Faculty of Science and Technology

Greenhill, Andrew (Dr)

Email: andrew.greenhill@federation.edu.au     Dr Andrew Greenhill

Room: 2W218

Phone: 51226439

Biography

Dr Andrew Greenhill is a senior lecturer in microbiology at the School of Applied  and Biomedical Sciences, Gippsland Campus.

Andrew's research addresses some of the most important infectious diseases in low-income countries, with a particular focus on bacterial infections. His major research foci over the past five years include investigations into the aetiology and diagnosis of enteric illnesses and acute respiratory infections; pneumococcal vaccines in a high-burden setting; and causes of intercurrent infections in HIV-positive people.

Andrew also has an interest in food microbiology, environmental microbiology, veterinary microbiology and environmental health. He is currently working on and developing cross-discipline research projects that encompass two or more of these fields on interest.

To date, much of Andrew's research has focused on infectious diseases in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The majority of Papua New Guinean's live in rural and remote areas of the country, where basic needs remain unmet. There is poor access to education, health care, and sanitation and hygiene; and there is generally low disposable income. These factors ensure infectious diseases remain the major health burden in PNG. The economy of PNG is undergoing rapid changes with the development of major resource based projects, which in turn should lead to increased national income. However, the direct impact of such projects on health can not be easily predicted. Dr Greenhill has played an important role in establishing surveillance and laboratory capacity to monitor the impact of one of the major resource projects in PNG.

Since 2009 Andrew has led studies investigating the incursion and spread of Vibrio cholerae into PNG. Despite poor access to improved water and sanitation in PNG, the country was previously non-endemic for cholera. Andrew and his collaborators continue to work on the molecular epidemiology of cholera and conduct ongoing surveilance and of environmental persistence of pathogenic V. cholerae. Andrew is also playing a leading role in various studies investigating the applicability of existing and potential future diagnostic tools for enteric diseases.

Andrew embraces cross-disciplinary research, using laboratory, clinical and social research tools to improve our understanding of important diseases in a low-income setting.

Qualifications

BSc (Hons) - University of Tasmania

PhD in Microbiology, James Cook University

Grants

Currently funded research projects

Title: The characterization of Lactobacillus biota and its role in human gut function in Papua New Guinea.

  • Investigators: Greenhill, A
  • Funding: (2013). University of Nebraska [unl, USA, NE].

Title: The Aetiology of Acute Lower Respiratory Tract Infection and Meningitis in Hospitalised Children from the Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea.

  • Investigators: Greenhill, A, Blythe, C
  • Funding: (2013). Pfizer Australia.

Postgraduate research supervisions

Current supervision

Program of study: (Doctorate by research)

  • Thesis title: Selecting superior production animals through microbiome characterisation: Interactions between Haemonchus contortus and the gut microbiome of sheep
  • Supervisors: Greenhill, A (Main), Piedrafita, D (Associate), Sandeman, M (Associate).

Program of study: (Doctorate by research)

  • Thesis title: The role of iron transport systems and probiotic bacteria in the development of shigellosis
  • Supervisors: Greenhill, A (Main), Mosse, J (associate)

Publications

Journal articles

Soli KW, Maure T, Kas MP, Bande G, Bebes S, Luang-Suarkia D, Siba PM, Morita A, Umezaki M, Greenhill AR, Horwood PF. (2014) Detection of enteric pathogens associated with paediatric diarrhoea in Goroka, Papua New Guinea. International Journal of Infectious Diseases (in press).

Greenhill AR, Guwada C, Siba V, Michael A, Yoannes M, Wawarie Y, Ford R, Siba PM, Horwood PF. (2014) Antibiotic resistant Shigella is a major cause of diarrhoea in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries (in press).

Asa H, Laman M, Greenhill AR, Siba P, Davis TME, Maihua J, Manning L. Bloodstream infections caused by resistant bacteria in surgical patients admitted to Modilon Hospital, Madang. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal (in press).

Kas MP, Horwood PF, Laman M, Manning L, Atua V, Siba PM & Greenhill AR. Isolation of Vibrio cholerae and other enteric microbiota from patients with suspected cholera during the 2009 outbreak in Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal (in press).

Horwood PH & Greenhill AR. Cholera in Papua New Guinea : Observations to date and future considerations. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal (in press).

Phuanukoonon S, Namosha E, Kua L, Siba PM and Greenhill AR . Evaluation of a WASH intervention demonstrates the potential for improved hygiene practices in Hiri District, Central Province. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal (in press).

