In-text citations


When paraphrasing, include the author(s) family name and year of publication in brackets. Or, if referring to the author(s) family name in the body of the text, then just include the year of publication in brackets immediately after the family name(s).

Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars (2000) believe that building cross-cultural  competence ...

Building cross-cultural  competence is seen as … (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the page number(s) from the book.

"Building cross-cultural  competence is seen as an essential skill …" (Hampden-Turner & Trompenaars, 2000. p 15).

Reference list


Author. (Year). Title: Subtitle (# ed., Vol. #). City, State/Country: Publisher.

Hampden-Turner, C., & Trompenaars, A. (2000). Building cross-cultural competence: How to create wealth from conflicting values. Available from

Accessed on e-reader

Fitzgerald, F. S. (2003). The great Gatsby [Kindle version]. Available from

e-book without DOI

Kirkwood, R., & Goldsworthy, S. (2013). Fur seals and sea lions. [PDF]. Retrieved from