Defining violence

The term 'violence' has been defined by the World Health Organisation as "the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person or against a group or community, that either results or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation".

The following non-exhaustive list contains examples of abuse that can occur within the home, workplace, social gatherings and/or during transportation:

Physical abuse: direct assaults on the body, use of weapons, driving dangerously, destruction of property, locking the victim outside the home or workplace, sleep deprivation, etc.

Sexual abuse: any form of forced sex or sexual degradation including coercive sex without protection, causing pain or using sexually degrading insults, etc.

Verbal abuse: continual 'put downs' and humiliation either publically or privately, that annoys, embarrasses, or alarms that is know or would be expected to be unwelcomed.

Emotional abuse: blaming the victim for all problems in the relationship, undermining the victim's self-esteem and self-worth, sporadic sulking, withdrawing all interest and engagement, etc.

Social abuse: systemic isolation from family and friends through ongoing rudeness to family and friends, moving to locations where the victim knows nobody, forbidding the victim for meeting new people, etc.

Spiritual abuse: forcing victims to do things against their belief, denying access to ceremonies, denigration of cultural background, using religious teachings or cultural tradition for a reason for violence, etc.

Economic abuse: complete control of all monies, no access to bank accounts, inadequate 'allowances', etc.