TV, Instituto Cubano del Arte e Industrias Cinematográficos, 31 Oct. 2017, www.cmaxtv.com/una-rosa-de-francia.

Lee, Ang, director. Eat Drink Man Woman. 1994. Kanopy, Umbrella Entertainment, 2016, www.kanopystreaming.com/product/eat-drink-man-woman.

  • If URLs are not available, omit that portion of the citation.

Television/Radio

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The extradition of Mr Assange has caused ... (Lateline).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Mr Assange is facing extradition to Sweden where ..." (Lateline 10:12).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Live television/radio broadcast

"Title of Episode or segment." Title of Series or Program, director's name, contributor's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of airing.

Marock, directed by Laila Marrakchi, performance by Morjana Alaoui, Mathieu Boujenah and Assas Bouab,SBS, 18 Dec. 2012.

"Summer Movies with Julia Rigg." Breakfast, ABC, 18 Jan. 2012.

  • If the episode or segment does not have a season or episode number, simply omit the information.

Television news broadcast (Online video broacast)

"Title of source." Title of Program, contributor's name, distributor's name, date of release. Database, URL.

“Ecuador to rule on Assange asylum bid.” Lateline, narrated by Emma Alberici, ABC 1 Melbourne, 21 Jun. 2012. TVNews, search-informit-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=TEV20122506868;res=TVNEWS>.

“This government has been dishonest, incompetent and should go but what exactly is the alternative offered by the Liberals?” The Bolt Report, Ten Network, 26 May 2013. TVNews, search-informit-com-au.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=TSM201305260107;res=TVNEWS>.

  • If contributors are not available, omit that portion of the citation.

Television Series

"Title of Episode." Title of Series, director's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of release, disc number.

"The Trip." Seinfeld, directed by Tom Cherones, season 4, episode 10, NVC, 12 Aug. 1992.

“Once More with Feeling.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, directed by Joss Whedon, season 6, episode 7, Twentieth Century Fox Home Entertainment, 2006.

"Episode One." Downton Abbey, directed by Brian Percival, series 1, episode 1, Carnival Films, 2010, disc 1.

  • If the show is discussed in a general way, without focusing on an individual's contribution, do not cite an author, but instead start the reference with the title of the episode (as demonstrated above).
  • If the episode does not have a season or episode number, simply omit the information.
  • Including information about the director and other key participants is optional, as shown in the second example.
  • Include disc number if applicable, as shown in the third example above.

DVD (whole episode)

Title of Series. Creator's name, contributor's name, season number, distributor's name, date of release.

Friends: The Complete Sixth Season. written by Andrew Reich and Ted Cohen, directed by Kevin Bright, NBC, 10 Feb. 2000. Warner Brothers, 2004.

Buffy the Vampire Slayer. created by Joss Whedon, performance by Sarah Michelle Gellar, season 4, Mutant Enemy, 1999.

Gellar, Sarah Michelle, performer. Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Mutant Enemy, 1997-2003.

  • If your discussion focuses on one participant, list them as the author (see third example). Are the examples going to be numbered?

Online (Netflix, Kanopy, CMAX, etc.)

"Title of Episode." Title of Series or Program, director's name, season number, episode number, distributor's name, date of release. Name of service provider, URL.

"Under the Gun." Pretty Little Liars, season 4, episode 6, ABC Family, 16 Jul. 2013. Hulu, www.hulu.com/watch/511318.

"The Last Frontier." Frozen Planet, narrated by Richard Attenborough, episode 6, BBC, 30 Nov. 2011. Kanopy, monash.kanopystreaming.com.ezproxy.lib.monash.edu.au/video/frozen-planet.

"Chapter two: A touch of evil." Riverdale, season 1, episode 2, The CW television network, 3 Feb. 2017. Netflix, www.netflix.com/au/title/80133311.

"Gambling." You can't ask that, series 2, ABC, 6 Apr. 2017. iview, iview.abc.net.au/programs/you-cant-ask-that/LE1617H010S00.

