In-text citations


Seinfeld & Callner (1998) have been involved in recent Broadway play …

Martin Luther King's often quoted catch phrase 'I have a dream' … (King, 1963, August 28).

Direct quote

Place direct quotes between double quotation marks " " and provide the year and a timestamp to indicate the exact starting point of the quote.

"Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliiner) is a speech made by John F. Kennedy in 1963 where he declared …" (Kennedy, 1963, June 26).

Reference list


Performer. (Year/Date). Title [Format]. City, State/Country: Label.  OR DOI/URL

Performance (CD)

Seinfeld, J. (Performer), & Callner, M. (Director). (1998). I’m telling you for the last time: Live on Broadway [CD]. Los Angeles, CA: Universal. (Performance recorded August 9, 1998).

Speech recording (Online video)

Kennedy, J. F. (1963, June 26). Ich bin ein Berliner (I am a Berliner) [Video file]. Retrieved from

Speech recording (Online audio)

King, M. L. Jr. (1963, August 28). I have a dream [Audio file]. Retrieved from (Speech recorded August 28, 1963).

  • LIVE PERFORMANCES/SPEECHES: These are not recoverable so are not included in reference list but can be referred to in the text. Add identifying details not already in surrounding sentence in round brackets; e.g., ‘In her Adelaide performance (Festival Theatre, May 6, 2008), Anne Ford …’
  • RECORDINGS OF LIVE PERFORMANCES OR SPEECHES: These are recoverable so can be included in the reference list. Format entry according to the category of material. Add original recording date if different or more specific than publication date.