In-text citations


Cite all authors the first time the reference occurs.

. . . independent variables are controlled by the selector (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016).

  • For subsequent citations, use the first family name listed followed by et al.

Kraemer et al. (2016) posit that . . .

  • If cited again within that paragraph – omit the year of publication.

Kraemer et al. also found that . . .

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Circadian response patterns can be sensitive to light and dark cycles, sleep patterns, and seasonal changes" (Kraemer, Fleck, & Deschenes, 2016, p. 214).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Kraemer, W., Fleck, Steven J., & Deschenes, Michael R. (2012). Exercise physiology: Integrating theory and applications. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Health.

  • List all authors (up to seven), placing an ampersand symbol & before the last name.