"Capitulo 1". UNO, directed by Roly Peña and Alberto Luberta Martínez, season 1, episode 1, RTV Comercial, 5 Jan 2015. CMAX TV, www.cmaxtv.com/player/uno1/stream/a19651479f07635c110f40cce1214d8f

  • If the show is discussed in a general way, (without focusing on an individual's contribution to it), there's no need to cite the author.

Video, film (studio production)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Marty McFly is a wonderful film character … (Zemeckis).

  • The scene in Back to the Future where Marty meets his future parents is  ….

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Wait a minute, Doc. Are you telling me that you built a time machine… out of a DeLorean?" (Zemeckis 29:06).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Director's Name, director. Title of Film. Date of release. Lead performers' names, version information, film studio or distributor's name, date of version.

Film

Zemeckis, Robert, director. Back to the Future.  Universal Pictures, 1985.

DVD/BLU-RAY release

Snyder, Dr. Zach, director. Man of Steel. Warner Bros, 2013.

DVD/BLU-RAY re-issue

Hitchcock, Alfred, director. Vertigo. 1958. Universal Home Entertainment, 2003.

  • In case the film version is different from the original (e.g. director's cut), include date of release (e.g. 1958 in the first example above) and date of version (e.g. 2003 in the first example above).
  • If version information are not available, omit that portion of the citation.

Online

Argo. Dir. Ben Affleck. Warner Bros, 2012. Apple iTunes.

  • FILM: Give title (italics), role and name of primary contributor (e.g., director or writer), and studio and year of release.  (Various roles have been added to the examples above to show options.)
  • DVD/BLU-RAY: If re-issue of an earlier studio version, add original release year.
  • ONLINE: Add website name before publication medium (either ‘Web’ or file type, depending on how the work was accessed by you).

Video game

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Fallout: New Vegas is a new game that ...

Direct quote

“Who are you, that you do not know your history?” (Fallout 12:00).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Title. Description. Publisher, Year.

Fallout: New Vegas. Video game. Bethesda Softwork, 2010.

  • Give title (italics) followed by description (no italics).
  • Give name of company and year of release.
  • ONLINE: Add website name and retrieval date.

Video podcast

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Research into gaming producutiveity suggests that ... (McGonigal).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"There has been some fascinating research to suggest that ..." (McGonigal 00:01).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

“Video title.” Podcast Name. Uploaded by name, publication date, URL.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

McGonigal, Jane. “Gaming and Productivity.” YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012, www.youtube.com/watch?v=mkdzy9bWW3E.

Web document (pdf)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

The fire ecology in the Grampians area has been …  (Parks Victoria)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"The Grampains region has been reviewed …" (Parks Victoria).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. City: Publisher, Year. Website Name.

Parks Victoria. Fire Ecology in the Grampians. Melbourne: Parks Victoria, 2004. Brambuk National Park and Cultural Centre, http://www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

  • Give the author, title (italics) and publication details of the document.
  • Give the name of website where the document was accessed, and the retrieval date if there is no publication date.

Website post, page (general treatment)

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

There are arguments for and against various types of commas … (Niko2)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"I prefer to use the serial comma even though most french texts do not." (Niko2).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Post or Page.” Website Name. Publisher/Sponsor of website, publication date.

Howard, Cerise. "2012 Fribourg International Film Festival." Australian Film Critics Association. Australian Film Critics Association, 11 Aug. 2012, www.afca.org.au/2012-fribourg-int-ff.html.

Niko2. "serial comma / oxford comma." WordReference Language Forums, 10 Apr. 2007, forum.wordreference.com/threads/serial-comma-oxford-comma.458480/.

  • Give the name of the person or group who created the post or page, and the title in quotation marks. If there is no title, give a short descriptive phrase (no quotation marks).
  • Give the name of the website, the publisher/sponsor of the site, and the year or specific date of the post or page (as displayed on the individual post or page).

Website

TEMPLATE

Last name, First name. Name of site. Publisher or sponsor of site, date of publication (if available), URL.

