In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Reid (1998) found that dysfuntional drivers ...

Dysfunctional drivers cause … (Reid, 1998).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"Dysfunctional rivers have caused chaos on most major freeways … (Reid, 1998, p. 56).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Title of thesis (Description). Institution, Location. OR DOI/URL

Print (unpublished)

Reid, J. M. (1998). A cognitive study of dysfunctional driving behaviours (Unpublished doctoral thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.


For a thesis sourced from an institutional repository, use the following format: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, identify the type of work in brackets and also include a retrieval statement in the form of a URL.

Ryan, D. A. (2013). Crowd monitoring using computer vision (Doctoral thesis). Queensland University of Technology, Australia. Retrieved from

For a thesis sourced from a library database include the following information: author, year of publication in brackets, title in italics, type of work in brackets, and a retrieval statement that includes the name of the database and the accession or order number in brackets.

Sutherland, A. M. (2016). Technology for single cell protein analysis in immunology and cancer prognostics. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global database. (Order No. 3738948)

  • Give thesis title (italics) followed by description (in round brackets, no italics) and name and location of institution.
  • If retrieved from a university repository, give URL of item.
  • If retrieved from a commercial database, give database name and accession number.