In-text citations


During an interview with Neil Armstrong … (Armstrong, 2001).

Neil Armstrong fondly remembers … (Armstrong, 2001).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s).

"When we finally landed on the moon …" (Armstrong, 2001, p. 5).

Reference list


Interviewee. (Date). Title (Interviewer Name, Interviewer). Publisher. OR DOI/URL

Online (Transcript)

Armstrong, N. A. (2001, September 19). An interview with Neil Armstrong (S. E. Ambrose, Interviewer) [Transcript]. Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Retrieved from

  • Stand-alone interviews can be used as references if recoverable by your reader (e.g., transcripts or recordings). Treat interviews that are not recoverable as personal communications (see Ex 46).
  • Name the interviewee at the beginning of the entry and the interviewer in round brackets after the title. If no title, give description in square brackets. Give form in square brackets where needed.
  • Format the rest of the entry according to the category of material accessed (e.g., video/audio file).