Felluga, Dino. Introductory Guide to Critical Theory. Purdue University, 31 Jan. 2011, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/.

"Literary Analysis: Using Elements of Literature." Roanne State Community College, www.roanestate.edu/owl/elementslit.html.

  • Including the date of access is optional. MLA strongly recommends including it if the source provides no date specifying when it was produced or published. The second example above shows a website that does not have a publication date, so the date of access is used instead. Note that the placement of the two dates is different.
  • The publisher's name can often be found in a copyright notice at the bottom of the homepage or on a page that gives information about the site. If the author is not known, or is the same as the publisher, then list it only once (see second example).
  • Do not include https:// when listing a URL. If a "permalink" or DOI is available, include it instead as it is a more stable link to the resource.

Book

In-text citations

When Oliver Twist meets Fagin for the first time he … (Dickens, fig. 1, 100).

Figure layout

Fig. 1. Oliver's reception by Fagin and the boys from Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Edited by Kathleen Tillotson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966, p. 100.

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Place: Publisher, Year. Medium.

Dickens, Charles. Oliver Twist. Edited by Kathleen Tillotson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1966. Print.

  • When you are citing an image reproduced in a book or periodical, it is usually sufficient to refer to it in your text and create a works-cited-list entry for the book or journal article in which the image appears and publication medium (‘Print’).
  • If a page number appears include it.

Labels, captions, and source information

  • Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document, except in the case of manuscripts that are being prepared for publication. (For preparing manuscripts with visual materials for publication, see Note on Manuscripts below.) Each illustration must include a label, a number, a caption and/or source information.
  • The illustration label and number should always appear in two places: the document main text (e.g. see fig. 1) and near the illustration itself (Fig. 1).

Captions provide titles or explanatory notes.

  • Source information documentation will always depend upon the medium of the source illustration. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.

Creative commons

In-text citations

The illustration on the front cover this edition of Little Women ... (Alcott, fig. 1).

Figure layout

Front cover illustration of Little women from Alcott, Louisa M. Little Women. Flickr, flickr.com/photos/119885416@N06/24935011561/

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Website, URL.

Alcott, Louisa M. Little Women. Flickr, flickr.com/photos/119885416@N06/24935011561/

Library database

In-text citations

The main character Philomac is played by twins Tremayne and Trevon Doolan (Johnson, fig. 1, p. 30).

Figure layout

Fig. 1 Philomac from Johnson, Trevor. "Red Earth."  vol. 28, no. 4, 2018, pp. 28-31. Art & Architecture Source, search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/login.aspx?direct=true&db=asu&AN=128257525&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Article.” Journal Name, volume, issue, year, page range. Database, doi/URL.

Johnson, Trevor. "Red Earth." Sight & Sound vol. 28, no. 4, 2018, pp. 28-31. Art & Architecture Source, search.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.federation.edu.au/login.aspx?direct=true&db=asu&AN=128257525&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Map, chart, illustration, figure, table, image

In-text citations

Casey City's electoral structure is ... (Victorian Electoral Commission fig. 1).

Figure layout

Fig. 1 Electoral structure of Casey City Council from "Casey City Council: Electoral structure of Casey City Council." Victorian Electoral Commission, 2016, Map. https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/maps/CaseyMapHR.pdf

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

“Title”. Description. Title of Work or Website Name (if online). Publisher, Year. Form. URL.

Print

Timms, P. E. “Old Hobart Town.” Colonial Settlement in Tasmania. Hobart: Tiger Press, 2006, p. 13. Chart.

Online

"Casey City Council: Electoral structure of Casey City Council." Victorian Electoral Commission, 2016, Map. https://www.vec.vic.gov.au/images/maps/CaseyMapHR.pdf

  • PRINT: Give the title of the item in quotation marks. (If no title or caption, give a short description without quotation marks.) Give a description of its form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Chart’), followed by the title, author, publication details, and page of the work containing it.
  • ONLINE: Give the title of the item in quotation marks. (If no title or caption, give a short description without quotation marks.) Give a description of its form (e.g., ‘Map’, ‘Chart’), followed by website name, website publisher and year, publication medium, and retrieval date.

