In-text citations


Retribution can be very costly because … (Huang, 2012).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " .

Stamate (2016) claims that "drought tolerant plants have evolved …"

Reference list


Author. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. Other identifying detail. OR DOI/URL

Online document/file

Hull, B. & Drennon, D. 2011, Feb. 17, Stomata density [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from

Online lecture

Stamate, G. (2016, March 30). Amazing landscape designs with drought-tolerant plants [Video file]. Retrieved from

Print handout

Huang, L. (2012, March 5). The cost of retribution [Lecture handout]. Ethics 123, Central University, Townsville, Australia.

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  • LIVE CLASSES, LECTURES AND PRESENTATIONS: These are not recoverable so are not included in the reference list. Treat as personal communications: (e.g., ‘… in a lecture on chaos theory (M. Green, personal communication, May 1, 2009) …’.
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