Horwood PH & Greenhill AR. Editorial: Enteric diseases remain a major contributor to poor health outcomes in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal (in press)

Shipton WA, Greenhill AR & Warner JM. Sago haemolytic disease: towards understanding a novel foodborne toxicoses. Papua New Guinea Medical Journal.

Soli KW, Kas M, Maure T, Umezaki M, Morita A, Siba PM, Greenhill AR and Horwood PF (2013). Evaluation of colorimetric detection methods for Shigella, Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Diseases 77(4):321-3. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.09.009.

Greenhill AR, Siba V and Horwood PF (2013) Reply to Apropos "Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea, using a composite reference standard. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. 20(2): 318.

Horwood PF and Greenhill AR. (2012) Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation. Western Pac Surveill Response J. 3(1) doi: 10.5365/wpsar.2011.2.4.014

Hoque, M.A., Burgess, G.W., Greenhill, A.R., Hedlefs, R., Skerratt, L.F., 2012, Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia, Avian Diseases [P], vol 56, issue 1, American Association of Avian Pathologists, Inc., USA, pp. 249-256.

Horwood, P.F., Greenhill, A.R., 2012, Cholera in Papua New Guinea and the importance of safe water sources and sanitation, Western Pacific Surveillance and Response [P], vol 3, issue 1, World Heath Organization * Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Philippines, pp. 3-5.

Siba, V., Horwood, P.F., Vanuga, K., Wapling, J.A., Sehuko, R., Siba, P., Greenhill, A.R., 2012, Evaluation of serological diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in Papua New Guinea using a composite reference standard, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology [E], vol 19, issue 11, American Society for Microbiology, United States, pp. 1833-1837.

Greenhill, A.R., Rosewell, A., Kas, M., Manning, L., Latorre, L., Siba, P., Horwood, P.F., 2012, Improved laboratory capacity is required to respond better future cholera outbreaks in Papua New Guinea, Western Pacific Surveillance and Response [P], vol 3, issue 2, World Health Organization * Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Philippines, pp. 1-3.

Laman, M., Manning, L., Greenhill, A.R., Mare, T., Michael, A., Shem, S., Vince, J., Lagani, W., Hwaiwhanje, I., Siba, P., Mueller, I., Davis, T.M., 2012, Predictors of acute bacterial meningitis in children from a malaria-endemic area of Papua New Guinea, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene [P], vol 86, issue 2, American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygience, United States, pp. 240-245.

Chidlow, G., Laing, I.A., Harnett, G.B., Greenhill, A.R., Phuanukoonnon, S., Siba, P., Pomat, W.S., Shellam, G.R., Smith, D.W., Lehmann, D., 2012, Respiratory viral pathogens associated with lower respiratory tract disease among young children in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, Journal of Clinical Virology [P], vol 54, issue 3, Elsevier BV, Netherlands, pp. 235-239.

Horwood, P.F., Collins, D., Jonduo, M.H., Rosewell, A., Dutta, S.R., Dagina, R., Ropa, B., Siba, P., Greenhill, A.R., 2011, Clonal origins of Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains, Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011, Emerging Infectious Diseases [P], vol 17, issue 11, US Department of Health and Human Services * Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, United States, pp. 2063-2065.

Baker, A., Tahani, D., Gardiner, C., Bristow, K.L., Greenhill, A.R., Warner, J., 2011, Groundwater seeps facilitate exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei, Applied And Environmental Microbiology [P], vol 77, issue 20, American Society for Microbiology, United States, pp. 7243-7246.

Manning, L., Laman, M., Greenhill, A.R., Michael, A., Siba, P., Mueller, I., Davis, T.M., 2011, Increasing chloramphenicol resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from Papua New Guinean children with acute bacterial meningitis, Antimicrobial Agents And Chemotherapy [P], vol 55, issue 9, American Society for Microbiology, United States, pp. 4454-4456.

Atagazli, L., Greenhill, A.R., Melrose, W., Pue, A., Pue, A.G., 2011, Is Penicillium citrinum implicated in sago hemolytic disease?, Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health [P], vol 41, issue 3, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation *Regional Tropical Medicine & Public Health Proj, Thailand, pp. 641-646.

Baker, A., Pearson, T.R., Price, E.P., Dale, J., Keim, P., Hornstra, H., Greenhill, A.R., Padilla, G., Warner, J., 2011, Molecular phylogeny of Burkholderia pseudomallei from a remote region of Papua New Guinea, PLoS ONE [P], vol 6, issue 3, Public Library of Science, United States, pp. 1-6.