Webpage

In-text citations

Romare Bearden's artwork "The Train" … (fig. 1).

Figure layout

Fig. 1. The Train from Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975. MOMA, www.moma.org/collection/works/65232?locale=en.

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Artist. Title of artwork. Year. Gallery/Museum, doi/URL.

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1975. MOMA, www.moma.org/collection/works/65232?locale=en.

Visual artwork

In-text citations

Figure layout

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Artist. Title of Artwork. Year. Gallery/Museum, City. Website, URL.

Original artwork

Brack, John. The Fish Shop. 1955, Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne.

Print reproduction

Brack, John. The Fish Shop. 1955. Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne. Australian Artists. Edited by Howard Bryant. Melbourne: Larwitt, 1993. p. 46. Oil on composition board.

Online reproduction

Brack, John. The Fish Shop. 1955. Oil on composition board. Heide Museum of Modern Art, Melbourne. NGV, http://www.ngv.vic.gov.au/johnbrack/education/zoom_EXHI008478.html.

  • ORIGINAL: Give artist, title (italics), year, medium, and name and city of gallery.
  • PRINT REPRODUCTION: Treat as for original and add title, author and publication details of the book containing the reproduction, including the page or plate number of where the artwork appears. 
    ONLINE REPRODUCTION: Treat as for original and add website name and date of access.
  • The medium of publication and materials of composition, if important to your discussion, could be included at the end of the entry as optional elements.

Blog post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Michael Daly claims that a Pennsylvania student believes that it is possible to buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"A Pennsylvania student has proven that it is possible to buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon" (Daly par. 1).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. (screen name). “Title.” Website Name. Day Month Year of post, URL.

Daly, Michael. “Pennsylvania student proves you could buy ingredients for a WMD on Amazon.” The Daily Beast, 28 Jan. 2014., https://www.thedailybeast.com/pennsylvania-student-proves-you-could-buy-ingredients-for-a-wmd-on-amazon.

  • This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).
  • Give real name. Add screen name (if one) in parentheses, or give alone if real name unknown.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as the title (in quotation marks).Add form (e.g., "Tweet", "Facebook post", "Photograph", etc.) title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give date of post/comment/tweet. Retrieval date is not necessary for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is necessary for whole feeds/pages.

Facebook post

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Coles Supermarkets has just announced that  100% of their Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"From 2014 we guarantee that 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved" (Coles Supermarket par. 2).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. (screen name). “Title.” Website Name. Day Month Year of post, URL.

Coles Supermarkets. “Good News: In another national supermarket first, we’re pleased to announce 100% of our Coles Brand fresh chicken is now RSPCA Approved.” Facebook, 2 Jan. 2014, www.facebook.com/coles/posts/639616386102380.

  • This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).
  • Give real name. Add screen name (if one) in parentheses, or give alone if real name unknown.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as the title (in quotation marks).
  • Add form (e.g., ‘Tweet’, ‘Facebook post’, ‘Photograph’, etc.) title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give date of post/comment/tweet. Retrieval date is not necessary for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is necessary for whole feeds/pages.

Forum comment

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Jeane argues that …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"I know I mention digital versus print here often but I can’t help myself, it’s like a mosquito bite I can’t stop scratching." (Jeane par. 1).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. (screen name). “Title.”  Website Name. Day Month Year of post, URL.

Online comment

Jeane. Comment on “The Reading Brain: Differences between Digital and Print.” So Many Books, 25 Apr. 2013, 10.30 p.m., somanybooksblog.com/ 2013/04/25/the-reading-brain-differences-between-digital-and-print/

  • This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).
  • Give real name. Add screen name (if one) in parentheses, or give alone if real name unknown.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as the title (in quotation marks).
  • Add form (e.g., ‘Tweet’, ‘Facebook post’, ‘Photograph’, etc.) title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give date of post/comment/tweet. Retrieval date is not necessary for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is necessary for whole feeds/pages.

Tweet

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Kayne West explains that Nelson Mandela serves as a guiding light …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Mandela's life work has influenced …" (West par. 2).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. (screen name). “Title.” Form. Website Name. Day Month Year of post, URL.

West, Kanye (kanyewest). “Thank you, Mandela, for your life's work and may it serve as a guiding light to illuminate our future.” Twitter, 9 Dec. 2013, 8.22 a.m, https://twitter.com/Ghamu_/status/657206934559436801.

  • This category covers posts and comments that are recoverable (i.e., open access). Posts that are protected by privacy settings should be treated as personal communications; see Other sources, Personal communication).
  • Give real name. Add screen name (if one) in parentheses, or give alone if real name unknown.
  • Give post/comment/tweet as the title (in quotation marks).
  • Add form (e.g., ‘Tweet’, ‘Facebook post’, ‘Photograph’, etc.) title. (Use ‘Twitter page’ or ‘Facebook page’ if using someone’s entire feed/timeline as a source.)
  • Give date of post/comment/tweet. Retrieval date is not necessary for items with a specific associated date (e.g., individual tweets, posts, etc.), but is necessary for whole feeds/pages.

YouTube video

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

In this clip Brian Behlendorf questions the accuracy of information the internet in the context of fake news.

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number.

"Fake news is …" (Behlendorf par. 1).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Last name, First name. "Video title." Title of website, uploaded by name, date uploaded, URL.

“8 Hot Dog Gadgets put to the Test.” YouTube, uploaded by Crazy Russian Hacker, 6 June 2016, www.youtube.com/watch?v=WBlpjSEtELs.

Behlendorf, Brian. "What If the Internet Could Not Tell a Lie? Blockchain, Fake News, Rumor Mills." YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 29 Aug. 2017, www.youtube.com/watch?v=BmWFrrOHECg.

  • If the author is the same as the uploader, only cite them once, as shown in the first example above.
  • If the author and uploader are different, then follow the second example above.
  • Use screen name as author name if author name is unknown.

Brochure, pamphlet, catalogue

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Australian impressionists often exhibited their art work in France … (Taylor 1).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Australian impressionists listed in this catalogue exhibited their work in France during …" (Taylor 1).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Publisher, Year. Website Name.

Exhibition catalogue (print)

Taylor, Elena. Australian Impressionists in France. Melbourne: National Gallery of Victoria, 2013. Exhibition catalogue.

Brochure (online)

Parks Victoria. Fire Ecology - an overview. Melbourne, 2004. Brambuk National Park and Cultural Centre, www.brambuk.com.au/assets/pdf/GrampiansNationalParkFireEcology.pdf.

  • Give publication year or date as shown on document. Give title in italics.
  • If publisher is also the author, use ‘Author’ to stand for author’s name.

Conference paper presented

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Fellini's films often provokes feelings of … (Wenzel 2).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

Barry Q. Wenzel states that "Fellini's films often make people think about their own … (3).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Presenter. “Title of Paper.” Conference name, Day Month Year, Location. Descriptor. Website, URL.

Conference paper presented (unpublished)

Wenzel, Barry Q. “Films of Fellini.” Annual Meeting of the Society for Cinema Studies, 4 June 1998. Ballarat, Australia. Presentation.

Stein, Bob. “Reading and Writing in the Digital Era.” Discovering Digital Dimensions, Computers and Writing Conference, 23 May 2003, Union Club Hotel, West Lafayette, IN. Keynote Address.

  • Add description (examples, Keynote Address, Speech, Lecture or Presentation).

Conference paper published in proceedings

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Self-management of metacognative behaviour is often considered in computer  programmes in recent times (Carnone et al. 533).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

According to C. Murphy leadership in job design is becoming more important … (2).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Paper.” Proceedings of Name of Conference. Ed. Editor. Publisher, Year. Page range of paper. Website, doi/URL.