Dunne, E., Ong, E.K., Moser, R., Siba, P., Phuanukoonnon, S., Greenhill, A.R., Robins-Browne, R.M., Mulholland, E.K., Satzke, C., 2011, Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae by use of mass spectrometry, Journal Of Clinical Microbiology [P], vol 49, issue 11, American Society for Microbiology, United States, pp. 3756-3760.

Popescu, F., Wyder, M., Gurtner, C., Frey, J., Cooke, R.A., Greenhill, A.R., Posthaus, H., 2011, Susceptibility of primary human endothelial cells to C. perfringens beta-toxin suggesting similar pathogenesis in human and porcine necrotizing enteritis, Veterinary Microbiology [P], vol 153, issue 1-2, Elsevier BV, Netherlands, pp. 173-177.

Marshall, K., Shakya, S., Greenhill, A.R., Padilla, G., Baker, A., Warner, J., 2010, Antibiosis of Burkholderia ubonensis againist Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent for meliodiosis, Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health [P], vol 41, issue 4, Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organisation *Regional Tropical Medicine & Public Health Proj, Thailand, pp. 904-912.

Greenhill, A.R., Blaney, B.J., Shipton, W.A., Pue, A., Fletcher, M.T., Warner, J., 2010, Haemolytic fungi isolated from sago starch in Papua New Guinea, Mycopathologia [P], vol 169, issue 2, Springer, Netherlands, pp. 107-115.

Greenhill, A.R., Shipton, W.A., Blaney, B.J., Amoa, B., Kopel, E., Pelowa, D., Gena, M., Warner, J., 2010, Hazards and critical control points for traditional sago starch production in Papua New Guinea: implications for food safety education, Food Control [P], vol 21, issue 5, Permagon, United Kingdom, pp. 657-662.

McBride, W.J., Greenhill, A.R., 2010, Human immunodeficiency virus and respiratory disorders: clinical and diagnostic considerations, Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal [P], vol 53, issue 3-4, Papua New Guinea Institute of medical Research, Papua New Guinea, pp. 169-175.

Kirkham, L.S., Smith-Vaughan, H., Greenhill, A.R., 2010, Improving the aetiological diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia and meningitis in Papua New Guinea, Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal [P], vol 53, issue 3-4, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Papua New Guinea, pp. 139-146.

Shipton, W.A., Baker, A., Blaney, B.J., Horwood, P.F., Warner, J., Pelowa, D., Greenhill, A.R., 2010, Nitrogen fixation associated with sago (Metroxylon sagu) and some implications, Letters In Applied Microbiology [P], vol 52, issue 1, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, United Kingdom, pp. 56-61.

Pomat, W.S., Greenhill, A.R., Lehmann, D., 2010, Pneumonia in Papua New Guinea: lessons learnt for the way forward, Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal [P], vol 53, issue 3-4, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Papua New Guinea, pp. 89-93.

Greenhill, A.R., Shipton, W.A., Blaney, B.J., Brock, I.J., Kupz, A., Warner, J., 2010, Spontaneous fermentation of traditional sago starch in Papua New Guinea, Food Microbiology [P], vol 26, issue 2, Academic Press, United Kingdom, pp. 136-141.

Greenhill, A.R., Pomat, W.S., Duke, T., Lagani, W., Mokela, D., Lehmann, D., 2010, The role of biomedical research in the fight against pneumonia in Papua New Guinea, Papua and New Guinea Medical Journal [P], vol 53, issue 1-2, Papua New Guinea Institute of Medical Research, Papua New Guinea, pp. 1-4.

Greenhill, A.R., Blaney, B.J., Shipton, W.A., Frisvad, J.C., Pue, A., Warner, J., 2008, Mycotoxins and toxigenic fungi in sago starch from Papua New Guinea, Letters In Applied Microbiology [P], vol 47, issue 4, Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd, United Kingdom, pp. 342-347.

Consulting

Andrew has been a consultant or advisor (ex gratia) for:

  • WHO Temporary Advisor for UNICEF/UNPD/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). 23rd October, 2009, Vietiane, Lao PDR
  • Consultant on Capacity Building of Tabubil Hospital, Papua New Guinea. Through James Cook University and JTAI.
  • Advisor, Review of Public Health Manual for Papua New Guinea. Throughout 2010.
  • WHO Temporary Advisor for Review of Core Consensus Methods for S. pneumoniae Carriage. March 29-30, 2012. WHO headquarters, Geneva, Switzerland.