Paper in proceedings

Carbone, Angela et al. “Designing Programming Tasks to Elicit Self-Management Metacognitive Behaviour.” Proceedings of the International Conference on Computers in Education. Edited by B. Werner. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2002. pp. 533-34. IEEE Xplore., doi:10.1109/CIE.2002.1185998.

Hualde, José Ignacio. “Patterns of Correspondence in the Adaptation of Spanish Borrowings in Basque.” Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena, edited by Steven S. Chang et al., Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2000, pp. 348-58.

Whole proceedings

Murphy, C. “Job Design and Leadership.” Proceedings of the 12th Annual Conference of the International Employment Relations Association. Ed. Gordon Stewart and​ Paul Hyland. Rockhampton: CQU, 2004. 1–13.

Chang, Steve S., et al., editors. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, February 12-15, 1999: General Session and Parasession on Loan Word Phenomena. Berkeley Linguistics Society, 2000.

  • Treat like a book chapter from an edited collection. Give author/s of paper, title of paper (in quotation marks), title and editor of proceedings, publication information, and page range.
  • ONLINE: Give date of access.
  • If using the whole proceedings as a source, treat like a book (edited collection).

Course materials

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Drought tolerant plants are particularly suitable for the Australian landscape …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"Australian gardners should consider drought tolerant plants when landscaping ..." (Lucas).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title.” Description. Date. Website Name (if online). Publisher, Year/Date, URL.

Online document/file

Barrett, Keith. “Cell Structure.”  Barrett College. Barrett Education, 19 June 2010. Microsoft PowerPoint slides.

Online lecture

Levine, Caroline. “Hierarchy.” Blackboard, uploaded by Mary Smith, 10 Oct. 2017, blackboard.stonybrook.edu/.

Print handout

Huang, Lee “The Cost of Retribution.” Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville. 5 March 2012. Lecture material.

** Check with your teacher or lecturer before including lecture/class material in the Works Cited list.

  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications; e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’
  • ONLINE LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are recoverable so they can be included in the reference list if permitted by your teacher or lecturer. Treat according to publication type (e.g., video post, podcast, stand-alone document, etc.).
  • PRINT CLASS MATERIAL, HANDOUTS: If permitted for use as a source, treat as above.

Encyclopedia entry

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Black holes are a fascinating phenomenon because … (Reed 501).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

D. L. Reed asserts that "black holes can be found all over the solar system particularly …" (501).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. “Title of Entry.” Title of Work. Edition, Volume, Publisher, Year, Page range of entry,  URL.

Reed, D. L. “Black Holes.” The Encyclopedia of Science. 3rd ed., Vol. 4.,  Academic Resources, 2003, pp. 501-508.

e-book

McColl, Graham. “ABBA.” Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century, edited by Lee Stacy and Lol Henderson, Routledge, 2014. Kindle file.

Online

Perlstein, Rick. “Watergate Scandal.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online, 2012, www.britannica.com/event/Watergate-Scandal. Accessed 12 Apr. 2018.


** Check with your teacher or lecturer before using Wikipedia as a reference source.

  • Treat like a chapter from a book. (If using the whole work, treat like a book.)
  • Give author of entry if one is named, otherwise begin with title.
  • Give title of entry (in quotation marks) and title of whole work (italics).
  • Add page, edition and volume numbers (if applicable) after title for print (and print versions online).
  • Place and publisher are not needed for widely used reference works; just give year.

Interview transcript

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

When interviewing Neil Armstrong about his experiences on the moon …" (Armstrong)

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Originally, when they started first talking about lunar landing …" (Armstrong).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Interviewee. “Title.” By Interviewer. Day Month Year. Title of Whole Work. Website Name (if online) Publisher, Date.

Online (transcript)

Armstrong, Neil A. “An Interview with Neil Armstrong.” By Dr. Stephen E. Ambrose and Dr. Douglas Brinkley. 19 Sept. 2001.Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. NASA, 2001, www.nasa.gov/pdf/62281main_armstrong_oralhistory.pdf. Transcript.

  • Interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or audio/video files/recordings). Treat private or informal interviews as personal communications (See Other sources, Personal communication).
  • Give the interviewee’s name at the beginning of the entry. Give the title, if there is one, in quotation marks followed by the interviewer’s name. If no title, use the statement ‘Interview by’ and the interviewer’s name. Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed.

Media release

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Recent Quantas industrial action … (Quantas).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the paragraph number(s).

According to Qantas "recent industrial action was prompted by …" (Qantas).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title. Day Month Year, URL.

Online

Qantas. Response to Industrial Action. Media release. Qantas. Qantas, 29 Oct. 2011.

Personal communication

In-text citation

Paraphrasing

Erin Gerlich stated that her writing inspiration is often found in …

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " ".

"When I am planning my current novel, I take inspiration from …" (Gerlich).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Communicator. "Subject line." received by recipient name, Day Month Year (message sent).  

Gerlich, Erin. "Re. Inspirational cues." Received by Mary Scott, 7 June 2008.

  • This treatment applies to communications between you and another person in letters, emails, conversations, personal interviews, or posts/comments on social media or other sites protected by privacy settings.
  • Give the name of the communicator (seek approval) and use the subject line in quotation marks. State to whom the message was sent with the phrase "Received by" and the recipient's name. Include the date the message was sent.

Report, government or corporate

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

This report reveals that Australia's health has … (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare  5).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"The state of Australia's health has stimulated research in …" (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare 23).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Print report

Name of Organisation, Name of Department. Title of Work. Publisher, Date of Publication.

British Library, Department of Oriental Manuscripts and Printed Books. Annual Report. British Library Board, 1986.

Online report

Title of Report. Publisher, Date of Publication, URL.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Performance Framework: 2017 Report. Australian Health Ministers' Advisory Council, 2017, pmc.gov.au/resource-centre/indigenous-affairs/health-performance-framework-2017-report.

  • Do not include The before the name of any organisation in the works-cited list.
  • For Australian Government reports, the publisher is usually the same as the author, so to avoid repetition, it is only listed under publisher.

Print government report

Name of Government, Name of Government Agency. Title of Work. Name of Government, Date of Publication.

​Victorian Government, Department of Sustainability and Environment. Code of Practice for Bushfire Management on Public Land. Victorian Government, 2012.

  • When a government agency is the author, begin with the name of the government, and then list the name of the department, as shown in the example.
  • Do not include 'The' before the name of any organisation.

Government announcement / media release

Name of Government, Name of Government Agency (if applicable). Title of Work, Day Month Year, URL.

State Government Victoria. Emergency Response Times, 30 Oct. 2017, www.vic.gov.au/news/emergency-response-times.html.

Australian Bureau of Statistics media release

Title of Work. Catalogue no., Australian Bureau of Statistics, Release Date, URL.

Water Use on Australian Farms. No. 4618.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 7 July 2017, www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/4618.0?OpenDocument

  • As Australian Bureau of Statistics is both the author and publisher of this work, skip the author element.

Print fact-sheet

Victoria. Dept. of Education & Training. Resources for inclusion. Melbourne: Author, 2015. Fact sheet.

  • Check with your teacher or lecturer before using a fact-sheet as a reference source. These are usually not acceptable as academic sources unless as objects of research.
  • Give author. Use common abbreviations for groups’ e.g. ‘Dept. of Defence’, ‘Dept. of Treasury and Finance.’
  • Give title of report in italics. Add any series name or number (no italics) after title.
  • Give publication details. If published by author, use the word ‘Author’ for publisher name.
  • ONLINE: Add website name (italics), publisher and publication date, and retrieval date.

Review

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Alison Croggon comments that 'Private Lies' is a romantic comedy ….

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and print sources provide the page number(s).

"Private Lives, Noël Coward’s acid romantic comedy, opens with an irresistible …" (Croggon).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Reviewer. “Title of Review.” Review of Title of Work Reviewed, by  Author/Director/Artist. Title of Work (containing review), Date , month, year, URL.  

Film review (print newspaper)

Seitz, Matt Zoller. "Life in the Sprawling Suburbs, If You Can Really Call It Living." Review of Radiant City, directed by Gary Burns and Jim Brown. New York Times, 30 May 2007, p. E1.

Theatre review (Online)

Croggon, Alison. Review of Private Lives, Melbourne Theatre Company by Noel Coward. Guardian Australia, 31 Jan. 2014, www.theguardian.com/culture/australia-culture-blog/2014/jan/31/private-lives-melbourne-theatre-company-review. Accessed 7 Feb. 2014.

  • Give author and date of review.
  • Give title of review (quotation marks) followed by ‘Review of’, the title of work being reviewed (italics) and the role/s and name/s of the primary contributor/s. If review has no title, give description alone.
  • Format remaining parts according to the publication type (e.g., newspaper article, online post, etc.).

Software, App

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

It is also possible to push this information via bluetooth technology to a compatible device (Weatherflow Version 1.5.0).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks ".

Not everything is created in-house, the About Word information acknowledges "Certain templates developed for Microsoft Corporation by Impressa Systems" (Microsoft Word Version 16.0.4639.1000).

Works Cited

TEMPLATE

Title of Software (Version number). Form. Website Name (if online). Company, Year.

Weather Flow (Version 1.5.0). Mobile phone application. Windows Phone. Microsoft, 2013.

Dolphin (Version 4.0.2). Computer software. Official Dolphin Emulator. Dolphin Emulator Project, 2013.

  • Only give reference entries for specialised software with limited distribution. No reference entry is needed for standard software and programming languages.
  • Give title of software followed by version number in parentheses. Add description after version number. Give name of company and year of production. If accessed online, add website name before publication medium (‘Web’) and retrieval date.

Standards, Australian

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Standards Australia recommend the following specifications for the construction of timber framed residential dwellings … (AS 1684.4:2010).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the standard number.

The following specifications are recommended for the construction of timber framed housing in Australia due to …" (Standards Australia AS 1684.4:2010).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Standard title (Standard number). Publisher, Year.

Standards Australia. Residential Timber Framed Construction – Simplified - Non-cyclonic Areas: Formal Specifications (AS 1684.4:2010). Sydney: Standards Australia, 2010.

Thesis

In-text citations

Paraphrasing

Dysfunctional driving behaviours a an enormous issue … (Reid 15).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional driving behaviours can lead to … " (Reid 65).

Works cited

TEMPLATE

Author. Title of Thesis. Description. Year. Granting university, description. Website/Database, URL.

Print

Reid, John Maxwell. A Cognitive Study Of Dysfunctional Driving Behaviours. 1998. U of Melbourne, Doctoral thesis.

Online

Ryan, David Andrew. Crowd Monitoring Using Computer Vision.  2013.  Queensland U of Technology, PhD thesis. QUT ePrints, eprints.qut.edu.au/65652/1/David_Ryan_Thesis.pdf.

Database

Lorentz, Jonathan. The Improvisational Process of Saxophonist George Garzone with Analysis of Selected Jazz Solos from 1995-1999. 2008. New York U, PhD thesis, Proquest, search.proquest.com/docview/304533513/?pq-origsite=primo

  • If the thesis is bound and available to be publicly consulted, it is considered published.
  • If the full text of the thesis can be accessed on a database such as Proquest or EThOS, it is considered published.
    MLA  do not distinguish between published and unpublished dissertations

FedCite

Presently the FedUni Library's referencing tool has in-text citation, and full citation examples for APA 6th Edition. Chicago/Turabian, MLA, and Australian Harvard are currently under development. Please use the feedback form to send the Library questions or to report errors.

Copyright Federation University of Australia
Based on a work Copyright RMIT University
In turn based on a work Copyright © Swinburne
In turn based on a work Copyright © Griffith University
Some examples drawn from Monash University
Content licensed under Creative Commons BY-NC-SA 3.0

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